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A network is basically nothing but an interconnection of computers or computing devices. In a network, they are called nodes. Networking is important because it enables easy file sharing, sending, and modifying from any node on a network. Data can be on any node and depending on the security and other concerns, other nodes can be permitted to access it anytime. Networking doesn’t impose a limit on the distance between two nodes.
There are three types of Networks that currently exist and they are:
LAN: It Stands for Local Area Network and is generally an interconnection of a limited number of nodes which can be within a building or an organization.
MAN: Man stands for Metropolitan Area Networks. The combination of various Local Area Networks is known as Metropolitan Area Networks. Generally, the nodes within a city are connected with each other and it is called MAN.
WAN: It abbreviates for Wide Area Network. The combination of all the MANs’ or all the nodes across the globe is generally regarded as WAN. The other name of WAN is the internet.
It actually defines the connection between two or more networking or computing devices. Generally, the channels and the protocols which control the communication or made it possible among the nodes are regarded as links. The size of the link is not always necessary to be the same for all the networks. It depends on the type and the number of devices in a network.
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OSI abbreviates for Open-System-Interconnection and is actually a networking model. Although it is an old approach, there are still many networks that are based on it. There are total 7 seven layers that are present in it and they are:
Data Link Layer
It is basically a powerful computer in a network that manages and controls all the devices on a network. Basically, it’s nothing but a server that processes the data centrally and makes the data transfer and communication possible among all other nodes. If a server fails, it can result in the failure of the entire network.
The first layer also known as the bottom layer is the Physical Layer and the last layer which is also known as the top layer is the Application Layer.
It is basically a network that is responsible for assigning the data and the route to different networks. Monitoring the channels, protocols, and bandwidth management is also the responsibility of a backbone network. It is because of this reason it has been named as a backbone network.
The switch is a networking device that can be used in such a scenario. A switch can be of any size depending on the needs.
Basically, data encapsulation is an approach in which the data is divided into smaller packets called chunks. All chunks have their source and destination address on them and this is how they reach their destination. It is necessary for network security that the chunk must contain its source address too.
1. Hub, Router
6. Network Interface
No, a network can be established without a server too. This type of network or model is called a peer-to-peer model. Basically, all the nodes act as a client as well as a server for the other nodes. The biggest advantage is the failure of one node doesn’t impact other nodes on a network and helps to maintain continuous operations.
A router is basically a networking device that is basically deployed for connecting the network segments which is actually very important. There are paths in the routers which are used for information storage and because of this reason they are called intelligent networking devices. It is actually the responsibility of the router to select and define the best path for the data that needs to be transferred.
Topology defines how the computers on a network are connected with each other. It is actually possible to connect them in different manners. The interconnection method largely matters as it can affect various factors such as data transmission speed, troubleshooting methods, and so on.
A point-to-point link is nothing but a direct path for information or data transfer between two defined nodes in a network. A simple example of point to point link is nothing but connecting two computers with each other simply by using a cable that is inserted in the Network Interface Cards in both the computers. This kind of link is created only in a few computers on a network. Although it enhances the cost and network cost, it assures excellent data transfer speed and is generally free from any form of glitches.
1. Networking Layer
2. Internet Layer
3. Transport Layer
4. Application Layer
It’s not that Data Link Layer, Session Layer, and Physical Layer are absent in this model but they are merged with the above layers. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol and is the commonly used model in the present scenario.
It abbreviates for File Transfer Protocol and is generally a method of allowing permission to the users for accessing data. All the users which are allowed to access the data need not to prove their identity again and again. They can access data with the username and passwords assigned to them.
It is possible to apply various restrictions on such data or files. For example, only a limited number of users can be allowed to access the same, and not all of them.
Well, the general limit on the length of cable used in connecting two computers in a network is up to 100 meters. This limit can be increased by using the switches and signal repeaters.
It is the responsibility of the Network Layer. The Network Layer is the number 3 layer from the bottom in an OSI reference model.
A network obviously contains the personal information of the users or something that is very confidential for the concerned organizations. There are many unauthorized attempts that can be made by hackers to steal such information. For example, the future plan of one company can be leaked to its competitors who can take advantage of the same in advance. Thus securing a network is important. This can be done by using Network Firewall, Antivirus software, imposing limits on data, and through several other approaches.
Fault Tolerance System
Well, Proxy servers are the prime contributors to safety. The fact is there can be certain attempts by external users to access the data on a node that is registered on a network. The proxy server doesn’t let them trace the exact location of a node as it reflects an incorrect IP address. It is extremely difficult for any user to access data without knowing the IP address. Thus, it contributes to the safety of a network. It is also possible to hide a node from a network with this approach.
Each node or device on a network has a networking address in numbers which is commonly called its IP. The IP provides all such information about a node or a device on a network. The IP is unique and cannot be the same for two nodes on a network. It provides all the information about the node such as its location, registered user, and so on.
Crosstalk is nothing but a situation when the signal has electromagnetic interferences. It can impose a limit or can largely affect data during its transmission. For eliminating this situation, the cables used are shielded. The shield is actually a cover on the cable which doesn’t let it face this problem. Crosstalk problem generally declares its presence during the voice signal transmission.
In star topology, all the computers or devices are connected to a single hub which is responsible to control the same. The damage or the failure to the hub can make the entire network useless. Therefore this approach is not so common in the present scenario.
Inspection of a network thoroughly and then taking appropriate actions against the facts that can shortly lead to big issues if ignored is considered as network troubleshooting. Most of the time, it’s the channels or the networking devices that connect the nodes in a network that needs to be paid attention to for this. The troubleshooting procedure depends on the size and type of the network and it cannot be the same for all the networks.
Yes, it is possible and generally, the default gateway protocol is followed for this. Connecting both these networks with each other is quite common. Private Networks are also called Intranets and are deployed where more security and faster speed are required.
1. Issues that are related to policies
2. Bandwidth problems
3. Mismatch of protocols
4. Client Server problems
5. IP mismatch
6. Improper Configuration
7. Security concerns
There are actually certain benefits these cables can have. Although their cost is high, they can bring a full bouquet of pros with them. One of the leading benefits is they support larger bandwidth which makes sure of bulk data transmission in a short time span. The desired value for the Signal-to-Noise ratio can be achieved. Also, at the same time errors and problems related to crosstalk can simply be avoided.
Basically, the clustering approach is nothing but the ability of an Operating System to support multiple servers. This is to make sure of networking or the node working during an emergency situation such as the server or the power failure.
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