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Timestamp Format: Syslog
Log size: 500 kilobytes, When the log file reached the limit, the system will upload it to the FTP server and if it is successfully uploaded, the appliance will delete the log in the system to free space.
We need a log target to capture messages that are posted by the various objects and services that are running on the appliance. In order to get a specific event or/and object log information, we utilize log targets.
Digital signatures act as a verifiable seal or signature to confirm the authenticity of the sender and the integrity of the message. Users who wish to verify their identity when sending a protected message can encrypt the information with their private key.
The recipient can then decrypt the message with the sender’s public key in order to confirm the sender’s identity and the integrity of the message.
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True: log temp, the default location of log files, such as the system-wide default log.
It is done by setting up Event triggers. Event triggers perform actions only when triggered by a specified message ID or event code in this case the system goes up/down.
With this filter, it is possible to create a log target that collects only the results of the specified trigger action.
For example, to trigger the generation of an error report when a certain event occurs use the save error-report command and transfer to SMTP target format to send as an email alert.
Object filters allow only those log messages for specific objects to be written to the specific log target. Object filters are based on object classes.
With this filter, you can create a log target that collects only log messages generated by particular instances of the specified object classes.
Event Filter allows only those log messages that contain the configured event codes to be written to this log target. With this filter, it is possible to create a log target that collects only log messages for a specific set of event codes.
SMTP, forwards log entries as an email to the configured remote SNMP servers and email addresses. Before sending, the contents of the log can be encrypted or signed. The processing rate can be limited.
Cryptography is to protects private communication in the public world. For example, two entities wanting to communicate – Ajitab and Mulu – are shouting their messages in a room full of people.
Everyone can hear what they are saying. The goal of cryptography is to protect this communication so that only Ajitab and Mulu can understand the content of the messages.
We need cryptography to share information confidentially which is ensuring the secrecy of communication.
Authentication - Ajitab can sign his message and Mulu can verify that he sent it based on his signature
Integrity checking - Mulu can generate a checksum of the message. Ajitab can either extract it from the message or recalculate it and verify that the message has not been changed.
Non-repudiation - if Ajitab signs the message he cannot deny later that he sent it, because no one else could generate that same signature/private key.
Symmetric key cryptography:
Asymmetric cryptography –More secure!
Rotate, rotate the log file when the maximum size is reached. The appliance creates a copy of the file and starts a new file. The appliance retains the archived copies up to the specified number of rotations.
After reaching the maximum number of rotations and the log file reaches its maximum size, the appliance deletes the oldest file and copies the current file.
Upload, upload the log file when the maximum size is reached. The appliance uploads the file using the specified upload method.
Certificate authorities act as trusted third parties that verify the identity of the sender of an encrypted message and issue digital certificates as evidence of authorization.
These digital certificates contain the public key of the sender, which is then passed along to the intended recipient.
The Certificate authorities do extensive background checks before giving an organization or a given individual a certificate.
Triple DES - uses three individual keys with 56 bits each. The total key length adds up to 168 bits, but experts would argue that 112-bits in key strength is more like it.
RSA - is a public-key encryption algorithm and the standard for encrypting data sent over the internet.
AES - it is extremely efficient in 128-bit form, AES also uses keys of 192 and 256 bits for heavy-duty encryption purposes.
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The algorithm should be known to the public, but the key needs to be confidential
A trust store contains certificates from other parties that we expect to communicate with, or from Certificate Authorities that we trust to identify other parties.
For example, Google (chrome) contains certificates of many companies or websites. Whenever we browse that site the browser automatically checks the site for its certificate from the store and compares it.
If it is true, Google will add the ‘s’ on ‘HTTP’. That way we know that website is secured and trustworthy.
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