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1. Possible Agents
a) Users who are authorized to execute the task
b) Configured during Task definition (Org Unit, Position, User, Work Center, Role, Rule)
c) If a Task is configured as General Task, then all users become possible users.
2. Responsible Agents
a) The users to whom the work item needs to be sent.
b) This is set during Step definition. Note that Possible agents are defined during Task definition. (Org Unit, Position, User, Work Center, Role, Rule, Container Element)
Note: The work item recipients is determined by the intersection of Possible Agents and Responsible Agents.
3. Actual Agents: Actual user who executed the dialogue task
4.Excluded Agents: Users who are not supposed to execute the dialogue task (even if they are in possible agents)
1. Rule Resolution with responsibility: Helpful when a set of static positions are responsible for an action.
2. Rule resolution with Function (FM): Helpful when agents are determined dynamically from business logic.
3. Rule resolution with OM: Usually used in CRM. Have not used
4. Rule resolution with Function, but asynchronously: This is through a class and a method. Initially, WI is created in status ready without an agent. The later agent is assigned. This is suitable for agent determination having complex logic.
Users: Rarely used.
Role: Ex: ABAP_DEVELOPER
OM objects (Position, Org Unit, work center)
Expression: A container element containing the agents.
Rule Container: For resolving rules
Database: Automatically gets populated by system code
Virtual: You determine the content and use SWC_SET_CONTAINER to populate
Methods: Can be created using FM, Transaction, Report, Dialog Module, Other
Synchronous: Finish execution before handling the control back to the task.
Asynchronous: Return the control back immediately. Cannot have export parameters. They depend on events to return results back to the calling program.
Dialogue: Something to user
Background: Cannot have messages or exceptions
4. Dialogue Module
6. Other (BO program)
1. Got SWO1 and enter a BO that you want to extend. Click on ‘New Subtype’ Give all the details.
2. Go back to SW01, enter the BO, and go to Settings Delegate.
BUS2012: Purchase Order,
Various status of BO
Modeled: Not accessible at runtime
Implemented: Not ready to be used, Internal use only
Released: For the customer to use
Obsolete: Don’t use any more
To change attribute values from methods of a BO
HR Tables: SWEHR2/3
ABAP Code user Exit: SWE_EVENT_CREATE
Change Document: SWEC
Event Linkage: SWE2
Subtype: Key field cannot be created. Methods and attributes can be created.
Delegate: If you want to change the functionality of a method, define a subtype, redefine the method, delegate the parent business object to child object.
Interface: Interface is a combination of Attributes, Methods, and Events, to reduce the redundancy in the definition.
IFSAP: Common interface for all BOs. It has the following methods
Method: Existence Check
2. Multiple Conditions:
3. Until Loop:
5. Send Mail:
6. Container Operations:
7. Event Creator:
8. Wait Event:
9. Process Control
Requested Start: When this date is met, only then the work item will start execution, or available for taking action (dialogue).
Latest Start: When a date mentioned here is met, it can send an email, or can be modeled to do something active.
Requested End: Same as Latest Start
Latest End: Same as Latest Start
Workflow Toolbox: SWUS
Simulate Event: SWU0
Business Object Repository: SW01
Event Trace: SWEL (S)
Work items per task: SWI2_FREQ
SWUE: Event simulate
SWEL: Event log
SWELS: Set event log ON
SWE2: Linkage between Event and Workflow
SWEHR2: Event linkage in HR
SWU3: Workflow customizing
SWU_OBUF: Synchronize buffers
SWI5: Look into other user’s SBWP
SWWDHEX – For deadline monitoring
SWWERRE – For error Monitoring
SWEQSRV – For Event Queue Delivery
Function Module that creates the workflow
Ans: Tcode SWEHR2
Ans: Tcode SWEHR2
There are three ways parallel processing can be implemented
Dynamic parallel processing using a multi-line container element
Fork (3 out of 5) Work Queue
In dynamic processing, the type of each entry in the table has to be of the same type.
The same task will be processed for each line of the multi-line container. It can be a dialogue or background task. Deadline monitoring, binding, agent determination will be the same for each work item generated To achieve, go to “Miscellaneous” in the activity, and enter the multi-line container element.
Ans: Mark the priority as ‘1’ Express
1. If it is a dialogue task, you can set a breakpoint in the method called by the task
2. If it is a method that you want to debug, use SWO1, and create an instance of the object and debug the methods
3. If it is a background task, and you are in development client, you can do the following. Create an infinite loop in the method you want to debug. Go to SM50 (processes overview) and select the relevant item, and select debug from the option.
Ans: Enable the event queue. It will ensure that triggered events are received in a phased manner. This needs to be done while providing event linkages.
‘Process Control’ is used to manipulate another work item of the workflow during runtime.
‘Process Control’ is usually used to model the workflow when deadlines are reached. SAP offers 4 standard behaviors as part of process control.
1. Cancel Work item: Target WI is logically deleted. Subsequent tasks are not executed. The precondition is that Process control and the target WI have to be in different branches of the same fork.
2. Set Work item to obsolete: The target WI is set to complete, and processing continues in the branch processing obsolete.
3. Cancel Workflow: Current workflow is set to ‘Complete’. If this is the sub workflow, then the control goes to the super-ordinate workflow.
4. Complete (terminate) Workflow: Same as above, but the branch of super-ordinate workflow which contains the current sub-workflow will not be continued.
5. Cancel Workflow including all callers: Same as above, but all callers also will be ‘COMPLETE’d.
Portal config file for UWL
Dialog Work item – W
Background work item
Workflow work item
Work queue work item
Missed deadline work item: When a deadline is missed a missed deadline work item with the message appears in the inbox
4. In process
5. Executed (‘confirm the end of processing’ in task definition)
7. Logically deleted
Ans: A work item created as part of synchronous in locked until the end of the method execution. But in asynchronous, work item is locked only until the start of method execution.
At least one terminating event is required for a task using Asynchronous task
1. A modal call
2. Before work item executing
3. After work item execution
Ans: EXTSRV –> PROCESS
Ans: If this indicator is set for an activity, workflow system checks if the processor of the current task is also a recipient for the next task. If yes, then the next task will be executed immediately.
2. Execute the Txn SWDD (Creating a new Workflow).
3. In the header of the Workflow, define the Business Object and Event you refer to for triggering the Wf.
4. Create the Steps required for your workflow(Activity).
5. Inside the Activity, Create the task and assign the Business Object and the related method for that business object.
6. Activate the Workflow.
Ans: The Main Transaction Code Involved in Performance Tuning is SE30-Run Time Analysis and ST05-SQL Tracer.
1. Group by clause is used to fetch the data from the table by the specified field
2. ex.select count (*) from emp table group by deptno where deptno = 1.
3. It is used to find the number of employees present in the specified department no.
1. we can develop it by giving the code in PBO (process before output) giving table control line = 3. it will give only 3 lines and we can make 2 lines disable in screen painter options available in table control
2. Elementary search helps, Collective search help.
3. Elementary search helps defines a search path where we will define the table from which the data has to be read and the selection criteria. Through import and export parameters. Used when we get the data from a single table.
4. Collective search helps: Combination of elementary search helps. When we need to fetch data based on multiple selection criteria’s. More than one tables are Selection from multiple tables
5. Difference between Search Helps and Match Codes
6. search help: adding f4 functionality is search help(adding help for any topic)
7. match code: adding search help for the input field is called a math code object
Ans: YES, IF WE HAVE CUSTOMISED DATA TO STORE IN TABLE, WE CREATE A TABLE.
1. Tables which can be accessed by all user are client independent (no mandt field in the table)
2. Tables which can be accessed by some specific user are client dependent (use mandt field in the table)
1. The table in which the first field is not mandt is the client independent tables
2. mandt is the field with mandt as the data element
3. Automatically client which we log in is populated to mandt
Ans: At the time of creating table though, there is a checkbox for table maintenance allowed. So if you want to activate the table maintenance, just mark this box. Once table gets activated, u can change its contents through SM30 not Through Table Maintenance.
Ans: The Default method of the object type is executed if space is passed as the method parameter value. You can find the default method by viewing the applicable object using transaction SWO1 and going to the menu option “Goto -> Basic Data” and clicking on the Defaults tab. The default method is located in the field “Method”
1. SWETYPECOU – Type Linkage Table
2. SWEINSTCOU – Instance Linkage Table
1. Workflow provides numerous advantages to SAP users and consultants:
2. It allows consultants to create new business processes without modifying the standard SAP code.
3. Workflow ensures that the tasks are executed in the correct sequential order, involving the relevant personnel.
4. SAP Business Workflow may be run through the internet or intranet web applications via the Webflow Engine.
5. Deadline Monitoring functionality is also incorporated within the SAP Workflow.
6. The timely execution of activities is guaranteed even when a number of parties (users) are involved.
7. Workflow reduces both the time and expense involved in managing business activities.
If started by an event:
1. Run SWU_OBUF and check transaction SWU3 for problems.
2. Check that the linkage between the event and the workflow exists in transaction SWE2 and is activated.
3. Check transaction SWEL to see if the event was created/gets created (may need transaction SWELS to turn SWEL on).
4. Test if creating the event manually in SWUE triggers the workflow.
5. Check if there is a start condition that isn’t being satisfied.
6. Check if the event is in a queue (if event queueing is turned on, see transaction SWEQADM)
7. Check WF-BATCH in transaction SU01, see if all is well (e.g. password not expired)
If started directly (e.g. with function module SAP_WAPI_START_WORKFLOW; not recommended if it can be avoided):
1. Run SWU_OBUF and check SWU3 for problems
2. Check if the workflow has been set to General Task
1. A work item is a runtime object generated by a step within a workflow. Whenever user interaction is required, the respective users are informed via work items. These work items will be received by the user in their Business Workplace inbox or other email application such as Microsoft Outlook&rights;
2. The work item may be a user decision or a dialogue form that allow you to enter data for starting a process within SAP, or a confirmation of whether a particular task may be performed. The user then chooses an appropriate option which determines the subsequent behavior of the workflow in question. There are a variety of applicable work items. Each work item has a status reflecting the stage of processing at any given point in time.
3. A work item comprises of text explaining what action needs to be taken, whom to refer to and any information pertinent to the business object involved.
4. Unlike simple SAP office emails, work items are active entities, as they determine the subsequent direction of the workflow. SAP office emails can also be deleted from the inbox without viewing them whereas a work item has to be executed to have it removed from your inbox
Ans: A background work item (code B) represents tasks that do not require any user interaction. They are controlled and executed automatically by the workflow system and do not appear in the Business Workplace. However, you may view them using the Work Item Selection Report.
Ans: No. What you can do is restart the workflow using SWUE. This will be the same as recreating the workflow because it will start at the point where it has logically been deleted.
Ans: You can accomplish this by setting up the work item priority to the highest level.
You may consider using deadline monitoring facilities. For example:
Requested start, requested end; Latest start or latest end on tasks;
1. SWUS: Workflow Toolbox
2. SWU0: Simulate Event
3. SWI2_FREQ: Workitems per task
4. SWUE: Event simulate
5. SWELS: Set event log ON
6. SWEHR2: Event linkage in HR
7. SWU3: Workflow customizing
8. SWU_OBUF: Synchronize buffers
9. SWI5: Look into other user’s SBWP
10. SWDD: Workflow builder
11. SWLD: SAP workflow easy access to all workflow related transactions
12. SW01: Maintain Business objects (add new attributes, methods, events, etc to standard business objects)
13. SWE2: Active event linkages, addition options not available by SWDD such as setting check function module.
14. SWWL_TOPLEVEL: Delete workflow items from SBWP.
15. SWELLS: Start/ stop event trace
16. SWEL: View event trace report
17. SWUD: Workflow diagnosis
18. SWI2_DIAG: Troubleshoot workflows in error, restart
19. SWIA: Workflow administrator
20. SWB_COND: Maintain workflow start condition (has pretty pics but is especially rubbish, everything can be done easier via SWDD
21. SWNCONFIG: Send emails to the user with unread work items
22. SWEC: Trigger workflow on change doc
23. SWAY: Workflow wizard for message long text
24. SBWP: Business workplace
25. PFTC: Maintain (change, display, copy) WF objects including tasks, workflow templates…
26. PFAC: Maintain Rules for workflow steps (can include ABAP code)
27. SM63: Events
28. SWI1: Work item selection
29. SWI2_DEAD: Workflow items with the monitored deadline (items that missed the deadline)
30. SWI2_DURA: Workflow items by processing duration.