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Build and Release Engineer Interview Questions

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Build and Release Engineer Interview Questions

Build And Release Engineer Interview Questions And Answers 2020. Here Mindmajix presenting Software Configuration Management (SCM) interview questions. These build engineer questions were asked in various companies and prepared by experts. This list will help you to crack your next SCM job interview. Learn Now!

What are the top Build And Release Engineer Interview Questions?

  1. What do you know about Software Configuration Management?
  2. What are the goals of SCM? Why do we use Software Configuration Management?
  3. Why do we need Software Configuration Management?
  4. What are the advantages of Software Configuration Management?
  5. What is Continuous Integration?
  6. What are the configuration management tools?
  7. What are different version control tools?
  8. What are different continuous tools?
  9. What is meant by build automation?
  10. What are the different build automation tools?

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1) What do you know about Software Configuration Management?

Ans: Software configuration management (SCM or S/W CM) is the task of tracking and controlling changes in the software, part of the larger cross-disciplinary field of configuration management. SCM practices include revision control and the establishment of baselines.

2) What are the goals of SCM? Why do we use Software Configuration Management?

Ans: We can achieve various goals using SCM, they are:

Configuration identification - Identifying configurations, configuration items and baselines.

Configuration control - Implementing a controlled change process. This is usually achieved by setting up a change control board whose primary function is to approve or reject all change requests that are sent against any baseline.

Configuration status accounting - Recording and reporting all the necessary information on the status of the development process.

Configuration auditing - Ensuring that configurations contain all their intended parts and are sound with respect to their specifying documents, including requirements, architectural specifications and user manuals.

Build management - Managing the process and tools used for builds.

Process management - Ensuring adherence to the organization's development process.

Environment management - Managing the software and hardware that host the system.

Teamwork - Facilitate team interactions related to the process.

Defect tracking - Making sure every defect has traceability back to the source.

3) Why do we need Software Configuration Management?

Ans:  Configuration Management focuses on establishing and maintaining, the consistency of a system or product throughout its lifetime. CM is a collection of competencies, techniques, and tools whose purpose is to ensure the consistency of the system's requirements, functional attributes and physical properties

4) What are the advantages of Software Configuration Management?

Ans:  The advantages of software configuration management (SCM) are:

  • It reduces redundant work
  • It effectively manages simultaneous updates
  • It avoids configuration-related problems
  • It simplifies coordination between team members
  • It is helpful in tracking defects

5) What is Continuous Integration?

Ans: Continuous Integration (CI) is the process of automating the build and testing of code every time a team member commits changes to version control.



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6) What are the configuration management tools?

Ans:  There are various configuration management tools available in the market but the main CM tools are:

Chef - Chef is one of the most popular SCM tools. It is basically a framework for infrastructure development. It provides support and packages for framing one's infrastructure as code.

Puppet - Puppet was first introduced in 2005 as an open-source configuration management tool. It is written in Ruby. This CM system allows defining the state of the IT infrastructure, and then automatically enforces the correct state.

CFEngine - CFEngine is one of the most popular open-source and fully distributed CM systems and provides automated configuration compute resources. 

Ansible - Ansible is an open-source platform for CM, orchestration and deployment of computing resources.

Juju - Juju is an open-source configuration management and orchestration management tool. It enables applications to be deployed, integrated and scaled on various types of cloud platforms faster and more efficiently.

SaltStack - SaltStack is an open-source multitasking CM and remote execution tool. It has a Python-based approach to represent infrastructure as a code philosophy. 

Vagrant - Vagrant is an open-source CM tool for building and managing easy-to-configure, reproducible and portable virtual development environments.

Docker - Since launching back in 2013, this industry newbie has taken the DevOps and software development world by storm. The key to Docker's success is its lightweight containerization technology.

Rudder - Rudder is an open-source CM tool for managing IT infrastructures. It is written in Scala and works on top of the CFEngine. 

7) What are different version control tools?

Ans:  Version control tools are a great way to enable collaboration, maintain versions, and track changes across the team.

CVS, SVN, or Subversion, GIT, Mercurial and Bazaar.

8)  What are different continuous tools?

Ans: There are many Continuous Integration tools out there in the market you have to choose the best one as per your project requirements.

Jenkins is a cross-platform CI tool and it offers configuration both through GUI interface and console commands.

TeamCity is the mature CI server, coming from the labs of the JetBrains company.

Travis CI is one of the oldest hosted solutions out there and it has won the trust of many people.

Go is the newest Cruise Control incarnation from the ThoughtWorks company. 

Atlassian Bamboo - Modern and fast cloud  CI tool integrated into Bitbucket.

GitLab CI is fully integrated with GitLab and it can easily hook projects using the GitLab API.

CircleCI Flexible cloud CI tool that offers parallelization up to 16x.

CODESHIP - Powerful hosted solution with docker support, flexible plans suited both for small teams and enterprises alike.

CODEFRESH - Easy to use tool with Docker containers at its core and a very nice feature of launching the built Docker images to the hosted environment.

Build Engineer Interview Questions And Answers

9) What is meant by build automation?

Ans:  Build automation is the process of automating the creation of a software build and the associated processes including compiling computer source code into binary code, packaging binary code, and running automated tests.

10) What are the different build automation tools?

Ans: There are many Build tools available in the market they are: Maven, Hudson, Gradle, SBT, and Rake.

11) How Settings.xml different from pom.xml?

Ans: settings.xml is your user preferences. It lives in your main Maven directory (usually $HOME/.m2) and holds your own settings, like listings for non-public repositories, usernames, and other personalized configuration.

pom.xml is the control file for each Maven project or module. It tells Maven which dependencies the project needs, what processing to apply to build it, and how to package it when it's ready. The POM is part of the project itself, and so information that's necessary to build the project (such as listing which plug-ins to use when building) should go there.

Software Configuration Management Interview Questions

12) How do you incorporate SNAPSHOT version into Maven?

Ans:  Incorporating SNAPSHOT versions into the specification

Resolution of dependency ranges should not resolve to a snapshot (development version) unless it is included as an explicit boundary. There is no need to compile against development code unless you are explicitly using a new feature, under which the snapshot will become the lower bound of your version specification. As releases are considered newer than the snapshot they belong to, they will be chosen over an old snapshot if found.

13) How to add local .jar file dependency to build.gradle file?

Ans:  Adding my local .jar file dependency to my build.gradle file:

apply plugin: 'java'

sourceSets {

    main {

        java {

            srcDir 'src/model'

        }

    }

}
dependencies {

    runtime files('libs/mnist-tools.jar', 'libs/gson-2.2.4.jar')

    runtime fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: '*.jar')
} 

But the problem is that when I run the command: gradle build on the command line I get the following error:

error: package com.google.gson does not exist

import com.google.gson.Gson;

A) If you really need to take that .jar from a local directory,

Add next to your module gradle (Not the app gradle file):

repositories {

   flatDir {

       dirs 'libs'

   }

}

dependencies {

   compile name: 'gson-2.2.4'

}

However, being a standard .jar in an actual maven repository, why don't you try this?

repositories {

   mavenCentral()

}

dependencies {

   compile 'com.google.code.gson:gson:2.2.4'

}

14) Explain Software Configuration Management

Ans:  Software configuration management or SCM is a set of policies, processes, and tools that help in organizing the development process the right way. It helps to maintain the present state of the software, which is termed as a baseline. It even enables developers to work on new versions for fixes and features. If you don’t use SCM, it will make the source code fragmented and unorganized due to which web development process gets impossible as, without SCM, it is impossible to break the significant pieces of the application. 

15) What is the purpose of SCM or Software configuration management?

Ans: Software configuration management serves three essential functions.

First, it helps to accelerate the return on investment of portal investment. It also downstream the risk and cost mitigation. 

Second, Software configuration management reduces the design gaps between SCM processes and the environment configuration process. SCM puts a direct effect on the application’s performance. 

Third, SCM maintains the consistency of a product’s functions, performance, and physical attributes in respect to its design, requirements, and operational information. 

16)Explain the tools of configuration management?

Ans: There is a wide range of configuration management tools, and each comes with some particular features. Some of them are -

Ansible:

It is an uncomplicated IT automation platform for making your systems and applications easy to set up and use. This open-source software carries out the identical command from the line of command for many servers. It does not need any agent. So, the number of servers is less. With Ansible, you can automate the work by a YAML file where "playbooks" is written. It sets up easy communication between non-technical individuals and teams. For managing the processes, you can build a central console by using Ansible along with other tools like RunDeck, Ansible Works (AWX), Jenkins, and ARA. 

CFEngine:

It is available as both open-source and commercial configuration management system. The primary function is to maintain a large scale computer system and provide automated configuration.

Chef:

It is a system of integration framework which is built to bring a huge amount of benefits to configuration management in order to set up the entire infrastructure. It also works on Ruby and DSL to write the configurations.

Puppet:

It is an automatic administrative engine suitable for Unix, Linux and also Windows Systems. It performs several administrative tasks based on centralized specification. It needs architecture of client-server to perform. For obtaining configuration instructions, an agent works with the server. It has many modules. The noticeable files include all the objects so that everything is run smoothly. Though by default, it works with the push model, you can configure the pull model if required.

Salt:

This is an effective form of software that helps to automate the configuration and management of the infrastructure at scale. It works on a client-server topology where the server is salt master and client is salt-minion. Salt state files have all the configurations to run the system easily. Salt utilizes Python modules for some particular actions and also configuration information. All of its state management activities, as well as distant execution, are handled by these modules. 

17) Explain the benefits of Software Configuration Management?

Ans: A lot of benefits are associated with the configuration management system.

Organization:

It is the framework of a greater information management program. It is complicated for an organization to manage its business function and information as a whole. With a well-developed software configuration management, an IT developer can better assess all of the past system implementations of the business and thereby can better cater to the future business needs and changes.    

Reliability:

Nothing is more disappointing than an unreliable system that is down and needs to be repaired frequently. In order to run a business smoothly, a company needs a reliable software configuration management to ensure that every department in the company is doing their job the right way. 

Reduction of risk and cost:

An effective configuration management system saves a lot of money with the operation of record keeping, maintenance, checks, and balances, which help to prevent mistakes and repetition. 

18) Do you know Continuous Integration?

Ans: It is the process of automating the integration code from a wide number of contributors to a single project. The CI process contains several automatic tools that ascertain the accuracy of the new code prior to integration. The code version of the control system is the crux of the Continuous Integration process. This version is supplemented along with other checks such as syntax review tools, automated quality tests, and much more. 

19) Explain transitive dependency

Ans: A transitive dependency is a kind of indirect connection between values which leads to functional dependency. By its nature, it requires three or even more features having functional dependency among them. It implies column A in the table depends on column B via an intermediate connection with column C. 

20)Explain cyclic dependency

Ans: It is a kind of connection between 2 domains or even more. It gives rise to a situation where a slave domain is dependent on itself. Not only this, but a master domain also relies on one of its slave domains. The domain manager decides if there was a cyclic dependency before adding a dependency or not. 

21)What do you know about build automation?

Ans: In the field of software development, build mainly refers to the process which converts files and other important things into a software product under the responsibility of the developers. The software product is built into a consumable form. The build includes –

Package compiled files into a compressed format

Compile the source files

Produce installers

Create and update a database scheme

Since this build is an automated process, when these steps are required to be repeated, it needs no human intervention directly. The best feature of it is that you can do it at any time with no previous information except what is there in the source code repository system. 

22)What are the build automation tools?

Ans:  A wide number of build automation tools are available. Let’s have a look at them –

Jenkins: It is an open-source tool. It does the job of testing, building, and deploying software. 

Maven: It is a kind of application that provides a lot of functionalities for effective project management. It performs the functions of documentation, building, and reporting. 

Gradle: It can be used for multiple projects right from microservices to mobile applications. It is an open-source platform.

Travis CI: It executes auto deployments during passing the builds. You can apply it to numerous cloud services. 

Bamboo: This continuous delivery tool is utilized right from deployment to coding. It performs the functions of the test, builds and deploy projects. 

Circle CI: It is a useful tool for delivery and continuous Integration. It helps to produce the build on nearly every commit. 

Teamcity: It offers a lot of ways of reusing the settings. It offers a lot of functions, including user roles.

Apache Ant: It is used to assemble, compile, and Java applications. It helps in dependency management and combining builds. 

Buildmaster: It can be integrated with automated unit testing and also analysis tools. 

Codeship: It offers continuous deployment and integration. The fundamental plan works for common technologies. 

23) Give an idea about different version control tools

Ans:  There are different version control tools available. 

Gitlab: It comes with a lot of handy features. You can automatically deliver and test the code. 

Github: It helps to collaborate and maintain the entry history of the code changes. You can easily track the changes in code.

Beanstalk: it is a useful option for those who prefer to work from remote places.

Apache Subversion: It is an open-source of a control system. It is a useful option for valuable data. 

Perforce: It delivers the version of control capabilities. It is a seamless team of collaboration. 

Microsoft team foundation: It is an enterprise-grade management tool that helps to manage source code. 

Mercurial: it is a useful tool for handling projects of all sizes. It is a distributed control service that provides an intuitive and simple user interface. 

24) Different continuous integration tools – explain

Ans:  There are different continuous tools available. 

  • AWS codebuild
  • App Veyor
  • Bamboo
  • Azure DevOps
  • Buildkite
  • Buildbot
  • Codeship
  • CircleCI
  • CruiseControl

25) Tell us about the Repository.

Ans: In the realm of Information technology, a repository is a central place where an aggregate of data is maintained and kept in an organized manner, in the form of computer storage. Depending on how this term is actually used, a repository is directly accessible to a lot of users. It also refers to a place where a lot of files, databases, and documents can be obtained for further distribution and relocation of the network. 

26)Explain the nightly builds.

Ans:  It is a neutral build that occurs when no one is working in the workplace. In fact, no changes to the code take place at that time. It takes place automatically every night, and therefore, all pieces of code can be checked into source control. This is mainly used for comprehensive projects. In such types of projects, a complete rebuild of the finished product takes too much time for an individual developer to do this as part of the regular development cycle. The software which is not built regularly is complicated to release, and therefore, this is the very reason why the teams need to use nightly builds. 

27) Explain the use of command?

Ans:  In the Windows Operating System, the use of the command is a program that matches the input field on a text-based user interface with Windows graphical user interface. It is widely used to perform and execute commands of various advanced administrative programs. It is also used to troubleshoot or solve any Windows issues. 

28)Are compile and install same?

Ans:  When you are installing a program, it means you are running an application, which is called an installer. It has a script that contains a set of setup operations that initiate the program to run on a computer. On the other hand, compiling from a source has the advantage of optimizing and configuring a specific system. Therefore, it can rightly be said that they are not exactly the same.

29) Tell us the Maven’s order of inheritance

Ans:  The Maven’s order of inheritance has four different things or components such as 

  • Parent Pom
  • Project Pom
  • Settings
  • CLI parameters

30) Tell us about "Jenkins."

Ans:  It is an open-source as well as free automation server. It helps to develop the automated software of the non-human part with facilitating technical facets of constant delivery and integration. This server-based system runs in web containers such as Apache Tomcat. Jenkins was released under the MIT License and created by KOHSUKE KAWAGUCHI. It's free software. Jenkins are installed using native system packages such as Docker or even run standalone using any machine with installed Java Runtime Environment. 

31) If you have an SVN, what will you do with it?

Ans: As a software developer, one can use SVN (Subversion) to maintain the historical and current versions of files such as web pages, source code, and documentation.  You can change contents and files, create, delete, rename and copy directories and data and then carry out the complete set of changes as a unit. 

32) Differentiate among Maven, Jenkins, and Ant. 

Ans:

MAVEN is a built automation tool. It describes how the software is developed and its dependencies. It helps in executing unit tests as a part of the normal established cycle and supports projects written in Ruby, C#.

JENKINS is a continuous integration tool. It helps in the automated software development of the non-human part by facilitating technical aspects of constant delivery and continuous integration. Apache Ant and Apache Maven are executed using this and support version control tools like AccuRev and Git. 

ANT is a command-line tool. It drives the build process. Supporting single file execution introduced with Java II, it supports projects written in C and C++. 

33) How to schedule build in Jenkins?

Ans: Builds can be triggered by using source code management commits. Even after the completion of other builds, existing builds are to be triggered.

Using CRON jobs, builds can be scheduled to run at a particular time, or one may choose manual requests.

34) Jar, ear and war – what is the difference

Ans:

Jar requires Java installation. It contains class files, resources like .java, and property files. They are to be appended to CLASSPATH- an environment variable to any java application to access from the remote package. 

Ear requires a full Java platform. The applications of the enterprise that are to be deployed in EJB containers are placed within the .ear file. 

War requires a web.xml file stored within a WEB-INF file. These files have a .war extension. The web application to be deployed on a JSP container or the servlet is too converted into .war files and is developed using the TOMCAT browser. It contains many important files required for web applications such as HTML, .js, .jsp. 

35)Do you have any idea about the web sphere?

Ans: Web Sphere is a set of tools from IBM based on Java. They let the users generate and run classy business websites. The WebSphere tool is an application server through which the user can connect website users with servlets or Java applications. Its solutions are signified for high-volume, e-commerce transactions. As a brand, it comes as packages for business firms. For example, Websphere is a business solution already containing some business applications that run in the Java Enterprise platform. 

36)Explain the process of copying Jenkins from a server to another?

Ans: At first, shift a task from one Jenkins installation to another by copying the corresponding task directory.

Create a copy of the particular task by creating a clone of a task directory under a different name.

Rename a directory to rename an existing task. 

If you need to modify a task name, you must alter the other tasks that try to call the renamed task.  

37) Can build fail? If yes, then why?

Ans: YES, builds can fail. Builds are compiled programs and an essential part of most developers' lives. Builds fail due to compilation errors and build breaks. 

38) Explain the procedure of deployment?

Ans:

PLAN- Assemble a team and study the environment. Design the architecture and zone structure.

PREPARE- Configure an active directory and install the Centrify Suite.

DEPLOY- Download the software and install agents. Join a certify zone. 

VALIDATE- Test the windows login role and verify the application rights and desktop. Check all the audited sessions.

MANAGE- Add custom roles and delegate administrative tasks. Add group policies and agents. 


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Ravindra Savaram
About The Author

Ravindra Savaram is a Content Lead at Mindmajix.com. His passion lies in writing articles on the most popular IT platforms including Machine learning, DevOps, Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, RPA, Deep Learning, and so on. You can stay up to date on all these technologies by following him on LinkedIn and Twitter.


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