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Q. What do you mean by a Network and how they are important?
A network is basically nothing but an interconnection of computers or computing devices. In a network, they are called as nodes. The Networking is important because it enables easy file sharing, sending and modifying from any node on a network. Data can be on any node and depending on the security and other concerns, other nodes can be permitted to access it anytime. Networking doesn’t impose a limit on the distance between two nodes.
Q. What are the types of Networks you are familiar with?
There are three types of Networks that currently exist and they are:
LAN- It Stands for Local Area Network and is generally an interconnection of a limited number of nodes which can be within a building or an organization.
MAN- Man stands for Metropolitan Area Networks. The combination of various Local Area Networks is known as Metropolitan Area Network. Generally the nodes within a city are connection with each other and it is called as MAN.
WAN- It abbreviates for Wide Area Network. The combination of all the MANs’ or all the nodes across the globe is generally regarded as WAN. The other name of WAN is internet.
Q. How you will define a Link?
It actually defines the connection between two or more networking or computing devices. Generally, the channels and the protocols which control the communication or made it possible among the nodes are regarded as links. The size of the link is not always necessary to be same for all the networks. It depends on type and the number of devices in a network.
Q. What do you know about the OSI reference model? Can you name the layers present in it?
OSI abbreviates for Open-System-Interconnection and is actually a networking model. Although it is an old approach, there are still many networks that are based on it. There are total 7 seven layers which are present in it and they are:
** Application Layer
** Presentation Layer
** Session Layer
** Transport Layer
** Network Layer
** Data Link Layer
** Physical Layer
Q. In networking, how you will define a server?
It is basically a powerful computer in a network that manages and controls all the devices on a network. Basically, it’s nothing but a server that processes the data centrally and makes the data transfer and communication possible among all other nodes. If a server fails, it can result in failure of entire network.
Q. Name the first and the last layer in an OSI reference model?
The first layer also known as bottom layer is the Physical Layer and the last layer which is also known as top layer is Application Layer.
Q. What exactly do you mean by a backbone network?
It is basically a network which is responsible for assigning the data and the route to different networks. Monitoring the channels, protocols and bandwidth management is also the responsibility of a backbone network. It is because of this reason it has been named as a backbone network.
Q. Name a device which will help you to connect multiple devices on a network with limited bandwidth or with limited channels?
Switch is a networking device that can be used in such a scenario. A switch can be of any size depending on the needs.
Q. In data encapsulation, how each chunk knows about its destination?
Basically, data encapsulation is an approach in which the data is divided into smaller packets called as chunks. All chunks have their source and destination address on them and this is how they reach their destination. It is necessary for network security that the chunk must contain its source address too.
Q. Name a few networking devices you are familiar with
1. Hub, Router
6. Network Interface
Q. In a network, is it always necessary to have a server for controlling other devices?
No, a network can be established without a server too. This type of network or a model is called as peer-to-peer model. Basically, all the nodes act as a client as well as server for the other nodes. The biggest advantage is failure of one node doesn’t impact other nodes on a network and help maintaining continuous operations.
Q. In a network, what do you mean by router?
A router is basically a networking device which is basically deployed for connecting the network segments which is actually very important. There are paths in the routers which are used for information storage and because of this reason they are called as intelligent networking devices. It is actually the responsibility of the router to select and define the best path for the data that needs to be transferred.
Q. In networking, what exactly the term topology means?
Topology defines how the computers on a network are connected with each other. It is actually possible to connect them in different manners. The interconnection method largely matters as it can affect various factors such as data transmission speed, troubleshooting methods and so on.
Q. What exactly do you mean by Point to Point link?
A point to point link is nothing but a direct path for information or data transfer between two defined nodes in a network. The simple example of point to point link is nothing but a connecting two computers with each other simply by using a cable which is inserted in the Network Interface Cards in both the computers. This kind of link is created only in a few computers on a network. Although it enhances the cost and network cost, it assures excellent data transfer speed and is generally free from any form of glitches.
Q. Name the layers which are present in the TCP/IP model?
1. Networking Layer
2. Internet Layer
3. Transport Layer
4. Application Layer
It’s not that Data Link Layer, Session Layer and Physical Layer are absent in this model but they are merged with above layers. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol and is the commonly used model in the present scenario.
Q. What do you understand by the term FTP?
It abbreviates for File Transfer Protocol and is generally a method of allowing permission to the users for accessing data. All the users which are allowed to access the data needs not to prove their identity again and again. They can access data with the username and passwords assigned to them.
Q. Suggest one method that you will use for increasing the security of a file or data on a network that contains some confidential information?
It is possible apply various restrictions on such data or file. For example, only limited number of users can be allowed to access the same and not all of them
Q. Suppose you are connecting devices with a cable to establish a connection, what would be the general limit on the distance that two computers can have with such an approach. Is it possible to extent this limit somehow?
Well, the general limit on the length of cable used in connecting two computers in a network is upto 100 meters. This limit can be increased by using the switches and signal repeaters.
Q. Name the layer in the OSI model which is responsible for Packet Switching and data routing?
It is the responsibility of the Network Layer. The Network Layer is the number 3 layer from the bottom in an OSI reference model.
Q. Why security to a network is important? How this can be done
A network obviously contains personal information of the users or something that is very confidential for the concerned organizations. There are many unauthorized attempts that can be made by hackers to steal such information. For example the future plan of one company can be leaked to its competitors who can take the advantage of the same in advance. Thus securing a network is important. This can be done by using Network Firewall, Antivirus software, imposing limits on data and through several other approaches.
Q. Name one approach that you will apply for the continuous data availability?
Fault Tolerance System
Q. What is the significance of Proxy Servers in a network?
Well, Proxy servers are the prime contributors to the safety. The fact is there can be certain attempts by the external users to access the data on a node which in registered on a network. Proxy server doesn’t let them trace the exact location of a node as it reflects an incorrect IP address. It is extremely difficult for any users to access data without knowing the IP address. Thus, it contributes to the safety of a network. It is also possible to hide a node from a network with this approach.
Q. What makes nodes or devices on a network recognizable and different from each other?
Each node or device on a network has a networking address in numbers which is commonly called as its IP. The IP provide all such information about a node or a device on a network. The IP is unique and cannot be same for two nodes on a network. It provides all the information about the node such as its location, registered user and so on.
Q. What is cross talk problem in a network and how it can be avoided?
Crosstalk is nothing but a situation when the signal has electromagnetic interferences. It can impose a limit or can largely affect data during its transmission. For eliminating this situation, the cables used are shielded. The shield is actually a cover on the cable which doesn’t let it face this problem. Crosstalk problem generally declare its presence during the voice signal transmission.
Q. Why star topology is not to be considered in a network?
In star topology, all the computers or devices are connected to a single hub which is responsible to control the same. The damage or the failure to the hub can make the entire network useless. Therefore this approach is not so common in the present scenario.
Q. What do you mean by network troubleshooting? Can you suggest some ways for the same?
Inspection of a network thoroughly and then taking appropriate actions against the facts that can shortly lead to big issues if ignored is considered as network troubleshooting. Most of the time, it’s the channels or the networking devices that connect the nodes in a network that needs to be paid attention to for this. Troubleshooting procedure depends on the size and type of the network and it cannot be same for all the networks.
Q. Is it possible to connect a public network to a private network?
Yes it is possible and generally the default gateway protocol is followed for this. Connecting both these networks with each other is quite common. Private Networks are also called as Intranets and is deployed where more security and faster speed is required.
Q. What can be the common problems in a network?
1. Issues which are related to policies
2. Bandwidth problems
3. Mismatch of protocols
4. Client Server problems
5. IP mismatch
6. Improper Configuration
7. Security concerns
Q. Why are Fiber Optics cables preferred in networks?
There are actually certain benefits these cables can have. Although their cost is high, they can bring a full bouquet of pros with them. One of the leading benefits is they support larger bandwidth which makes sure of bulk data transmission in a short time span. The desired value for Signal-to-Noise ratio can be achieved. Also, at the same time errors and the problems related to crosstalk can simply be avoided.
Q. What is clustering support and how does it matter?
Basically, clustering approach is nothing but the ability of an Operating System to support multiple servers. This is to make sure of networking or the node working during an emergency situation such as the server or the power failure.