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An Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a collection of strategic information that describes a business and the information and technologies necessary to operate the business. This includes descriptions of goals, business processes, roles, organizational structures, information, applications and systems.
Enterprise Architecture encapsulates the information necessary to implement new technologies in response to the changing needs of the business.
EA is often broken down into four domains: business, application, data and technology architecture.
Enterprise Architecture is a strategic information asset to be used to shape the Enterprise.
It is key to understanding the current investment in IT and efficiently planning and directing future IT investments.
Enterprise Architecture is a tool for identifying opportunities to improve key Enterprise metrics related to things like operational efficiency, IT costs and customer satisfaction.
Enterprise Architecture helps achieve enterprise alignment, manage change, and reduce time-to-market.
The Zachman Framework is a framework for Enterprise Architecture developed by IBM in the 1980s.
It provides a way of defining an enterprise according to a 6×6 matrix of architecture documentation. The columns of this matrix ask the questions why, how, what, who, where, when. The rows look at these questions from different levels of detail: contextual, conceptual, logical, physical and detailed.
The Zachman Framework provides a view for Planners, Owners, Designers, Builders and Subcontractors. The basic idea is that the same thing can be described for different purposes in different ways. This creates a holistic view ? it allows different people to look at the Enterprise from different perspectives.
The Zachman Framework has been incorporated into many Enterprise Architecture frameworks. (often as a reference model)
The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is a framework for enterprise architecture. It provides a comprehensive approach to the design, planning, implementation, and governance of an enterprise architecture.
TOGAF models the enterprise at four levels: Business, Application, Data, and Technology.
TOGAF includes a methodology for defining IT in terms of a set of building blocks. It also contains a set of tools, a vocabulary, recommended standards and list of TOGAF compliant tools.
TOGAF includes a iterative process for enterprise architecture called Architecture Development Method (ADM).
An EA Roadmap describes a current and target architecture and a transition plan to achieve the target state.
An EA Roadmap should include the business, application, data and technical architecture for each state.
The Roadmap lists the projects required to implement the proposed architecture. This should include project prioritization, risks and issues, migration strategy, estimated costs, success factors and project measurements.
It is important to engage projects during the initiation phase to ensure that architecture compliance processes are included in the project planning.
Once the solution architecture has been defined a compliance assessment should be performed. The compliance assessment ensures the project conforms to the defined Enterprise Architecture. It is also an opportunity to engage project members and get feedback for the Enterprise Architecture.
The compliance assessment includes checklists for hardware, software, applications, information, security, system management and methods and tools. It also documents an overview of the project architecture / design.
SOA is a set of design principles for building a suite of interoperable, flexible and reusable services. These design principles include discoverable service contract, loose coupling, service abstraction, service reusability, service autonomy, service statelessness and service composability.
A successful SOA implementation can reduce IT costs by increasing reusability. SOA’s flexible mesh of services can also reduce time to market. SOA also helps to leverage existing investments by wrapping legacy applications in a mesh of reusable services.
Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a set of best practices for IT service management, development and operations.
ITIL gives detailed descriptions of a number of important IT concepts and includes checklists, tasks and procedures that can be tailored for any enterprise.
Some major areas ITIL covers are:
1. Service Support
2 .Service Delivery
3 .ICT Infrastructure Management
4. Security Management
5. Application Management
6. Software Asset Management
In the Service Support area ITIL covers processes such as Service Desk, Incident and Problem Management, Change Management, Release and Configuration Management.
In the Service Delivery area ITIL covers processes such as Service Level Management, Capacity Management and Service Continuity management.
SOA design patterns are reusable solutions to a commonly occurring SOA design problems.
Some common SOA patterns include:
Enterprise Service Bus – A tool that fosters service communication by providing reliable messaging, message queuing, data transformations and service broker functionality.
File Gateway – A file gateway is placed between a service and legacy flat file. The gateway acts as a mediator and can perform data transformations.
Event Driven Messaging – The service notifies its consumers of relevant events with messages.
Service Callback – A service requires that consumers communicate with it asynchronously. Consumers provide a callback address to which the service can send response messages.
Service Grid – Service state is stored on a grid of services that support replication and redundancy.
The Architecture Vision is created during the project initiation phase of a project. The purpose of the vision is to agree from the start what the desired outcome should be for the architecture.
The Architecture Vision is the enterprise architect’s elevator pitch. It needs to simply and powerfully sell the benefits of the proposed architecture to decision-makers. It also needs to show how the proposed architecture will support business goals and strategy and stakeholder concerns and objectives.
Typical contents of an Architecture Vision are:
1. Problem description
3. Process descriptions
4. Roles and actors
6. IT principles
7. Architecture overview
8. Mapping of the proposed architecture to processes and requirements
The inputs to the Migration Planning phase include: Architecture reference materials Requests for Architecture Work Capability Assessment Communications Plan Organizational Model for Enterprise Architecture Governance models and frameworks Tailored Architecture Framework Statement of Architecture Work Architecture Vision Architecture Repository Draft Architecture Definition Document Draft Architecture Requirements Specification Change Requests Consolidated Architecture Roadmap Transition Architectures Implementation and Migration Plan
The definition of architecture from ISO/IEC 42010:2007 is:The fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution.TOGAF supports this definition by remaining consistent with the terminology of the ISO/IEC 42010:2007 but views the meaning of architecture differently based on the context used. For TOGAF, architectures are: A formal description of a system, or detailed plan of a system at the component level for guiding implementation.
The structure of components, their relationships to each other, and the principles and guidelines underlining there design and evolution over time.
The output of the requirements management process consists of: Requirements Impact Assessment Updated Architecture Requirements Specification Updated Requirements Repository
The contents of the Transition Architecture are: Opportunity portfolio Work package portfolio Milestones Implementation Factor Assessment and Deduction Matrix Consolidated Gaps, Solutions, and Dependencies Matrix
Principles can be applied to the enterprise by: Providing a framework to make conscious decisions about IT Establishing relevant evaluation criteria Driving the definitions for functional requirements of the architecture Providing input to assess existing IS/IT systems and future strategic portfolios Highlight the value of the architecture specifically through the Rationale statements Providing an outline of the key tasks, resources, and potential costs specifically through the Implication statements Supporting architecture governance by providing a stake to allow interpretation in compliance assessments and supporting the decision to initiate a dispensation requestPrinciples are related to each other and are applied as a set. In some cases, one principle will take precedence over another principle to meet certain situations.
The Preliminary Phase prepares the organization for development of the architecture, ensuring: Commitment to the process Principles and constraints are defined Scope and assumptions are defined Development team is established Framework and methodologies identified Criteria set
There are several terms to concepts related to views: System – a collection of components intended to provide a specific function or set of functions.
Architecture – the systems fundamental organization of components, their relationships to each other, and the principles guiding design and growth.
Architecture description – a collection of artifacts that document architecture.
Stakeholders – people or groups you have key roles and concerns in the system.
Concerns – the key interests of the stakeholders, which determine the acceptability of the system in the environment.
View – a representation of the whole system form the perspective of a set of concerns.
Viewpoint – the perspective from which a view constructed and used.
Security related activities within the Technology Architecture phase of the ADM are: Assessing the security-specific architecture elements for a baseline perspective Revising assumptions about interconnecting systems Identifying and evaluating applicable guidelines and standards Identifying methods for regulating resource consumption Engineering a method for continuously measuring and communicating security measures Identifying the clearance level of users, administrators, and interconnecting systems Identifying minimal privileges required to achieve a technical or business objectives Identifying mitigating security measures Performing threat analysis
Working with TOGAF and the Zachman Framework has always been said to be comparable to the Periodic Table.
This is because like the atoms that can be found in a periodic table, the same atoms are also the building blocks of the cells which can be found in the Zachman Framework – only this time, the building blocks are used in supporting enterprises.
In the framework, one will find many columns that really do have no logical order of importance.
Instead, they serve as somewhat unique abstractions of the actual enterprise itself.
This is done in order to reduce what complexity there may be in the different models that are built around it.
The cell models, or the primitive models, are present such that there can only be one variable.
John Zachman says that these primitive models are highly important in order for the reusability of the enterprise itself.
Also, the commonalities which can be found in the enterprise are such that the primitive models can also be considered as one of the elements of architecture.
The astounding detail that is involved in the Zachman Framework is very impressive.
Not a single cell becomes the sole property of one detail or one row, as all work to make things highly functional.
The great thing about this is that it gets to ensure the alignment of the different intentions of all owners of the enterprise, which can then be best represented by the second row of such a framework and everything that was implemented as a requirement to building the enterprise itself.
There are people scratching their heads on what ;The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) signifies.
And while TOGAF is generally known to the people in its industry, the very concept of it makes it something that is worth knowing even if that person is not part of that industry.TOGAF for everyone’s information needs is an existing framework that is meant for Enterprise Architecture, which involves the providing of comprehensive approaches to design, implementation and planning of an enterprise information based on architecture.
Along with these, it is also involved in its governance, which is vital in keeping the enterprise abreast with the changes and developments in the industry.This is where TOGAF comes in.
It is a necessary framework provides the users detailed methods as well as supporting tools for improving and developing both IT and Enterprise Architecture.
And of course, there are many types of architecture frameworks available today, but TOGAF is simply most unique of these as it has within it a very important method for developing architecture.
And this is the Architecture Development Method (ADM), which is something only available in TOGAF.
In fact, ADM can be utilized to suit other frameworks, which basically makes it very flexible to use.
In this, TOGAF is simply is the crowning glory of The Open Group’s Architecture Forum, which was conceptualized through practice.
Apart from ADM, another factor that makes TOGAF a better architecture framework is that it is non-proprietary, and therefore free for anyone to utilize in their various architecture framework needs.
In TOGAF, there is a term solely referred to as TRM, which corresponds to the many, and yet different IT architectures frameworks that could be derived from the use of TOGAF.
Of course, these TRM can differ from others because of its dependence on the power and requirements of the IT, though there are cases when the differences can be very minimal.In reference to the differences, it must always be understood that no architecture is the same with another, though its principles may be the same, even remotely, there will still be many requirements to be wary about.
Remember that in building architecture, the people using TOGAF should always, as a rule, make assessments and projections on the requirements of their task.
With these projections, they can now select the interfaces and services that will in the end result to workable and satisfying results.
Aside from these, careful examination of the standards required by the work will also aid in creating an atmosphere that is best in line with the needs of their business.In speaking of TRM, it basically recognizes at least two categories in the application software.
The first one is the Business Applications, which is the one who implements the business processes of the vertical industry, and in doing so, it ultimately becomes the an essential factor to consider in application software configuration.The second of the two is the Infrastructure Applications.
This application aids the user through a process of providing them functionalities that are grounded on the values and principles of Infrastructure services.
The Open Group has introduced the TOGAF certification program to enable architecture service providers and tools vendors demonstrate that their products and services support the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM).
A method used in agreement with all major frameworks.The TOGAF Certification ensures customers that TOGAF based product and service offerings are safe, as professional care has been performed to supply commercially these products and services in the market.
A Statement of Conformance is provided to customers for them to compare freely the product and services to other certified vendors.
In the US Federal Enterprise Architecture organization, section, and resolution design supply dissimilar trade views by means of changing the layer of particular and addressing associated but clearly different worries. Just like businesses are themself hierarchically arranged, thus are the dissimilar perspectives presented by means of any sort of design.
The Federal Enterprise Architecture Practice Guidance (2006) has described 3 kinds of architecture: Enterprise design, Segment design, and Solution design.
By description, Enterprise Architecture (EA) is basically worried with recognizing commonplace either split resources – if they are strategic plans, trade actions, ventures, information, structures, either technologies.
EA is moved by means of strategy; it assists an organization recognize if its assets are correctly lined up to the organization assignment and strategical objectives and aims. From an speculation outlook, EA is applied to drive resolutions regarding the IT speculation Portfolio as a whole. Consequently, the main investors of the EA are the older administrators and top-managers tasked with making sure the organization answers its assignment as successfully and productively like feasible.
By juxtaposition, section design describes a straightforward roadmap for a central assignment zone, trade facility, either organization facility. Segment design is moved by means of trade administration and provides articles that better the conveyance of facilities to subjects and organization workforce. From an speculation outlook, section design drives resolutions for a trade instance either cluster of trade instances helping a central assignment zone either commonplace either split facility.
The main investors for section design are trade holders and administrators. Segment design is associated to EA via 3 principles: construction, recycle, and orientation.
First, section design inherits the model applied by means of the EA, albeit it might be enlarged and specific to encounter the concrete wants of a central assignment zone either commonplace either split facility.
Second, section design reuses essential resources described at the organization layer including: data; commonplace trade actions and investments; and applications and technologies.
Third, section design aligns with components described at the organization layer, such like trade strategic plans, orders, norms, and performance actions.
EA is a implement, it is a organized means of sensing at what you do, in what way you do it, and how your implements aid that.
In numerous instances you will notice that EA stops up being ‘shelfware’ if you do not have a clear apparition of what you are attempting to undertake. There’s normally thus a lot action moving On in an business that it is solid to create good sense of how it altogether catenates, and EA architectures (DODAF, FEA, TOGAF, etc) aid you do that. However, if you exactly do an design since you consider you have to (e.g. To please Clinger-Cohen requirements), additionally it is exactly an activity in causing perspectives with no actual aim. We noticed in our engagements that if you center on responding to a concrete query either demand for the business, you get a lot improved information and outcomes, and folks really perceive the worth of generating and keeping an EA for the business. An design is solely like high-quality like the information that state it, and the solely means to hold that information present is to have the folks whoever possess it aid hold it present. They will not do that except if they perceive some actual worth in undertaking so, concrete items like recording what concrete actions are maintained by means of IT structures thus that if somewhat breaks you understand precisely who’s hit and can triage recapture activities. Once folks perceive the worth and hold the information present, additionally you can employ that information for strategical organizing and different greater size systematic computational analysis of data or statistics (gap/overlap examination, time to come state way charts, etc). Bottom line – EA is nevertheless exactly a implement applied to reply compound queries. If you do not understand what the query is, it will not do you whatever high-quality.
In the area of contriving, a further common shape of organization contriving has appeared.
Encompassing ‘The program of understanding, truths, and areas associated to the examination, planning, execution and running of altogether components related with an organization.
In being this is an interdisciplinary area that merges structures contriving and strategical administration as it searches for to engineer the whole organization in specifications of the articles, actions and trade transactions,’. This area is associated to contriving administration, transactions administration, facility administration and structures contriving.
In the circumstances of code creation, a concrete area of organization contriving has as well emerged that ‘deals with the modelling and incorporation of different organisational and technological components of trade procedure and functionses’. In the circumstances of data systems creation, this has come to be an zone of activity for the business of structures examination, and an addition to the existent range of Information Modelling.
It can as well be seen like an addition and concept of the structures examination and structures planning stages of the code creation procedure.
Here, organization modelling may shape bit of the first, central and belated data configuration creation living sequence.
Explicit portrayal of the organisational and technological configuration basic organization is being elaborated in line to comprehend the antiseptic transformations of existent work applications.
This area is as well familiar like Enterprise design, either alongside with Enterprise Ontology, described like being 1 of the 2 important sub-fields of Enterprise design.
Primarily taking in construction and severity in developing/maintaining organization applications
Zachman is basically a classification somewhat compared to an EA model. You filler in the packs by means of generating the befitting support documents,so it produces a NIC echeck catalog. I notice Zachman further practical for information programs compared to different kinds of EA evaluation actions. It plays well with numerous different EA architectures, like TOGAF (especially eversince TOGAF does not define a taxonomy).
The EA apparition either assignment declaration ought to actually be equal to that of the organization its normal self. Describing the design of an organization seeks firstly to improve the success either effectiveness of the trade its normal self.
This includes innovations in the construction of an business, the centralisation or federation of trade actions, the quality and promptness of business information, either making sure that funds consumed on data technics (IT) may be acceptable.
<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_architecture" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_architecture</a>
The most essential ability for a trade Analyst is information exchange. This is since a trade Analyst behaves as a organizer amid investors in quantities of dissimilar parts, and straddles the business/technology split. It’s as well essential to have a definite quantity of understanding in sections external of trade examination its normal self. This contains program administration, change administration, organization design, SDLC and trade procedure modelling.
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