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‘Period Based Accounting’ is Accrual Accounting and ‘Cost of Sales’ is ‘Cost of Goods Sold’ Accounting.
Period based Accounting
“Period based” means that during the month or period, all and only actual events/transactions are posted in the appropriate period. At the end of the period estimated accruals and deferrals are made and posted to that posting period to give a more accurate view of profit. IE any expected revenues and expenditures that should relate to the current period are accrued for and equally any prepaid expenses or revenues are deferred to the next period. (Accruals and Deferrals are posted temporarily, usually to special accounts, and reversed prior to the next period's end.)
These accruals and deferrals are usually done at a fairly high level of summarization (eg: at company or business area). The FI Ledgers and financial statements etc are always period-based.
Cost of Sales Accounting
Cost of Sales in SAP means that we attempt to record or rather report the “costs of sales” against the actual sale at as low a level as possible and during the period. (In CO-PA this is down to a transaction level.) This enables the company to get a reasonably accurate view of profitability on a real-time basis.
This is done by using either standards or estimates for many of the components that make up the “cost of goods sold”. Any variations from the standards are usually posted through to the cost of sales system either at month-end or when they occur.
For example A product cost estimate might be used to calculate and post a manufactured cost through to CO-PA when every sale goes through. The actual production order variances from the product cost estimate can then be settled to a separate line in CO-PA. This has the benefits that a reasonably accurate gross profit could be reported in real-time at a transaction level and of course therefore at all the characteristic levels in CO-PA.
The impact of any abnormal variances in production can quite clearly be seen and analyzed separately from the normal profitability of a product.
The normal SD document flow is as follows:
Thorough Assessments. Allocates costs from cost centers to profitability segments.
Through Account assignment model OKB9. Automatic postings created in materials management can be passed on to CO-PA by means of automatic account assignment to a profitability segment.
Through Production Variances. It Posts variances from the production (product cost) estimates or standards to the GL accounts and to Profitability Analysis if real costs are required (vs standard costs). Standard cost figures would have been used to update Stock and Cost of Goods sold figures when the finished stock was issued from the production runs.
Value Field Groups represent the possible combinations of value fields in an operating concern. Value field groups are used to specify:
You plan your data for the characteristics of the Product, Product group, and Customer group. You define three planning levels for which planning data is to be entered: Customer group/product group (independent of the product), product/product group(independent of the customer group), and product/product group/customer group(the lowest, most detailed level). By using transaction-based top-down distribution, you can ensure that all planning data is saved at the lowest level
Characteristics are aspects on which we want to break down the profit logically such as
Predefined characteristic fields in the SAP R/3 system, which are obvious, are known as fixed characteristic fields such as product, sales org, and customer
Up to 50 non-fixed characteristics can be added to an operating concern. E.g. Bill-to-party
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