ATG System Administrator Interview Questions

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Q: What do you mean by ATG Repository?
ATG is a framework which helps in making web applications based on J2EE standards, and is from the Art Technology Group. A repository is basically a huge pool of data which can be accessed anywhere anytime. These data can be accessed and manipulated through repository API. Web application developers can modify these data using the interface. They can remove the items too. Articles in repositories are more or less like Java Bean. ATG Platform provides a set of models for repositories.

SQL Repository uses the Generic SQL Adapter (GSA) to execute mapping between ATG and Data preserved in SQL database.

Versioned Repository is an extended form of SQL repository used in ATG Content Administration having versions for every set of data. For e.g. if a price of a product is changed, then a new data will be created with a new version number instead of manipulating the price on the existing file.

Q: What is the Core of ATG?
The core of the ATG platform is Dynamo Application Framework (DAF), which is implemented on a component development system based on Java Server Pages (JSPs) and JavaBeans.

Q: What is a droplet in ATG?
Droplet is an ATG specific customized servlet and can be correlated to HttpServlet in J2EE, whereas in ATG DynamoServlet class is used which implements javax.servlet.Servlet interface in ATG. Droplets are generally used to abstract out business logic in server side code.

Q: What is a component in ATG?
A component in ATG is text file with .properties extension better known as configuration file that uses a java class.

Q: What is a Nucleus in ATG?
Nucleus is the term used to denote the ATG container for components.  It provides a hierarchical name space to each component having an exclusive full name so that pages and other components can refer to it. Thjey are basically individual Java Bean components accumulated together. These Java Bean components are connected with .properties files within the Nucleus. In nucleus each service is put together as Java Bean or group of Java Beans. These are then put on a namespace. The beans interconnect within themselves. Nucleus is in charge to understand the component configurations and manage the namespace.

Q: What is ATG component scope?
ATG component Scope is basically a nucleus variable, which informs the nucleus when a component will exist.

Q: What signs in the configuration files is nucleus properties processed?
$ Signs is used to process the nucleus properties.

Q: How are JSPs created in ATG?
JSPs in ATG are created through the following method:

1. User should use a browser to key in the URL and send a request for a JSP to ATG application
2. ATG application collects the information as requested by the user for JSP file.
3. As soon as JSP originates, it is assembled & complied into JAVA code
4. After obtaining all the contents by Java code, the final result is converted into plain HTML
This HTML page is sent back to the user who is on the browser

This is the method for creating a JSP page in any ATG application.

Q: What is the difference between droplet, FormHandler and servlet:
Servlet is a java class whereas Droplet is from ATG
1. Droplet has been developed to render or put data in the database.
2. Servlet is used to submit data, as it acts like a controller and is not used to put data.
3. Servlet renders the segment of JSP page.
4. FormHandlers are utilized during forms to carry out authentication of the forms.

Q: What is the difference between dsp and dspel tags?
1. The DSP tag is a library of tags which supports runtime expressions, such as suggestions while scripting variables. These tags use an id characterized by name while scripting the variables.
2. DSPEL tag library supports JSTL Expression Language (EL) fundamentals that are assessed during runtime. These tags regularly generate a result entity codenamed by the var attribute.
3. For customized tags we need to write the properties file and a class file to define the purpose. We should also include a tag file with extension .tld, which means tag library definition, and in the droplet consisting of the path of tag uri<% tag uri…..%>
4. For example we can write a custom tag to compute the shipping charge with promotion and save it and pull it as & when required.

Q: What are the two methods in a component
The two methods in a component are getters & setters. These components helps the setter to keep their data in private while exposing their article to any public repositories.

Q: What do you mean by item descriptor?
Item descriptor can be detailed with the help of SQL Repository. For example, each database table has a unique repository item descriptor. Sometimes multiple tables are joined into a single item descriptor. Since ATG supports Java collections, hence we can store a list, map or arrays. ATG repositories allow one-by-one, one-many, many-many relationship.

Q: What are the differences between dsp. include and jsp. include?
1. dsp.include are basically dynamic server pages which pulls in all stuff of the type class too, whereas jsp better known as java server pages pulls in only the primitive ones.
2. The other differences between them is that JSP include directive is dynamic where as DSP include is for data lesser than 64 kb.
3. DSP tag library was created by ATG for accessing all types of data including those from ATG’s Nucleus Framework too. 
4. Other functions available through these tags manage transactions and analyses how the data is to be rendered in JSP. 
5. It’s good to utilize these tags from DSP tag library for jobs involving Dynamo Application Framework (DAF) resources. 
6. Dsp tag supports the carrying of object parameters in between the pages. 
7. To be particular, one should use dsp:include instead of using jsp:include, and apply dsp:param instead of jsp param.

Q: How is shopping cart implemented?
In ATG it’s very simple as we need to use the ShoppingCartFormHandler, available amongst formhandlers. 

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Q: What are the main formhandler to be used for shopping cart?
Basically ShoppingCartFormHandler & CartModifierFormHandler are the two main formhandler that are being used by while making a shopping cart.

Q: What are the benefits of DAF?
1. It is generally used to maintain a large pool of data. 
2. Repositories are included in it which help to pull data anywhere during building of an architecture.
3. It can script any object of any type which is requested for the db.
4. Dynamo messaging generally uses patch bay and jms for better efficiency.

Q: What is ATG DPS & its elements?
ATG Dynamo personalization system is abbreviated to as ATG DPS. It’s works on the basis of the user’s Profile Data and the rules have been fabricated to deliver the right content as per the request of the user. There are basically three key elements are associated with ATG DPS which are as follows:
1. User Profile Management – when a visitor approaches to the website for the first time, the user is allowed to create their own profile. After they submit their customized data DPS stores the visitors profile in its database repository. This repository best describes the preferences and characteristics of the user. Accordingly the content is customized and shown to the visitor.
2. Content Targeting – Content are customized for specific user at a specific time in a specific context and set of rules.
3. Targeted E-mail – DPS includes targeted mail services not only for delivering, but customizes in composing of the mail too. Scenarios can be conveyed to the user too. It sends a confirmation mail to each and every single user after they register on the site. it also ends notifications to all users who haven’t logged in to the site for long and their account might be shut down soon.

Q: Mention the scope of Dynamo Components?
The scopes of Dynamo Components are as follows:-

1. Session
2. Request
3. Global being the default scope

Q: What do you mean by scenarios?
Scenario predicts and tracks the activities of the website visitors and acts accordingly, for e.g., customizing the content of the page visited and offering exclusive promotions on offer, or sending targeted massages through an e-mail.

Q: What do you mean by pipeline?
It’s simply a variant of Servlet Pipeline. In an ATG pipeline the order of Programs are implemented in a sequence. It initiates with the DynamoHandler which add the definitive dynamo request and responds accordingly. The lists of servlets seen are dependent on the module being used. This is how Dynamo Application Server adds more servlets to its pipeline.

Q: Is DAS applicable for high volume or low volume traffic?
Dynamo Application Server (DAS) is generally used to manage high volume of traffic. 

Q: What are the problems faced with ATG’s performance?
As we all know that issues comes in all shapes and sizes, which means that the performances of the task is not going as expected, which was previously observed to be functioning smoothly. Issues include CPU utilization, sluggish responses, database activity of high levels, long running SQL queries, slow CA deployments are some of the few.

Q: Why is Eclipse used with ATG?
The component available as Eclipse IDE is of huge utility in ATG.

Q: Which IBM products are used with ATG?
IBM’s Web Sphere Application Server is of of great use to enhance the performance of ATG. Apart from Eclipse IDE, which is an open source platform used for developing web applications

Q: What do you understand by derived properties?
Derived properties means enabling of extracting the property value from one repository article to another repository article or from another property to the same repository article.

Q: What is the difference between Item Cache and Query cache?
For description of each article in repository, an SQL repository manages two caches: Item Cache & Query Cache
>> Item caches preserve the values of repository items, which are indexed by the respective repository IDs. Item caching facilitates each & every single item descriptor.
>> Query caches preserve the repository IDs of articles that matches the given queries. As soon as the query returns the repository articles in response, item descriptor enables query caching and as a result, the set is cached as follows: 
>> Query cache preserving the repository IDs
>> Item cache preserving the parallel repository items

Q: Can ATG applications be installed on a cluster of servers?
If any such situation arises when the ATG applications have to be installed on a cluster of servers, then it is preferred to select from either distributed caching or locked caching.

Q: What are the different modes of caching in ATG?
The various approaches to Caching are set at the item descriptor stage, through the tag’s cache-mode attribute. The default caching mode is simple caching. To modify the default caching mode on an item descriptor, we can set cache-mode to any one of the following values:

1.  Simple
2. Locked
3. Distributed TCP caching
4. Distributed JMS caching
5. Distributed Hybrid caching

Q: What are the handleX technique in
HandleX technique contains the definite function to be performed which is a method, just like ProfileFormHandler- handleLogin

Q: What are pricelists?
Price Lists allows any developer to aim for a specific range of prices for a specific group of consumers. Price lists are managed through a single interface in ACC. For e.g., price lists can be used to execute B2B pricing where each client can have their own unique pricing for products based on contracts at negotiated prices, and can be changed as & when required too.


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