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The following are the differences between table and structure -
|The table can store data physically.||Structure can't store data physically.|
|The table can include a primary key.||Structure can't include the primary key.|
|A table can include the technical attributes.||Structure can't have a technical attribute.|
The presentation layer of SAP ABAP includes an input device. The SAP system is controlled by this presentation layer. The presentation can be a mobile phone or just a web browser. The process takes place with the help of the Application Server. This processing system has various instances in the Application server. A database layer is placed on another server and the application server communicates with this layer. This is done for security and performance purposes. In this way, all the layers communicate within the system right from the presentation to the database later.
The data dictionary is mainly used for describing the logic behind the structures of certain objects which are used for the development of ABAP 4. A data dictionary is mainly used in the development of such an application or programming language. The relational database is shown with the help of a data dictionary in tables.
Function Group and Function Module are said to belong together logically. Function groups are considered to be containers of the Function Modules.
The differences between Function Groups and Function Modules are as follows -
The same data can be accessed by various programs and Lock Objects which is a particular feature of ABAP that synchronizes the access to these data. Particular programs help in accessing the data records. Sometimes, inconsistencies appear when data gets inserted into the database and in order to avoid this, Lock Object is used.
The message ID gets specified right at the start of the program and this is available in the reported statement. Message command helps in displaying the message ID. Message-ID includes a 2-character code that helps in defining a total set of 1000 total messages and message command defines what sets are to be used in the program.
The following are the different kinds of messages which appear in the program system -
At the end of the internal table, a record gets added to the specific work area, and the Append statement helps in adding this record.
A record at a specific location gets added with the help of Insert Statement.
Technical Specifications consists of 5 contents -
1. Data Class
2. Buffering Permission
3. Size Category
5. Buffering Type
Different kinds of forms are created by Graphical design tool with the help of Smart Forms.
The pretty-printer is used to format the code of ABAP.
Transparent tables are the ones which has one to one relation to the table. The structure is also similar to the single database field. On the other hand, pool tables are the ones which have many to one relation to the table. Database level stores the pooled tables.
Batch Data Communications that is BDC is a type of procedure. This automatic procedure is mainly used for transferring large data into the SAP system. The main component of the transfer is known as the Queue file. This file gets hold of the data with the help of batch input programs. These programs and groups are associated with various sessions.
The data classes are divided into the following -
1. Master data - The data of this class rarely changes.
2. Transaction data - This type of data often changes.
3. Organization data - The data of this class also rarely changes. The data gets customized and gets entered into the configured system.
4. System data - R/3 system uses this data.
The data consistency is ensured by using a foreign key. The relationship must be defined explicitly. In order to ensure that no contradiction is there, the data which is entered must be checked. In a foreign key relationship, cardinality must be totally specified.
SAP R/3 mainly refers to the processing structure having three types of layers namely, the Presentation layer, the application layer, and the database layer. It is generally considered to be a Systems Application for the processing of data.
For the development of traditional programs in R/3, ABAP is used. On the other hand, OOABAP is used for the development of BSP/PCUI applications.
The word buffer here refers to the memory area. The information about the table is found on the application server and this is the meaning of table buffer. In fact, even the data of the database table actually comes from the application server. Cluster tables can't be buffeted but however, transparent and pool tables can be buffered.
The following steps must be followed to create a cluster table -
The main difference between Template and Table is that the former is dynamic in nature whereas the latter one is static in nature.
The resources of the applications of R/3 are managed with the help of SAP dispatcher which is basically a control agent.
The standard table of SAP can be modified mainly by two methods -
1. Customizing includes
2. Append structures
The following are the events associated with Screen Programming -
1. Process Before Output (PBO) - This event gets processed long before displaying the screen.
2. Process After Input (PAI) - This event is processed while the interaction of a user with the screen continues.
3. Process On Help (POH) - This even gets process on request by a user after pressing F1. The program gets appropriately coded in various event blocks. The present screen gets processed by the system.
4. Process On Value (POV) - This gets processed by pressing F4 by users. Here also, the coding can be done in the various event blocks.
The main events used for Logical Database are as follows -
1. GET - The programs used for Logical Database ads executed with the help of this event. It mainly takes place when a line from the node was read by the logical database. This has made it very much available towards the program and GET statements to determine the depth of the logical database.
2. PUT - The flow of the program is directed by the PUT event.
While writing the code of HR-ABAP, End of the selection event can be used. Right at the beginning of the skeleton event, the data gets retrieved. Printing of the same data is done at the end of the selection event.
ALV is the abbreviation of Application List Viewer. ALV functions are provided by SAP in order for enhancing the report output. These function modules help in improving the readability and the functionality of the output report. Even the columns can be arranged with the help of this tool.
A dialog program is considered to be a module pool program while a report is considered to be an executable program. The execution is mainly done through a transaction. Screens can be customized with the help of Dialog programming.
The following are the data dictionary objects -
4. Data Element
5. Search Helps or Matchcode Objects
6. Type Groups
7. Look Objects
8. Table Types
There are mainly two types of parameters -
1. Formal parameters - This is basically defined when the subroutine gets defined alongside the FORM statement.
2. Actual parameters - This is defined when the subroutine gets defined alongside the PERFORM statement.
These can be distinguished by distinguishing the functionality. The data are passed to the subroutines with the help of the Input parameters and data are passed from the subordinates with the help of output parameters.
The following are the different types of database integrities -
1. Semantic Integrity
2. Primary Key Integrity
3. Relational Integrity
4. Value Set Integrity
5. Operational Integrity
6. Foreign Key Integrity
ABAP memory is considered to be the memory area included in the ABAP program available in the internal section or the roll area of the ABAP program. Data is stored in the program calls which allow the data to be passed from one program calls to another.
It is possible for data to be passed from one session to another with the help of using SAP Memory. All the sessions of SAPgui have accused of the memory area known as SAP Memory. Data can be very easily transferred from one session of the programming system to another.
Function module exits will exist in some SAP application programs to allow a customer to add some functionality to the SAP program. Search the SAP application program globally looking for the following search string: “CALL CUSTOMER” to determine if an exit exists.
BADI stands for the Business add-in. BADI’s are a relatively new enhancement concept that makes use of ABAP Object technology. This is a truly object-oriented approach to SAP enhancements using classes, interfaces, and methods to implement the BADI
In order to enhance an SAP application program, the BADI must first be defined. The developer will create an interface for the BADI. An adapter class is created from this that will implement the interface. Developers will then create an instance of the adapter class in the SAP application program and create method calls as required.
Fig. 2: SE18 – BADI Maintenance
The first WRITE statement encountered in an ABAP program will trigger list processing. Upon completion of the program, the list is output. The system will generate some standard headings for list output that includes the program name and a page number in the heading.
There are 2 statements required in the ABAP program:
1. The INCLUDE or INCLUDE statement is required in the program.
2. The WRITE statement will have the following syntax: WRITE AS ICON.
The Include files contain the names of constants that represent all system-defined icons. contains only icons that are relevant for list processing while will contain all system-defined icons.
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