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Oracle Tuxedo Interview Questions and Answers

Q1): To start with, When and by whom was Oracle Tuxedo formed?

Ans: Tuxedo was built by AT&T i.e. American Telephone & Telegraph Company in the 1980s. Oracle Tuxedo is a software that was developed by Oracle corporations in 2008.

Q2):  What does Tuxedo mean to you?

Ans: Well the full form of Tuxedo is Transactions for Unix, Extended for distributed operations. Simply, it is a middleware platform that manages the distribution of computing environments along with the processing of transactions. It is also a cross-platform software that can be run by any operating system. 

Q3): What is a Middleware?

Ans: Technically, Middleware is a hidden layer or layers of software between Operating system and Application. It comprises common functionalities crucial for many applications.  

Q4): Name the languages used by Oracle Tuxedo?

Ans: The software is written in 7 languages

C++
JAVA
PYTHON
COBOL
Ruby
PHP

Q5): What according to you is the greatest advantage of Tuxedo?

Ans: The amazing clustering capability of Tuxedo is its greatest advantage. It can process millions of requests in a second. Being highly optimized it gets responses within few microseconds.  

Q6): Which cluster is used by oracle?

Ans: Oracle uses Oracle RAC or Real Application Cluster. 

Q7): What is RAC? 

Ans: Oracle RAC is Oracle’s premier shared disk database clustering technology. It is a clustered database solution for scalability, high availability, flexibility, and elasticity. RAC was introduced in 2001 with Oracle 9i. It is available in standard as well as an enterprise edition. 

Q8): What is the difference between RAC & non-RAC environments in Oracle?

Ans: In the case of a Non-RAC environment a single instance accesses a single database. The database contains control files, redo log files & database files that are physically present on the desk. Whereas, The RAC environment contains two or more instances communicating with a single database; these all are instances running on separate servers. 

Q9): What is Oracle Exadata?

Ans: Exadata is simply a data appliance. A data appliance is a server with a pre-installed & pre-optimized database. Three major components of the Exadata database server are 
DB Server,  Cell Storage, Infiniband Switch, Cisco Switch, PDU, Database Instance, ASM Instance, Database Resource Manager

The Key Features of Oracle Exadata are Hardware-level, Storage Server Cells, High-Speed Infiniband Switch, Software level,  Smart Scan, Flash Cache, Hybrid Columnar Compression, IORM (I/O Resource Manager). 

[Related Article: Transaction Processing System]

Q10): How can we shift a normal database to Exadata?

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Ans: There are almost 9 possible ways to do that. 
1 Physical Standby
2. Logical Standby 
3. Export/Import
4. Transportable Tablespace
5. Transportable Database
6. Golden gate
7. RMAN cold 
8. Oracle Streams
9. Hot backup restoration

Q11): What is ASM?

Ans: ASM is Automatic storage management which was introduced in Oracle 10g. It provides storage solutions. It is a very powerful tool for managing multi-terabyte databases. The storage components of Oracle ASM are
ASM Disks
ASM Disk groups
ASM Allocation units
ASM Extents
ASM Files
ASM File Extent Map
ASM can add a disk from the volume or remove it, ASM can perform the load balancing inside the storage. Basically, ASM provides the volume manager layer which is essential for every software. It also acts as a file system. 

Q12): What are the benefits of ASM?

Ans: There are several benefits of ASM. The most important aspects of ASM are
It stripes files rather than logical volumes
It can perform Online disk reconfiguration and dynamic rebalancing
It has an adjustable rebalancing speed
It Provides redundancy on a file basis
Besides, ASM  is  Custer-aware and it can be automatically installed. 

Q13): What are the temporal data types provided by Oracle?

Ans: Oracle provides 3 kinds of data types-
Date data type which provides different formats of dates.
Timestamp data type which provides different formats of Timestamp.
Interval data type provides an interval between dates & times. 

Q14): What is SALT?

Ans: SALT stands for service architecture leveraging tuxedo. It is a SOAP over https gateway. It was created to expose tuxedo services as web services that will invoke web services from within tuxedo applications using tuxedo API. SALT is configuration-driven. It is scalable and highly available. Code changing is not required in the case of SALT. 

Q15): What is an Oracle instance?

Ans: Oracle instance is a system global area (SGA) and the Oracle background processes constitute an Oracle database instance. Every time a database is started, a system global area is allocated and Oracle background processes are started. The SGA is deallocated when the instance shuts down. After starting an instance, Oracle associates the instance with the specified database. This is called mounting the database. The database is then ready to be opened, which makes it accessible to authorized users.

Q16): What is the Oracle package? 

Ans: Oracle package is a schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types, items, and subprograms. Packages offer several advantages: modularity, easier application design, information hiding, added functionality, and better performance

Q17): Explain the general concepts of PL/SQL?

Ans: PL/SQL is Oracle's procedural extension to SQL. With PL/SQL, we can manipulate data with SQL statements, and control program flows with procedural constructs such as IF-THEN and LOOP.

we can also declare constants and variables, define procedures and functions, use collections and object types, and trap run-time errors. Applications written using any of the Oracle programmatic interfaces can call PL/SQL stored procedures and send blocks of PL/SQL code to the server for execution. Because it runs inside the database, PL/SQL code is very efficient for data-intensive operations and minimizes network traffic in client/server applications.

Q18): What is a database trigger?

Ans: A database trigger is a stored procedure that Oracle invokes automatically when certain events occur, for example, when a DML operation modifies a certain table. Triggers enforce business rules, prevent incorrect values from being stored, and reduce the need to perform checking and cleanup operations in each application.

Here are some important items to remember about triggers. -On insert triggers have no: OLD values. -On delete triggers have no: NEW values -Triggers do not commit transactions. If a transaction is rolled back, the data changed by the trigger is also rolled back. -Commits, rollbacks, and save points are not allowed in the trigger body.

A commit/rollback affects the entire transaction, it is all or none. -Unhandled exceptions in the trigger will cause a rollback of the entire transaction, not just the trigger. -If more than one trigger is defined on an event, the order in which they fire is not defined. If the triggers must fire in order, we must create one trigger that executes all the actions in the required order. -A trigger can cause other events to execute triggers. -A trigger cannot change a table that it has read from. 

Q19): Brief on data warehouse? 

Ans:  A data warehouse is a relational database that is designed for query and analysis. It usually contains historical data derived from transaction data, but it can include data from other sources. It separates analysis workload from transaction workload and enables an organization to consolidate data from several sources.

In addition to a relational database, a data warehouse environment includes an extraction, transportation, transformation, and loading (ETL) solution, an online analytical processing (OLAP) engine, client analysis tools, and other applications that manage the process of gathering data and delivering it to business users.

Most data warehouses use a staging area to clean and process our operational data before We may want to customize our warehouse's architecture for different groups within our organization.

Q20): What is RDF?

Ans: A set of rules (a sort of language) for creating descriptions of information, especially information available on the World Wide Web. RDF could be used to describe a collection of books, or artists, or a collection of web pages as in the RSS data format which uses RDF to create machine-readable summaries of websites. 

RDF is also used in XPFE applications to define the relationships between different collections of elements, for example, RDF could be used to define the relationship between the data in a database and the way that data is displayed to a user

Q21): What do the Oracle logical structures comprise of?

Ans: Logical structures of an Oracle database include tablespaces, schema objects, data blocks, extents, and segments. Because the physical and logical structures are separate, the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting access to logical storage structures. 

Q22): Define cursor variable?

Ans: A cursor variable is associated with different statements which can hold different values at run time. It is a kind of reference type.

Q23): Describe PLS_INTEGER datatype?

Ans: PLS_INTEGER and BINARY_INTEGER are identical data types and are only available in PL/SQL. You cannot create a column in a table with either of these data types. PLS_INTEGER is a highly efficient integer 32-bit data type. You will most commonly see PLS_INETGER (and BINARY_INETGER) in PL/SQL routines as an index variable. An associative array (INDEX BY TABLE) index. Both PLS_INTEGER and BINARY_INTEGER allow whole numbers only. Decimal fractions are rounded to the nearest whole number.

Q24): What is a pragma? 

Ans: Pragma is a keyword in Oracle PL/SQL that is used to provide an instruction to the compiler like PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

Q25): What is the Oracle package? 

Ans: A schema object that groups logically related PL/SQL types, items, and subprograms. Packages offer several advantages: modularity, easier application design, information hiding, added functionality, and better performance.

Q26): What is partitioning? 

Ans: Partitioning is a method of splitting large tables and indexes into smaller, more manageable pieces.

Q27): What is the DCL & DDL language? 

Ans: DCL is Data Control Language statements (GRANT, COMMIT) DDL (Data D DDL language definition Language) statements are used to define the database structure or schema (CREATE, ALTER, TRUNCATE). 

Q28): What is EXPLAIN PLAN?

Ans: The EXPLAIN PLAN statement displays execution plans chosen by the Oracle optimizer for SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, and DELETE statements. A statement's execution plan is the sequence of operations Oracle performs to run the statement.

The row source tree is the core of the execution plan. It shows the following information: -An ordering of the tables referenced by the statement -An access method for each table mentioned in the statement -A join method for tables affected by join operations in the statement -Data operations like filter, sort, or aggregation In addition to the row source tree, the plantable contains information about the following: -Optimization, such as the cost and cardinality of each operation -Partitioning, such as the set of accessed partitions -Parallel execution, such as the distribution method of join inputs The EXPLAIN PLAN results let us determine whether the optimizer selects a particular execution plan, such as, nested loops join. 

Q29): What is ERP System? 

Ans: Enterprise Resource Planning, a system that is used to manage all aspects of a company's operations. ERP is a way to integrate the data and processes of an organization into one single system. 

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