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A personal computer (PC) is a system of components that work together, A PC is computer hardware – not an operating system or application.
The components that make up a PC:
2. Processor (CPU)
3. Memory (RAM)
4. Storage (Hard drive)
5. Power supply
6. Mouse and keyboard
7. Video card
8. Network card
9. Cooling fan
The storage device is the place where the computer data is stored when it is not in use.
A system board, also known as a motherboard is the main board of the computer.
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4. What Is Computer Memory? What are different types of RAM?
Computer memory is where your computer stores the data.
Hard drive connectors are typically connected with integrated disk controllers and are of various types like IDE/EIDE/PATA, SATA, SCSI, etc.
Types of CPU technologies are Hyper-Threading, Multicore, Throttling, Microcode, Overclocking, and Cache.
Operating System is the software that provides the ability to run computer applications. It
1. Connects you to devices on your computer.
2. Manages RAM.
3. Prioritizes applications/processes.
4. Connects to networks.
5. Manages files and folders.
6. Provides a graphical interface.
7. Secures computer data.
Applications must be compatible with operating systems. Examples of operating systems: Window/ XP, Vista, MAC, Linux, windows server.
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Registry, Virtual Memory, and File Structure.
1. Registry data files.
2. INI – allows you to choose the OS or the OS with different boot options.
3. NTLDR – the boot loader, not in vista, located in the root of the active disk partition, reads the boot.ini, if XP is selected, it runs ntdetect.com, then it runs ntoskrnl.exe and hal.dll, then reads the registry and loads, device drivers.
4. COM – to get information about hardware run by ntldr.
5. SYS – used to boot windows from SCSI disk devices.
There are multiple methods of installing an operating system. For many end-users, the OS comes pre-installed on their new computer and they never think about it. However, as a technician, it is very important to know how to install, re-install and upgrade an OS.
Methods of installation:
1. Boot media – CD
2. Boot media alternatives – DVD, floppy, or USB
3. Network installation, remote installation service (RIS) or automated deployment services (ADS)
4. Drive imaging – ghost
The basic parts of a PC are a computer case, a monitor, keyboard, mouse, and the power cord. Each of these parts has their own value and an important role to get a PC working. Make sure you mentioned them and explain briefly what they’re function is.
The graphic components of your PC are on a separated card that has its own slot and gets plugged into the motherboard. That is why these components are called graphic cards. You should mention that lap-tops usually have their graphic components built in the motherboard.
The graphic driver is a program that controls and oversees how your graphic components respond to everything else in your software.
The mother-board or also called the main-board is the backbone of the PC. The motherboard is a platform that connects all of the parts together, including the sound drivers, video drivers, graphic cards, hard drives, the CPU memory.
ROM and RAM are both memories but differ in their functions. ROM (Read-only memory) is a memory that reads and storages codes of the programs that run under the processor, while RAM (random-accessible memory) runs only temporarily while power is on and the PC is working. ROM continues to store data even when power is off. That’s why RAM is more important for video gaming, so it can support more.
The cache RAM or sometimes known as SRAM is the place where often used data is stored on a regular basis. It is a small high-speed memory box positioned behind the CPU and above the main memory. The processor always firstly checks the SRAM, before proceeding somewhere else.
A modem or a modulator-demodulator is a device that converts the waves coming from telephones and cables and then processes them into the computer. The PC has digital information and telephones usually send analog waves. The modems function is receiving and converting these waves, creating communication.
FireWire is a type of device that can transfer information between all sorts of digital devices, including audio and video equipment and it is also easy to use. It can be plugged or unplugged while the power is on and the PC will respond to it automatically. Installing the driver means that the PC and FireWire can start working and sharing information immediately.
One billion cycles per second.
Microprocessors are small, programmable, multi-tasking devices that can input data, process it, and then provide the outcome as the output results. Their functionality used to be integrating data from the CPU on one integrated circuit or more, but now all the CPUs are microprocessors. Their functionality is based on the binary system and includes symbols and numbers. Integrating the whole CPU on just one chip saves a lot of processing power.
The GUI or the graphical-user interface is based simply so users can manipulate the files and programs on the monitor with a mouse, drag and click on objects instead of putting in command with text. The GUI interface is used and was launched together with the most popular system – Microsoft. Since then, not a lot of GUI changes have been made, since this operation is basic.
Firstly, you would need the wireless adapters for each device on a wireless network. Lap-tops nowadays have in-built wireless adapters, but if you happen to have an outdated one, be sure to get wireless adapters first. Then, wireless routers are needed to set up a full and all-wireless network. You also need access points to spread the network. Access points are usually set up after the routers have been installed. This is how you allow the network to grow. Then, the access points and the wireless routers all get channeled through the wireless antenna which puts out a strong radio signal. In the end, a wireless repeater to expand the range on your wireless for users who can’t get the signal is the last you should do.
If RAM is random-access memory, DRAM is Dynamic random-access memory. What does that mean? It means that it stores every BIT of data from the PC in one circuit. DRAM shifts between two states, being charged or discharged so its value is either 0 or 1.
Yes, DRAM is a valuable thing to upgrade when thinking about boosting your system performance. The fact is, it does not upgrade your CPU in terms of faster response, but on the other hand, it reduces the time the CPU waits for information from the hard drive.
It will optimize your PC and help you maintain your data more effectively. Having all the data on only one partition can be of great risk if for example, your Windows crashes for good. Always separate the backup files and all the other things on different partitions. Even try to put a boot-up OS version on one partition. It will help immensely.
One thousand bytes.
An IP address is your personal data identifier. All the computers that are on the web, communicate through IP addresses as to faster identify the specified and wanted a computer and then transfer data to it. IP addresses are vital for one network to function. Picture it as a spider’s web with all the little dots in-between the web. Those dots are the IP address, the unique identifiers on every location, on every computer on the web.
A gateway is a method of connecting two different networks with different protocols, making an internetworking connection. Internetworking explains the act of communication between the two networks. The gateways are usually set up on the “end” or “edge” of the network and their function is not just to set up communication with another network, but to protect the network as well. That is why the gateways also come with firewalls. Simply like connecting several computers in a local network with a router (which in that case serves as a gateway). They operate on any level in OSI.
OSI model is short for Open System Interconnection and is the ISO standard for networking across the World Wide Web. OSI model sets up a network limit (framework) to attach protocols in seven different layers. Starting at one station, all the way down to the bottom of the chain. Known OSI models are for example the X400 or the X500 and some of them are still very popular as the ones for e-mail and directory. Older OSI models now serve as a teaching or a practice method for all the protocols that need to be implemented.
Simply put, a network is a communication between two computers. A network allows two or more computers to exchange files between them, share the same screen, message, use for printing, and much more. The way the network is based and how the computers are connected varies a lot. From telephone cables to sending out digital signals through Wi-Fi antennas, connected through satellites, infrared beams, and so on. There are several types of networks like LAN, WAN, etc. LAN is a local area network, WAN is a wide area network.
Both the hub and a switch are network components that connect electronic devices in two different ways. They both create network traffic, but they respond to it differently. The hub (or also called the receiver) is a device that after receiving all the information, puts out a repetition signal and sends it to all the other devices. The negative thing about this is that it can cause unnecessary traffic your way. Having a switch is good for better control of traffic. It collects packages from all the address information and sends it out to the given specific port. It is more manageable and better for a bigger network. Hubs are used for smaller networks.
A VPN is a virtual private network that allows safe use of the Internet and safe surfing. It builds a layer of security on top of the Internet and browsing through this isolated network, greatly helps to keep your data away from prying eyes.
DNS stands for Domain Name Servers and it is a list of all the domains and then gets translated into IP addresses.
A DNS (domain name server) problem is when the domain name cannot be translated into an IP address. If your computer can’t recognize an IP address on a certain domain name and cannot really establish communication, then you’d have a DNS problem. The network problem usually appears when you cannot trace and find the IP address.
Highly flexible networks called Virtual Local Area Network don’t require any physical connection but rather respond through logical operations. They also don’t have to be in the same space or geographical standpoint.
Active Directory is a Windows directory that works with complex network resources and responds in one universal way.
DHCP is a Dynamical Host Configuration Protocol. It is used to quickly define a specific IP address and attach it to a PC so it can become recognized on the World Web. Starts up automatically when booting the system.
Like we’ve said previously, a gateway is a way of accessing a network. When you experience difficulty accessing one (any kind of network issue), the default gateway is used to create an access point for your PC to use the web. This is when the IP address cannot match any other routes.
Different networks come in different sizes. Setting up a small network may be useful for a network-caffe, but not for a big company. Therefore, networks differ from Class A to B to C with different sizes and amounts of computers and network traffic that it can hold.
This kind of logging keeps the transactional logging process in the windows directory from expanding and enlarging. It overwrites (circulates) the first log file so that it won’t take up space on the hard disk.
it is the LDAP (Light-weight Directory Access Protocol) which is an industry protocol for maintaining directory data.
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