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Q: What could be reasons for lack of security of data in an organization?
It depends upon a large number of factors. If no attention is being paid to aspects related to security of information or data, the problem can declare its presence. Limited investment in security, no user account management, untrusted site certificates, unmanaged data, improper security applications, as well as access to entire data to every user are some of the common factors that are responsible for this.

Q: How well can you define authentication? What is its significance?
It is nothing but a process in which the credentials provided by a user about his/her identity is matched with the database where the similar information of the user is stored. The prime aim is to ensure security. If data provided by the user matched with the data or information available on the server, access is provided to a user to access the data otherwise the same is restricted. 

Q: Can anyone be provided access to entire information or data in an organization?
Well, it actually depends on the size of an organization up to a great extent. In large-scale organizations, this approach is not common. Data or information that users can access on a server is often related to their own department only. They are not allowed to access data of other department or anything that is too confidential. Generally, this practice is not adopted because of security issues.

Q: What according to you is more secure between a wired connection and a wireless connection between the systems?
The fact is both have their own factors related to security. The wireless approach is always regarded as best and this is because wired channels can be used for data leakage and other similar issues. Also, in wireless approach, only the sender and the receiver know which path data will be following from source to destination.

Q: How can you say Windows authentication is different from that of Form Authentication?
All the tasks in the form authentication are generally performed by the Form itself. On the other hand, this needs to be done manually. When it comes to implementation of Windows authentication for large scale, it consumes a lot of time and there are certain chances of errors that can declare their presence and can cause issues related to authentication in a proper manner.

Q: What do you mean by authorization?
Sometimes there is a need to grant access or rights to a user and this is generally done by the network or security administrators. Administrators also have to check the user account permissions for the same purpose. And generally both these are referred as authorization. 

Q: What is the abbreviation of LDAP? What is its significance?
It stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. Basically, it’s an application protocol that is generally considered over an IP network. The aim is to access and manage the information in the distributed directory. Directory service is mainly responsible for managing a set of records in a systematic order.

Q: Who is responsible for defining the settings for the environmental variable?
It depends on the user’s need. Generally, the system or server administrator is responsible for this.

Q: What is the difference between machine authentication and User authentication?
Machine authentication is a process when machines or systems have to interact with each other without human interference and user authentication is the process in which the interactions between humans and systems occur. Just like humans, machines also have to go through the authentication process to prove their identity during some common tasks such as remote connection, data transfer, pairing and so on. This is done to assure that only the authorized systems are interacting with each other and not a hacker. 

Q: What is digital certificate submission? What exactly do you know about it?
Digital certificates are alternatives to passwords that are submitted by the machines when interacting with each other in a machine authentication approach. These certificates are verified and regulated by the Certificate Authority. They can be considered equal to a digital password. However, they are regarded as more secure than them. 

Q: Is Fortiauthenticator a single-factor authentication approach or a two-factor authentication approach?
It’s a two-factor authentication approach

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Q: Name the three authentication factors? What exactly do you know about them?
The three authentication factors are:

1. Possession Factors
2. Inheritance Factors
3. Knowledge factors

All these factors are basically nothing but the category of authentication that is considered. 

Q: What is MFA?
It stands for Multifactor authenticity and is a strong approach that is considered where the security of information or data adequately matters. It is also considered as two factors authentication that has wide application in cryptography. This approach can secure any volume of data with any number of users that access the same. 

Q: What exactly is multi-layering concept? What is the significance of same?
It is basically an approach that is used when the security is nothing is largely matters. It is nothing but creating layer after layer for boosting the security. A layer can be defined as a barrier that stops stealing of data and eliminates other similar issues. At each layers, the users have to prove their identity and in fact with a new manner every time. Thus, it widely contributes in enhancing the security of any information that is too confidential. This process has a drawback too and i.e. it needs a lot of cost for implementation. 

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Q: What is CMP? For what purpose it can be used?
CMP stands for Certificate Management Protocol and is used to obtain X.509 digital certificates. 

Q: What are the benefits of using the Forms authentication?
Generally to use authentication, it has been seen that the users have to be a member of the domain based network. However, with forms authentication, this is not an issue. One can easily keep up the pace and without worrying about anything. Any application can be accessed provided some basic criteria is met. It is beneficial for e-commerce or shopping websites where they need to keep information of the user.

Q: What steps are generally considered in Certificate Management?
These are:
1. Creation of Certificate
2. Storage of same
3. Suspension 
4. Dissemination
5. Revocation

Q: What are the steps to use Form Authentication in the web applications?
There are a few steps that need to be followed for this. These are:

1. First of all, the authentication mode is to be set in the Web.config mode.
2. Next is to collect the login information which can be done by creating a Web form
3. After this, the usernames and passwords are to be stored in a database. 
4. Finally codes are to be written for this purpose.

Q: What exactly is allocated storage space?
In an organization, there are different departments or teams that have to manage their tasks and responsibilities. A server generally controls all the systems and because every department or users have to use it, a storage space is allowed to each user or department where they can share and storage information related with other own work. This space could be shared among different teams or departments or can be dedicated to a specific team or a user. It contributes in assuring privacy and safety to information. 

Q: Name the three methods of obtaining a certificate in Fortiauthenticator?
This can be done by requesting the certificates simply with the help of CRZ i.e. Certificate Request Wizard. You need to provide the concerned information that why the same is required if you go with this approach. Second method is to request a certificate over a Web simply. This is simple but can be trusted only when the data is not very confidential. Third method that is so common and widely regarded as best is Auto enrollment in the concerned task.

Q: Is it possible to modify the properties of a Certificate? Is so, What exactly you can modify about a certificate?
Yes, it’s possible to make changes to a certification in case the need of same is felt. Entire information available with a certificate can be modified or changed depending upon the exact requirement. However, changing entire information is a complex process. Generally the names, properties, description and the purpose of the certificate can be changed reliably.

Q: What are the pros and cons of automating certificate management? What are the two important factors that matters the most or need extreme attention.
Automation of Certificate management saves a lot of time but its costly procedure. There are chances of errors too that need to be rectify at a later stage. In addition to this, it can sometime leads to data leakage. The biggest benefit is even some of the complex tasks can be handled in a shortest possible time. Distribution of certificates is limited in automation and seeks permission again and again from the administrators. Handling requests is easy and a good track record of same can be kept. The two important factors associated with this task are:

1. Validating the path of the certificate
2. Roaming credentials

Q: What is the most common approach of authentication? What are the benefits of same?
Well, the most common approach is to authenticate users through a database. Databases are generally secure and that is the leading benefits of this approach. In addition to this, the approach is low cost. Authentication of a large number of users can be done reliably. However, this task is a bit daunting if users create their own passwords than the ones assigned to them by the administrator. 

Q: Where you will choose to store passwords among a database and a file? Why?
I will choose a database. The reason is very simple to understand and i.e. it is possible to use names of users simply as the primary keys when it comes to storing other relevant information about the user. The overall performance of databases is always higher than that of the files. In addition to this, making any form of chances in a database is not a daunting task. 

Q: Suppose you created a new web application project, what would be the default authentication method in it?
The default authentication method in such a case would be Windows Authentication.

Q: How can you identify the group of users to allow or deny access in your organization?
This can simply be done role-based authorization which is regarded as one of the finest approaches for this task. There are actually several inbuilt groups such as Guests, Administrators and so on that you can simply trust and can go ahead.

Q: Can you set a specific application to run only under a specific user? If so, How?
Yes, it’s possible to do this. The basic principle is setting the identity of the application element which is present in the application to allow impersonation. That is how this task can be accomplished simply.

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Q: If data is too sensitive, can password-based authentication be considered as a good option? Why or Why not
When compared to other approaches, the password-based authentication is not regarded as best due to several reasons. In this approach basically, the information provided by the user in the form of ID and password is the only way machine known to authenticate or authorize a user. However, cracking and stealing passwords is becoming common. For adequately strong security, other approaches should be preferred than a password-based authentication. 

Q: In Fortiauthenticator, it is possible to encrypt data?
Yes, it’s possible. Generally, it is done with the help of FormsAuthentication. The primary aim is to add more security to the information. This is done before transferring of data.

Q: What if there is any issue related to the authenticity of the user and a task needs to be performed on priority?
With the help of Server or Network Administrator, the system or an application can be opened in Safe mode which is a common approach.