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ATG System Administrator Interview Questions
Q1) What is WINS Server and how it is useful?
Ans: It is basically a server with the help of which the users can simply make sure of accessing the resources through the name of the nodes in the network than using the IP. It can be configured in the system for keeping a track record of IP addresses and node names.
Q2) How well can you explain the Active Directory concept in the System administration?
Ans: When it comes to network security and administration, something that largely matters is nothing but the centralized control of everything. The same can easily be assured through the Active Directory. The nodes which are associated with the server are generally configured with the Active Directory. Generally, they act as controllers for all the domains concerned with the network.
All the settings and the information related to the development is generally stored in the central database. The Directory makes sure that the administrators to enable the deployment and policies. Depending upon the nature of the task, it is also responsible for the other tasks that are related to the operating system.
Q3) What does APIPA stand for?
Ans: APIPA means Automatic Private IP Addressing. IT enables users to locate IP addresses when the DHCP servers fail to perform their tasks.
Q4) What do you know about the Domain controller and how it is significant?
Ans: It is also known as a network domain controller and is basically a computer system that is often based on Windows. All the data and the information that is related to the user account are stored on a central database with the Domain controller.
It is also regarded as the central unit for the Active Directory in Windows. It is mainly responsible for matching the authentication details and making sure that the security policies are not getting violated.
Q5) Name a few email ports you are familiar with?
Ans: These are HTTP, SMTP, IMAP4, POP3, Secure POP3, and Secure IMAP
Q6) How the access to a user is granted or rejected for accessing the information?
Ans: This is generally done through the Domain controller. Generally, the users who have the access to the information are given a unique ID and a password.
Q7) What is the significance of VOIP?
Ans: It is basically an approach that is helpful for enabling users to adopt modern techniques over the traditional infrastructure. It stands for Short for Voice over Internet Protocol which is basically a special type of software and hardware with the help of which users can clearly use the transmission medium which is designed for the telephone calls by delivering the voice packets.
Q8) What do you mean by Group Policy Objects and how they are significant?
Ans: A GPO is nothing but an array of settings that is responsible for assuring the proper control of the working environment of a user, as well as nodes account. There are policies that are important and GPO’s are responsible for the implementation of the same.
In addition to this, a GPO performs another important task and i.e. it redirects the folder options. Generally, the GPOs are of two types and they are Local and Non Local Group.
Q9) What exactly do you know about a Domain?
Ans: Basically, it’s nothing but the logical group of network objects that generally include users, computers, as well as devices among which the Active Directory database is pretty common. In a tree that generally defines how the nodes are connected, there can be multiple domains and each is responsible for the functioning of a specific one.
Q10) What you can store at the location C.WindowsNTDSNTD.DIT?
Ans: At this location, the Ad database is stored.
Q11) What is the significance of the Sysvol Folder?
Ans: This Folder is responsible for storing enabling the users to have common access on a domain. Basically, the copy of the server of the domain files is stored in this folder. The users can add more files to it to enhance the accessibility of the domain. There are AD databases that can also be stored in this folder.
Q12) What are the conditions for creating the SYSVOL Folder in the system?
Ans: This Folder can be created if the system Administrator follows the NTFS partition.
Q13) Tell us something about Windows Deployment Services?
Ans: It is useful when it comes to deploying the Systems which run on Windows remotely. It is mainly used for network-based Operating system installation. This is to make sure that the new nodes can be added to the existing network in a reliable manner.
This service lets the users make remote access to the nodes within the network simply and if they are allowed the same.
Q14) Name the two types of Email Servers and how they are useful?
Ans: These are:
1. Incoming Mail Server
2. Outgoing Mail Server
The incoming mail server is one that is responsible for managing the e-mail account and the information associated. In any registered e-mail account, no more than one server can be linked or associated. Generally, it helps users in downloading their attachments from the email accounts provided the settings configured are correct. The other Server i.e. the Outgoing Mail Server is the one that is based on the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and is responsible for the delivery of e-mails.
Q15) Tell something about the Light-Weight Directory Access Protocol?
Ans: The Light-Weight Directory Access Protocol is responsible for the naming of the objects which are under the Active Directory. It is basically the industry standard directory access protocol. Its main aim is to enhance the reachability of the Active Directory.
Q16) Tell something about the group policy and why does that matter?
Ans: The implementation of the specific configurations is implemented for the nodes as well as for the users through the Group Policy. There are GPO’s (Group Policy Objects) which contain the settings of the group policy. They are generally made linked to the sites, unites, or with the domains directly.
Q17) What do you mean by the Lingering Objects in the System?
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Ans: While performing tasks, there is often a need to erase or to delete the Active Directory from the system. A deleted or an erased Active Directory file can be considered as a Lingering object. They are called Lingering because of their presence when the same is on the Domain Controller.
After creating the system backups, there are changes on the directories and the same is responsible for the creation of the same. There is actually a limit on the backup file and i.e. it should be older than 180 days. All those are older than this, get deleted automatically, and are called Lingering objects.
Q18) Name the command which you can use to remove the Lingering object? Why removing them is important?
Ans: They can be removed easily through the command REPADMIN.EXE. It is basically a console utility command. In case the Lingering objects are not deleted, they can put an extra burden on the system’s Random Access Memory and can create problems such as limited space availability and slow performance.
Q19) Why an Active Directory Back up is important?
Ans: It is important mainly due to the proper functionality of the Active Directory Database. Without creating the backup, the system cannot let you work on the older modules and users cannot keep up the pace simply with the registered domains that are essential for performing several important tasks. In case the backup is not created, the troubleshooting process is to be adopted by the users.
Q20) What are Forests in the Domain?
Ans: The Forests are nothing but the dynamic collection of the trees with a catalog that is common to all of them. Generally, a forest defines the security policies that bind all the users and computers on a network.
Q21) As a system administrator, what do you think is the more critical factor associated with the hardware components?
Ans: Something that is very important about the hardware components is their proper installation, maintenance, as well as replacement. They are actually the essential operations that the users have to perform with the hardware. The most critical one could be the replacement or building of a component.
Q22) Name one important skill that you think a System Administrator should have?
Ans: Well, one thing which is common among all the tasks performed by a system administrator is problem-solving. Thus, he/she should be good in the same and this is one of the essential skills of a system admin.
Q23) What according to you could be the characteristics of someone administrating the System?
Ans: A System Administrator should know who to handle the operations related to hardware. He/she must also be good with the software domain. Although they have to work individually, they must know what and when to discuss with others. Gathering information, problem formulation, troubleshooting, and managing the technical problems are some of the other important characteristics that an expert should have.
Upgrading the systems and reducing the down-time of the servers is also their responsibility. Because they have to take several important decisions quickly, so good decision-making ability is another prime characteristic they must bear.
Q24) How FAT and NTFS are different from one another according to you?
Ans: FAT is basically an old approach and is a file system that was common with the older versions of Windows. It has a limit on the memory and users are not in a position to run the files that are heavy and of HD quality. Therefore it doesn’t have a wide scope in the present scenario. On the other side, NTFS is common these days.
The best thing about the same is it enables users to have a better command over the files due to better security policies when compared with the FAT. Some of the key features that make it simply the best are Shadowing, Quotas as well as Troubleshooting.
Q25) How Firewall and antivirus are different from one another?
Ans: Well, they both have a similar objective and i.e. to enhance the overall security of the network. The antivirus obviously keeps a system safe from computer viruses. It simply reports, erase, and notifies the users to aim case of an infected file enter the system memory and always makes sure that the system data remains safe.
On the other side, a firewall is an approach or a program that simply don’t let hackers and intruders steal information from a system. The firewall approach simply doesn’t let the hackers govern the control on the system partially or fully. Whereas the antivirus is only available as software, the Firewall is available in both hardware as well as software form.
Q26) How the Loopback is useful?
Ans: It is basically an approach that simply enables users to send the signal again to the same node for the purpose of testing. It simply makes sure that packets are delivering at the right destination and the chances of loss of data can be reduced. It is actually the simplest method of testing and is always beneficial for the data transferring among the system when the size of the data is too complex.
Q27) What is the Significance of the proxy server?
Ans: It is a gateway node between a local area network and a wide area network. IT simply makes sure of better security as well as the enhanced performance of the network under all the situations. They can also be deployed for the purpose of keeping an eye on the employees like how much they have considered the resources which are outside the organization.
Q28) What is the Windows registry?
Ans: It is beneficial for configuring the settings of Microsoft Windows and is basically an array of Databases.
Q29) What is the significance of an Ethernet card?
Ans: The Ethernet card is responsible for the smooth flow of everything. It basically connects everything together. Without it, the concept of switching which is very important cannot be applied and considered.
Q30) In the OSI model, at which layer you will find the Router?
Ans: They are connected to layer number 3.
Q31) What do you mean by ATG Repository?
Ans: ATG is a framework that helps in making web applications based on J2EE standards, and is from the Art Technology Group. A repository is basically a huge pool of data that can be accessed anywhere anytime. These data can be accessed and manipulated through the repository API. Web application developers can modify these data using the interface. They can remove the items too. Articles in repositories are more or less like Java Bean. ATG Platform provides a set of models for repositories.
- SQL Repository uses the Generic SQL Adapter (GSA) to execute mapping between ATG and Data preserved in SQL database.
- Versioned Repository is an extended form of SQL repository used in ATG Content Administration having versions for every set of data. For e.g. if the price of a product is changed, then new data will be created with a new version number instead of manipulating the price on the existing file.
Q32) What is a Nucleus in ATG?
Ans: Nucleus is the term used to denote the ATG holder for segments. It gives a various leveled namespace to par having an exclusive full name with the goal that pages and different segments can refer to it. They are basically individual Java Bean components accumulated together.
These Java Bean components are connected with .properties files within the Nucleus. In the nucleus, each service is put together as Java Bean or a group of Java Beans. These are then put on a namespace. The beans interconnect within themselves. Nucleus is in charge to understand the component configurations and manage the namespace.
Q33) Explain the ATG component scope?
Ans: ATG component Scope is basically a core variable, which informs the nucleus at the point when a part will exist.
Q34) What signs in the setup documents are nucleus properties processed?
Ans: $ Signs is used to process the core properties.
Q35) How are JSPs created in ATG?
Ans: JSPs in ATG is created through the following method:
1. User should use a browser to key in the URL and send a demand for a JSP to the ATG application.
2. ATG application collects the information as requested by the user for the JSP file.
3. As soon as JSP originates, it is assembled & complied into Java coding
4. After obtaining all the contents by Java code, at the end the result is changed over into plain HTML
HTML page is sent back to the user, who is on the browser
This is the method for creating a JSP page in any ATG application.
Q36) Explain the differences between droplet, FormHandler, and a servlet:
Ans: Servlet is a java class whereas Droplet is from ATG
1. Droplet has been developed to render or put data into the database.
2. Servlet uses for submitting data, as it acts as a controller and is will not use for put data.
3. Servlet renders the segment of the JSP page.
4. FormHandlers are utilized during forms to carry out authentication of the forms.
Q37) What is the difference between dsp and dspel tags?
1. The DSP tag is a library of tags that supports runtime expressions, such as suggestions while scripting variables. These tags use an id characterized by name while scripting the variables.
2. DSPEL tag library supports JSTL Expression Language (EL) fundamentals that are assessed during runtime. These tags regularly generate a result entity codenamed by the var attribute.
3. For customized tags we need to write the properties file and a class file to define the purpose. We should also include a tag file with extension .tld, which means tag library definition, and in the droplet consisting of the path of tag uri<% tag uri…..%>
4. For example we can write a custom tag to compute the shipping charge with promotion and save it and pull it as & when required.
Q38) What are the 2 methods of a component?
Ans: These are the 2 methods of component: setters & getters. These components help the setter to keep their data in private while exposing their article to any public repositories.
Q39) What do you mean by item descriptor?
Ans: Item descriptor can be detailed with the help of SQL Repository. For example, each database table has a unique repository item descriptor. Sometimes multiple tables are joined into a single item descriptor. Since ATG supports Java collections, hence we can store a list, map, or arrays. ATG repositories allow one-by-one, one-many, many-many relationships.
Q40) What are the differences between dsp. include and jsp. include?
1. dsp.include are basically dynamic server pages which pulls in all stuff of the type class too, whereas jsp better known as java server pages pulls in only the primitive ones.
2. The other difference between them is that JSP includes directive is dynamic whereas DSP includes is for data lesser than 64 kb.
3. DSP tag library was created by ATG for accessing all types of data including those from ATG’s Nucleus Framework too.
4. Other functions available through these tags manage transactions and analyses how the data is to be rendered in JSP.
5. It’s good to utilize these tags from the DSP tag library for jobs involving the Dynamo Application Framework (DAF) resources.
6. Dsp tag supports the carrying of object parameters in between the pages.
7. To be particular, one should use dsp:include instead of using jsp:include, and apply dsp:param instead of jsp param.
Q41) How is the shopping cart implemented?
Ans: In ATG it’s very simple as we need to use the ShoppingCartFormHandler, available amongst form handlers.
Q42) What are the main form handler to be used for the shopping cart?
Ans: Basically ShoppingCartFormHandler & CartModifierFormHandler are the two main form handler that is being used while making a shopping cart.
Q43) What are the benefits of DAF?
1. It is generally used to maintain a large pool of data.
2. Repositories are included in it which help to pull data anywhere during the building of architecture.
3. It can script any object of any type which is requested for the db.
4. Dynamo messaging generally uses patch jms and bay for better efficiency.
Q44) What is ATG DPS & its elements?
Ans: ATG Dynamo personalization system is abbreviated as ATG DPS. It’s works on the basis of the user’s Profile Data and the rules have been fabricated to deliver the right content as per the request of the user. There are basically three key elements are associated with ATG DPS which are as follows:
1. User Profile Management – when a visitor approaches the website for the first time, the user is allowed to create their own profile. After they submit their customized data DPS stores the visitor's profile in its database repository. This repository best describes the preferences and characteristics of the user. Accordingly, the content is customized and shown to the visitor.
2. Content Targeting – Content is customized for a specific user at a specific time in a specific context and set of rules.
3. E-mail Targeted – DPS includes targeted mail services not only for delivering, but customizes in composing of the mail too. Scenarios can be conveyed to the user too. It sends a confirmation mail to each and every single user after they register on the site. it also sends notifications to all users who haven’t logged in to the site for long and their account might be shut down soon.
Q45) Mention the extent of Dynamo Components?
Ans: The extent of Dynamo Components are as follows:-
3. Worldwide being the default scope.
Q46) What do you mean by scenarios?
Ans: Scenario predicts and tracks the activities of the website visitors and acts accordingly, e.g., customizing the content of the page visited and offering exclusive promotions on offer, or sending targeted messages through an e-mail.
Q47) What do you mean by pipeline?
Ans: It’s simply a variant of Servlet Pipeline. In an ATG pipeline, the order of Programs is implemented in a sequence. It initiates with the DynamoHandler which adds the definitive dynamo request and responds accordingly. The lists of servlets seen are dependent on the module being used. This is how the Dynamo Application Server adds more servlets to its pipeline.
Q48) Is DAS applicable for high volume or low volume traffic?
Ans: Dynamo Application Server (DAS) is generally used to manage a high volume of traffic.
Q49) What are the problems faced with ATG’s performance?
Ans: As we all know that issues come in all shapes and sizes, which means that the performance of the task is not going as expected, which was previously observed to be functioning smoothly. Issues include CPU utilization, sluggish responses, database activity of high levels, long-running SQL queries, slow CA deployments are some of the few.
Q50) Why is Eclipse used with ATG?
Ans: The component available as Eclipse IDE is of huge utility in ATG.
Q51) Which IBM products are used with ATG?
Ans: IBM’s Web Sphere Application Server is of great use to enhance the performance of ATG. Apart from Eclipse IDE, which is an open-source platform used for developing web applications
Q52) What do you understand by derived properties?
Ans: Derived properties means enabling extracting the property value from one repository article to another repository article or from another property to the same repository article.
Q53) What is the difference between Item Cache and Query cache?
Ans: For a description of each article in the repository, an SQL repository manages two caches: Item Cache & Query Cache
a) Item caches preserve the values of repository items, which are indexed by the respective repository IDs. Item caching facilitates each & every single item descriptor.
b) Query caches preserve the repository IDs of articles that match the given queries. As soon as the query returns the repository articles in response, item descriptor enables query caching and as a result, the set is cached as follows:
- Query cache preserving the repository IDs
- Item cache preserving the parallel repository items
Q54) Can ATG applications be installed on a cluster of servers?
Ans: If any such situation arises when the ATG applications have to be installed on a cluster of servers, then it is preferred to select from either distributed caching or locked caching.
Q55) What are the different modes of caching in ATG?
Ans: The various approaches to Caching are set at the item descriptor stage, through the tag’s cache-mode attribute. The default caching mode is simple caching. To modify the default caching mode on an item descriptor, we can set cache-mode to any one of the following values:
3. Distributed TCP caching
4. Distributed JMS caching
5. Distributed Hybrid caching
Q56) What are the handleX technique in?
Ans: HandleX technique contains the definite function to be performed which is a method, just like ProfileFormHandler- handleLogin
Q57) What are pricelists?
Ans: Price Lists allows any developer to aim for a specific range of prices for a specific group of consumers. Price lists are managed through a single interface in ACC. For e.g., price lists can be used to execute B2B pricing where each client can have their own unique pricing for products based on contracts at negotiated prices and can be changed as & when required too.