Condition types – SAP CO-PA
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The condition technique allows you to calculate anticipated values using percentage additions/deductions, prices, or absolute amounts.
Condition types that are not characteristics
In SD, access sequences are used to find the valid condition record for each condition type defined in the SD pricing procedure. But what happens if the access sequences contain fields for condition record determination that are not also characteristics in your operating concern? If that is the case, the condition record for the valuation of your planned sales quantities is not found.
Once you have presented your management with a first planning result, the adjustment phase starts: quantities, prices, conditions, cost rates, and possibly also innovations or product changes are discussed. Some companies save the respective planning stage in a separate version before making any changes so that they can make the changes in the adjustment phase visible. The old CO-PA planning transaction KE1A (Copy Automatic Planning Data) will help you here. You can use it to copy all or parts of a planning.
Let us return to the adjustment phase: if your management asks you, for example, to increase your entire sales quantity planning by x%, there is no need to panic. You can use the revaluation key tool available to make these changes. You define revaluation keys with the (old and new) transaction KE1F. In a revaluation key, you define which quantity or value field you want to change by x%. For automatic planning via KE1B, you also specify the characteristics (or even characteristic values) for which you want to make this planning change. If you wish, you can execute planning changes at high, aggregated levels (all underlying characteristics are also considered), or on individual characteristics such as customer or product. It all depends on the management requirements.
You can now proceed to valuate the revalued quantities in accordance with your valuation strategy, and in just a short time you have a new planning result that you can present to management.
When changing planned sales quantities, you can also use a mathematical effect: if you change your planned quantity by x%, provided you do not change prices and conditions at the same time, the sales quantity-dependent value fields will also change by x%. For your planning, this means that you could also consider this effect when defining your revaluation key by considering not only the quantity field, but also all sales quantity-dependent value fields, and assigning factor x% to all fields. In one step in automatic planning, you can thus not only increase the planned sales quantity by x%, but also all dependent value fields. And your new planning result is ready….
When you change prices or conditions, the situation is a little more difficult, but the principle is similar: if you are planning, for example, price increases, evaluate the value field GROSS SALES accordingly. You may now wonder what happens with the value fields that are, for example, dependent on the gross sales based on percentages? They also have to be adjusted, don’t they? You are right again. If this adjustment cannot be calculated due to the complexity or for other reasons, we have to use another trick: in SD, copy the actual SD pricing procedure used so far in the valuation strategy into a new pricing procedure that you want to use only for your planning valuation (to be on the safe side, coordinate this with your SD colleagues so that there are no arguments). In your own pricing procedure, integrate separate, statistical condition types that contain, for example, the gross price increase. Include this new pricing procedure in your valuation strategy and valuate your planned quantities again using KE1B.
With some planning changes requested by management, even the best system will not help you if you have not thought about it in advance and done some preparatory work. Innovations require, for example, new product numbers, new product costings (with corresponding bills of material and work plan prerequisites), new prices, and new conditions. These will probably not be available yet in period 010.20CY and so they have to be created.
At some point, management is satisfied with your sales quantity planning and the resulting valuations and the adjustment phase is initially complete for you.
Planned Cost Center Assessments
Up to this point in your planning process, you have not considered planned costs that are independent of the sales quantity. This type of planned cost is usually planned initially in other CO modules such as cost center accounting or internal order accounting. This planning can and probably will be executed in parallel with your adjustment phase. At some point, these fixed costs are also planned. They are then allocated to CO-PA using a planned assessment cycle. The principle is the same as for the actual costs assessments described in Section.
Distributing the Planning over Months
After all of these explanations about planning, you are perhaps now right to say, that is all well and good, but the entire planning for next year is currently in one month, specifically, in the current year in period 010.20CY. We are planning for the entire next year, so therefore we need planning data for months 001 to 012 for next year, e.g., 001.20PY to 012.20PY (PY = planning year). How do we get that?
Normally, you use distribution keys to specify the distribution to a precise month. Caution: if you want to create planning data in CO-PA using distribution keys, the period for planning must match the period in the distribution key. What does that mean? At the moment our planning is in one period— 010.20CY— and we want to distribute it to months 001.20PY to 012.20PY. The two periods do not match. The sender has one period, and the receiver has 12 periods. This means that we can forget about using distribution keys here!
We can solve our problem by using the old CO-PA transaction KE1A (Copy Automatic Planning). At the same time, work with revaluation keys (you know these: transaction KE1F). Now copy your planning from plan version XYY, period 010.20CY into plan version XYM, period 001.20PY. Let us assume that management wants to see 10% of your yearly planning in January. Define a revaluation key of -90% for January for all planned quantity and value fields and then apply this revaluation key to your copy planning: the result is that in January, you have only 10% of your planning. Repeat these steps for the other 11 planning periods and you will have your yearly planning distributed over planning months.
It’s simple! But what happens when management requirements are not so easy? It is often the case that the smaller the company, the more complicated and thus more difficult the requirements are. Then you have to break down the revaluation keys or the planning copies to lower level characteristics. And if you want to do this quickly? In a worst case scenario, in which customer/ product combinations have to be distributed individually, you will still be distributing when the planning year is over! Again, no need for panic: there is always more than one way to do something. Using Microsoft Excel, for example, prepare the planning steps, write a batch input program for transaction KE1A, and have the program create the distributions automatically. You’ll be finished quicker than you think.
Using the relevant recorder, you can record the steps that you would have executed for each distribution process. You convert this record entry into ABAP coding in the batch input framework created, and you would already be able to use the batch input program.
Regardless of whether you have executed the distribution manually or automatically, at the end, the plan version with the monthly distribution (here XYM) must contain the same overall result as your yearly plan version XYY.