SAP FICO Interview Questions

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Q. Correspondence Types
What are correspondence types in AR/AP ?

Correspondence types are different outputs which can be printed and sent to your business partners based around either customer vendor or GL information.
- Popular correspondence types include customer statements, payment notices and line items lists. Within the most common AP/AR functions (such as ‘Display vendor line items’ below there is the option to generate correspondence requests. At the end of the working day these can be printed together as a batch and sent out.

Q. Reason Codes
What are “reason codes” used for in the Accounts Receivable module and what are the factors to be considered in their configuration?

Reason codes are tags which can be assigned to explain under/overpayments during the allocation of incoming customer payments.  They should not be confused with ‘void reason codes’ used when outgoing checks are generated.
- During configuration the following are determined

  • Whether the items booked with these reason codes are to be flagged as disputed items for the purposes of credit management (disputed items do not increase a customer credit exposure)
  • The type of correspondence (if any) to be generated for this reason code as a result of the under/over payment
  • Whether a separate line item should be created to charge off the payment differences to a separate G/L account.

Part III: Document Postings

Q. Rate factors
What are exchange rate “factors”?

Exchange Rate factors are the relationships between one currency and another to which an exchange rate is applied.
- For example you may define the Indonesia Rupiah to US$ factor as 10000 : 1
Combined with an exchange rate of 0.95 this would equate to 9500 IDR to 1 USD

Q. Document Currency
Explain the document currency (WRBTR)  and local currency fields (DMBTR) when posting a document in SAP FI.

On the document header, the currency key is entered. If this is different from the entity currency (or local currency), an equivalent amount in local currency is calculated automatically by the system and stored in the field “local currency”. It is possible however to overwrite the system proposed value in this field manually.
- If the local amount is manually overwritten, and the difference between the implied exchange rate is sufficiently different to the rate used by the system, a warning or error message is displayed (depending on system configuration)

Q. Substitution Rules
What are FI substitution rules?

ADefined in configuration they are similar to the FI validation rules above. Substitution rules allow field values to be replaced when certain pre-requisites conditions are met.

Q. Exchange Rate Types
What are exchange rate “types” in SAP?

Exchange rate types are how SAP categorizes the different sets of exchange rates in the R’3 system.
- By default exchange rate type “M” is used for the rates used to calculate local currency in the SAP system

Q. Calculated Rate v Header Rate
During document postings, under what circumstances would SAP display the following warning / error message: “Calculated rate deviates from document header rate by x%”
This occurs when the exchange rate in the document header (either entered by the user or derived from the exchange rate table) differs by a larger amount than that specified as the maximum tolerance.
(The message can changed to be either an error or a warning)

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Q. What is a primary and secondary cost element?
Every Profit and Loss GL account, that needs to be controlled, has to be defined as a cost element in SAP. Just as in FI, General Ledger Accounts exist, in Controlling we have cost element.
Each FI General Ledger Account that is a Profit and Loss Account is also created as a cost element in SAP.

1.Primary Cost Elements
Those which are created from the FI General Ledger Accounts and impact the financial accounts.
For example, traveling expenses, consumpti on account and in fact, any Profit and Loss GL account.

2.Secondary Cost Elements
Those which are created only in controlling and do not affect the financials of the company. They are used for internal reporting only. The postings to these accounts do not affect the profit or loss of the company.

The following categories exist for secondary cost elements:

3. 21 Internal Settlements - Cost elements of this category are used to settle order costs to objects in controlling. For example, cost centers and pa segments.

4. 31 Order/Results Analysis - Used to calculate WIP on the order/project.

5. 41 Overheads -Used to calculate indirect costs from cost centers to orders.

6. 42 Assessment - Used to calculate costs during assessment.

7. 43 Internal Activity Allocations

Q. What is the difference between Profitability analysis and Profit center accounting?
Profitability analysis lets you analyze the profitability of segments of your market according to:

1. Products
2. Customers
3. Regions
4. Divisions

>> It provides your sales, marketing, planning and management organizations with decision support from a market oriented viewpoint.
>> Profit center accounting lets you analyze profit and loss for profit centers. It makes it possible to evaluate different areas or units within your company.
- Profit center accounting can be structured according to:

1. Region
2. Plants
3. Functions
4. Products (product ranges)

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Q. Explain the organizational assignment in the controlling module?
>> Company codes are assigned to the controlling area. A Controlling Area is assigned to the operating concern.
>> Controlling Area is the umbrella under which all controlling activities of Cost Center Accounting, Product costing, Profitability Analysis and Profit Center are stored.
>> Operating Concern is the highest node in Profitability Analysis.


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