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Lock Objects and Function Modules
Q. What are the names of the function modules that will be generated upon activation of a lock object?
Prior to creating setting any locks in an ABAP program, a lock object must be created in the ABAP dictionary. When the lock object is created, the system will automatically generate the two function modules required for lock management.
- The first function module used to set locks is the ENQUEUE_. This function module is used to generate a lock entry in the lock table. If the lock cannot be set for any reason then this would be reflected in the return code.
- The second function module used to release locks is the DEQUEUE_. This function module will remove a lock entry from the lock table.
- These function modules are used to set and release locks in an ABAP program. The programmer simply performs the specific “CALL FUNCTION…” statement for each function module.
- These lock function modules are executed in a specific work process with the SAP system dedicated to lock management. This work process is run on a single server that maintains the central lock table for the entire SAP system.
There are two types of locks that can be set:
Shared lock – is a read only lock that prevents data from being changed while a user is reading it.
Exclusive lock – is a write lock that prevents data from being changed while a used is already modifying it.
Update function modules
Q. Update function modules are classified as either V1 or V2. Which type of update is performed first and in what mode (Asynchronously, Synchronously or locally) can each type be processed in?
V1 updates take priority over V2 updates and are therefore processed prior to V2 updates. V1 updates can be performed asynchronously, synchronously or locally. V2 updates always run asynchronously.
ABAP Memory Exchanging
Q. What two statements would be used to exchange data between programs using ABAP memory?
EXPORT to MEMORY ID will copy data to ABAP memory and IMPORT from MEMORY ID is used to copy the data from ABAP memory into a program.
- The data that is being exchanged via ABAP memory must be declared in the two programs involved with exactly the same data declarations.
Q. What are authorization objects and what statement is used to perform an authorization check in an ABAP program?
Authorization objects are composed of a grouping of fields. The values in these fields will be used in an authorization check.
- AUTHORITY-CHECK is the statement used in an ABAP program to perform an authorization check against an authorization object. In the AUTHORITY-CHECK statement, all fields of the object must be addressed or the keyword DUMMY is used to bypass checking on a field.
There can be a maximum of 10 fields defined on an authorization object.
Q. What is the definition of a modification in an SAP system and how do they impact an upgrade?
A modification is a change made by a customer to an SAP delivered repository object. Modifications must be reviewed during upgrade time to determine if the new SAP object should be used or if the modified object can still be used with or without further modifications.
Q. What is the Modification Assistant?
The modification assistant is a tool introduced in release 4.5 to simplify the upgrade process as it relates to modifications. The modification assistant can be triggered through the ABAP editor and it will assist in logging modifications for any changes that are made to the system.
- The modification assistant provides support for modification made through the ABAP Editor, Screen Painter, Menu Painter, text element maintenance, Function Builder and ABAP Dictionary.
Function Module Exit
Q. What statement will be found in an SAP application program that implements a function module exit?
Function module exits will exist in some SAP application programs to allow a customer to add some functionality to the SAP program. Search the SAP application program globally looking for the following search string: “CALL CUSTOMER” to determine if an exit exists.
Q. What is a transaction variant and why are they used?
A transaction variant is a set of screen variants that is used to predefine screen behavior and defaults. Fields, subscreens and full screens that may not be required by a user can be suppressed from that users view through the use of variant functionality. Default values can also be set for any input fields and fields can have the “ready for input” status revoked.
- A transaction variant can only be created for a dialog or reporting transaction and only normal, subscreen and dialog screens can be included in the variant.
- The GuiXT script language allows a developer to modify a screen through transaction variant maintenance providing more flexibility and power to the developer. Screen layouts can be modified by inserting buttons, value helps, moving objects, inserting screens and much more
Fig. 1: Transaction SHD0
Q. List some of the many different ways that the SAP standard functionality can be changed by a customer?
- The SAP standard can be changed through personalization, customizing, modifications, enhancements and custom ABAP programs developed by the customer development team. Examples of these different approaches for changing the standard are as follows:
Personalization techniques include creation of variants, set/get parameters and activity groups.
- Customizing is the most common way for changing the SAP standard through the use SAP tools such as the R/3 reference model and the Implementation Guide. Customizing could be considered mandatory in order to implement R/3 and is usually performed by the functional team.
- Enhancements are usually performed by the development team and include activities such as dictionary enhancements, function module exits, menu and screen exits and Business add-ins (BADI’s)
- Custom ABAP programs are developed for a wide variety of reasons and can work with standard SAP objects or custom developed objects.
- Modifications to SAP objects are strongly discouraged. All other techniques should be explored before modifying an SAP object. The SAP Software Change Registration SSCR) is a procedure for registering all manual modification to SAP objects.
Q. What are two different ways to add fields to SAP tables?
- An append structure or a customizing include can be used to add fields to a table. Append structures are created by adding fields to the end of a table while Customizing includes are specified by the SAP developer in advance to allow for the customer to create new fields.
Q. What is a BADI?
- BADI stands for Business add-in. BADI’s are a relatively new enhancement concept that make use of ABAP Object technology. This is a true object oriented approach to SAP enhancements using classes, interfaces and methods to implement the BADI
- In order to enhance a SAP application program, the BADI must first be defined. The developer will create an interface for the BADI. An adapter class is created from this that will implement the interface. Developers will then create an instance of the adapter class in the SAP application program and create method calls as required.
Fig. 2: SE18 – BADI Maintenance
Q. Explain the relationship between a functional area, user group and query when developing queries using the SAP Query tool?
- Functional areas and user groups are organizational elements used in SAP Query that must first be created in order to user the query environment.
- The data that a query will be based on is defined in a functional area. A functional area is typically - based on a logical database but can be any table and fields within that table.
- Users are assigned to user groups. Functional areas are also assigned for the user group allowing users to create and start queries based on the data in that functional area. Multiple functional areas can be assigned to a user group and a functional area can be assigned to several different groups.
Q. What ABAP statement will trigger list generation?
The first WRITE statement encountered in an ABAP program will trigger list processing. Upon completion of the program, the list is output. The system will generate some standard headings for list output that includes the program name and a page number in the heading.
Output an Icon
Q. What two statements are required in an ABAP program to output an icon using a write statement?
- There are 2 statements required in the ABAP program:
The INCLUDE or INCLUDE statement is required in the program.
The WRITE statement will have the following syntax: WRITE AS ICON.
The Include files contain the names of constants that represent all system defined icons. contains only icons that are relevant for list processing while will contain all system defined icons.
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