As stated in the previous section, let us describe the information report components that you need for a CO-PA REPORT.
You use a key figure scheme to map your contribution margin structure. A key figure scheme enables you to define frequently used arithmetic operations so that you can use them repeatedly in reports. The formulas in a key figure scheme can be based on both value fields and on already defined formulas of the same key figure scheme.
You can define a key figure scheme in the CO-PA configuration menu, via INFORMATION SYSTEM • REPORT COMPONENTS • DEFINE KEY FIGURE SCHEMES. For our example, we have created the key figure scheme Z1 for the contribution margin accounting (GP Accounting) that we want to map (see Figure 7.1).
Figure 7.1: Definition of a key figure scheme in accordance with our example contribution margin structure
In Figure 7.1, in the elements 50 to 900, you can see the names of the elements of the key figure scheme — these elements contain certain key figures.
For each element, you now define a basic formula. You do this by selecting an element and then clicking BASIC FORMULA (see Figure 7.2).
Figure 7.2: Detailed definition of the element of a key figure scheme
We will do that now using the example of element 50, Sales quantity. On the next screen, define the basic formula for the sales quantity. It should be presented as a positive figure; you control this using the plus symbol. The system assigned element 9001 to the sales quantity field defined in operating concern Z111. You now select this element (see Figure 7.3).
Figure 7.3: Key figure scheme element, sales quantity
Do the same for the remaining elements that you have already defined as quantity and value fields.
The procedure is different for the subtotals in your contribution margin scheme. As an example, let us look at element 300, BILL REVENUES (= invoice sales). We want to calculate these invoice sales as the difference between gross sales and discounts. Gross sales and discounts are separate value fields in your operating concern, which means that the system has already assigned elements 9003 and 9004 accordingly. Figure 7.4 shows this in more detail.
Figure 7.4: Key figure scheme element, invoice sales
You can see a further example of a subtotal in Figure 7.5. We calculate the subtotal Gross Profit 1 (GP1), that is, key figure scheme element 650.
Figure 7.5: Basic formula for key figure scheme element GP1
The special feature of this formula is that it combines elements defined by the system and elements defined in the key figure scheme. The system-defined elements 9006, 9007, and 9008 are deducted from the key figure scheme element 300 to calculate the key figure scheme element 650, which represents the subtotal GP1. The system proposes the system-defined elements (9000+) when you create the basic formula if you open the adjacent match codes.
In the next section, I will describe how to create report variables that you also need for your profitability reports.
If you want to define reports or formulas flexibly, work with variables. You do not fill specific fields until you define or execute a report. You can define variables for reports either from the application menu or from the CO-PA configuration menu. In the latter case, you do this via INFORMATION SYSTEM • REPORT COMPONENTS • DEFINE VARIABLES FOR REPORTS. After clicking NEW ENTRIES, you first have to select a variable type. For our profitability reports we need variable types 1 and 3.
You use a variable for characteristic values (variable type 1) to allow the entry of values for characteristics only when the user calls up the report.
You use a text variable (variable type 3) in the same way as variables for characteristic values, but to display texts instead of characteristic values.
After the variable type, you determine a variable name. This name defines how the variable is found in the application. We will now create a variable for the characteristic Customer as an example (Figure 7.6).
Figure 7.6: Selection variable for KNDNR
Tip: if, under PARAMETER/SELECT OPT., you select the value Select Option, when you execute a report you can make multiple selections (see Figure 7.7). If you select Parameter, when you execute a report, you can only leave the CUSTOMER field blank or enter a specific value. If, for example, you want to see an interval of customers, you would have to enter two variables (FromCust. and ToCust.) to make this possible.
Figure 7.7: Multiple selection options via selection option
I recommend creating characteristic variables for all characteristics that you want to use in your profitability reports.
The third report component that you need for CO-PA reports are the profitability report forms that are discussed in the next section.
A profitability report form describes the content and formal structure of a report. It is recommend using only forms of type “Two axes (matrix)” as the form for your profitability reports. You can create forms via transaction KE34 (see Figure 7.8).
Figure 7.8: Creating profitability report forms
Before knowing all of the steps that you have to execute to create a form, Figure 7.9 shows how the form should look when complete:
Figure 7.9: Completed profitability report form
As I explained regarding the planning layout in the “Planning in CO-PA”, this form consists of three parts:
For our example, let us start with the lines. The aim of our form is to display the actual and planned figures for contribution margin accounting. As for the lines, we use the lines of the key figure scheme which was created previously. We do not need to make any restrictions using additional characteristics. In an empty form, the lines are displayed as dots. Simply double-click a dot. In the dialog box that appears, select KEY FIGURE SCHEME ELEMENT (see Figure 7.10).
Figure 7.10: Selection of the element type for a line definition
A further window appears, and here you can select the key figure scheme element at the top. As stated above, you do not need to make any further characteristic selections (see Figure 7.11).
Figure 7.11: Element definition, sales quantity line
Once you press CONFIRM, your line (in our example the “Sales quantity” line) is defined. Proceed in the same way for all lines of your contribution margin scheme until you have defined all lines.
In the next step, define your columns. Remember: we want an actual data column and a planned data column, a variance column, as well as an actual and planned column per kilogram.
Let us start with the actual data column. In a blank form, again, you see only dots where you can create columns. Double-click a dot and a dialog box appears (see Figure 7.12).
Figure 7.12: Definition of the “Actual Data” column
For this column, we have selected two characteristics: the Planned/actual indicator and the characteristic Period/year. The characteristic value 0 (= actual) in the Planned/actual indicator characteristic defines that this column is only to accept actual values.
Via the Period/year characteristic, for each column you can control which period is to be presented. As we do not want to define the period selection when we are defining the form, for the first time, we work with the previously created report variables here. We use the variable PERIOD, meaning that when you run the report, you have multiple selection options for periods.
In our example, we have introduced the alternative sales quantity. The sales quantities are also converted into kilograms and presented. It is not up to us to decide whether it makes sense to compare products and their conditions using the weight. You may have other unit sizes that you can use to compare your products. The important point here is that we have seen, how to present alternative quantities via the customizing and coding. Let us assume that you could compare using “kilogram.” Now at the intersection of the ACTUAL DATA column, you have just defined and in the ALT. QUANTITY line, you have to present the cell as selected. To do this, click the corresponding cell and click SELECTED (see Figure 7.13).
Figure 7.13: Selecting a cell in a form
In the form, the cell now has a check mark (see Figure 7.14). You can now use this selected cell in the next column.
Figure 7.14: Selection of a cell
We now want to define the ACTUAL/KG column. Again, double-click the next free column dot and choose FORMULA, as this column is to be a formula. A formula editor appears, and here you can enter your formula (see Figure 7.15).
Figure 7.15: Formula editor for “Actual/kg” column
As it is to be a formula for columns, with the name X001 etc., the columns you have created are proposed for use in the formula. Now you can see why we selected the cell from the intersection of ACTUAL DATA/ALT. QUANTITY. The selection makes the cell known to the formula editor: here it is cell Z001. In the upper box, write the formula for the ACTUAL/KG column: X001/Z001. The result is that all cells in the columns will accept the actual values of the actual column divided by the value of cell Z001. Once you confirm the formula editor the column is defined.
Similarly, define the columns for PLANNING DATA and PLAN/KG. In the planning column, use 1 (= plan) for the planned/actual indicator. As every plan should be saved with a plan version, so that you can compare different plans later, specify the characteristic Plan version in the character selection (see Figure 7.16).
Figure 7.16: Definition of the “Planning Data” column in the form
Use a variable that you have defined for the version as well, so that you do not have to decide now on which plan version you want to see (you decide when you call up the report).
The VARIANCE column is also a formula: actual data minus planning data. Again, click the next free point, define the column as a formula, and again, the formula editor appears automatically. Here you can state: actual data minus planning data. The lines and columns now look like the target definition as presented in Figure 7.9.
If you create forms without using a key figure scheme, you also have to work with formulas in some lines, for example, for subtotals. The SAP system may not know which formula has priority: the line formula or the column formula. Inform the cell concerned at the intersection of the line and column whether the line or column calculation has priority by double-clicking.
Now you have to define the third form element: the general selections. These are in the form under EDIT • GEN. DATA SELECTION • GEN. DATA SELECTIONS.
For our example, we have included the characteristics that you want to select when calling up a relevant report and that you can use to drill down in a report (see Figure 7.17).
Figure 7.17: General selections in a form
Here too, you should use variables so that you do not have to decide until you call up the report whether you want to see all or only certain characteristic values of a character in the report.
Then you can check and save the form. You can use it in as many profitability reports as you want.
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