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IBM Websphere Server Administration Interview Questions and Answers
Q1) Differentiate between Application Server and Web Server.
Ans: The following are the differences between application and web server-
|Application Server||Web Server|
|Application Server with the help of various protocols provides business logic to clients for their applications.||Web Server allows clients to visit pages in the browser.|
|The number of protocols to provide business logic to clients may vary.||Http requests are exclusively handled by Web Server.|
|The delegation model is complex.||The delegation model is considered to be simple.|
|Dynamic in nature can be configured to work as a web server.||Web Server can’t be configured to work as an Application Server.|
Q2) Define WebSphere.
Ans: WebSphere is developed by IBM. This is a tool that is designed with the help of Java. IBM has developed this tool in order to create and manage websites. These websites are mainly used for the purpose of business and business functions which are helpful in the field of e-commerce. The data gets integrated carefully across various systems and operating applications by WebSphere. WebSphere application server that is WAS is the central tool for WebSphere.
Q3) Define IBM WebSphere edge server. List its components.
Ans: WebSphere edge is basically the components of a set if server application which is used for improving the performance and the function of systems which are based on the web. This WebSphere edge is considered to be the part of IBM WebSphere product tool. It has the following four components -
1. It Dispatches Network
2. Distributed contents
3. Proxy is well cached
The edge also provides services for the application.
Q4. List the components of the WebSphere tool of IBM.
Ans: WebSphere tool of IBM has three basic and important components -
WAS - WAS which is the abbreviation of WebSphere application server, a blessing the users of the website to connect with the Java applications which are also known as Java servlets.
The server of the web - This server provides HTTP service.
The server of data - This server is used for getting persistent data.
Q5) What are the important features of Websphere?
Ans: WebSphere has the following list of features -
- The applications or the servlets are well supported by WebSphere and this runs with the help of the HTTP function.
- WebSphere supports various HTTP servers like the IBM HTTP Server, MS IIS, and Netscape iPlanet server, etc.
- It also supports Workload Management and the component model of EJB.
- WebSphere is also known to support the server pages of Java and XML etc.
Q6) What is the meaning of the Default messaging provider?
Ans: The default messaging provider provides functions that are well published and also subscribed. For transportation, it uses the bus of integration of services. These service integration destinations also correspond to various JMS connection destinations and factories.
Q7) Mention how the clustering of the application server or Websphere works.
Ans: The WebSphere application gets clustered with the help of the server's plugin components routes which allows the cluster to get requested. It routes all the requests to a particular member of the cluster if one of them fails to work properly due to the failure of the connection. That particular member is marked and the routing of the requests continues till the availability of the original cluster work.
Q8) How are the applications get deployed in the WebSphere tool of IBM?
Ans: The applications in WebSphere get deployed in three ways. These are as follows - Hot deployment - hot deployment includes the copying of the application file simply to the application directory. However, this process is not recommended for production purposes and is suitable for non-production purposes and the environment.
- Scripts - By this, application deployment can be done by developing ant tasks or by developing wsadmin scripts.
- DMGR - simply by clicking a new application option from the Application bar, the deployment can be done by DMGR.
Q9) What are the different kinds of files which can be deployed into the WebSphere tool?
Ans: The files like WAR (WebSphere application server) and EAR are mainly used to deploy the applications into the WebSphere tool. Other files like SAR or JAR can also be used to deploy applications through the DMGR process.
Q10) How can an application be deployed if the DMGR process doesn't work properly?
Ans: The existing and running applications don't really get affected if the DMGR process remains down or doesn't work perfectly. However, deployment of applications does get affected if DMGR doesn't work.
Q11) What is the meaning of the word 'trace' in WebSphere?
Ans: Developers and engineers mainly use this information record known as a trace. These are complex in nature and are found in a detailed way.
Q12) Differentiate between the node agent, node, and node group.
Ans: The following are the definitions -
1. Node - node is basically the grouping of the processing of the server. This grouping is done logically and is well maintained by the Websphere tool. It also helps in controlling the operations and data configuration.
2. Node agent - each node consists of an agent that works side by side with the deployment manager and hence the administration process is managed by it. In short, the node agent acts as the mediator if both the deployment manager and notes.
3. Node group - This refers to the grouping of various nodes and has the same capability as that of nodes.
Q13) What is the meaning of Dynamic Cache?
Ans: The dynamic cache is the one which helps in the improvement of the performance produced by the caching of the various output of applications. The objects to be cached are intercepted within the cells with the help of the Dynamic cache service. Then the content is provided by it or is stored.
Q14) How does asymmetrical clustering work in the WebSphere?
Ans: The cluster in the WebSphere is partitioned dynamically and only one cluster can run at a specific allotted time. This is how asymmetrical clustering works. A particular task can be allotted to a particular cluster.
Q15) What is the meaning of node sync?
Ans: The WebSphere application server or also known as the WAS provided by IBM is considered to be able to store all Thebes data and information regarding the configuration process. It stores them in the repository provided by nodes which are known as the Master Repository. In order for the entire configuration to be stored or simply send to the server of the respective nodes while using the DMGR process, the nodes must be synced properly. It is basically communication between the master repository and the local repository and can be done only in one way.
Q16) Define Ripple start.
Ans: Ripple start is the process used for restarting the cluster of WebSphere administration server. The JVM is at first stopped by it and then again started with the help of Ripple Start. However, only one JVM can be restarted at a single time. Like for example, if in a cluster a total of 5 JVMs are present and if Ripple Start is used, it will first close the first JVM and then again restart it. In this way, it will be consecutively closing and restarting one JVM after another.
Q17) Define virtual host.
Ans: Virtual hosts are considered to be the ones that consist of various kinds of URLs like FQDN and IP. These are all present in the single application. The configuration of the same is also done with the WebSphere application server. The application must be included in an URL and this is known as the virtual host. Hence, this application remains associated with its URL in the virtual host.
Q18) How can the complaints of applications being slow to be dealt with?
Ans: The applications can be slow due to various different reasons. It is important to know the root cause of this. Some components of WebSphere or some external components can be responsible for this. The following can be kept in mind in order to improve the problem,
- Whether all of the users are dealing with such slowness?
- Whether the application as a whole is slow or whether just a part of it is slow?
- Whether accessing web servers like JVM URL can be done directly or not?
- Logs can be checked properly to improve the problem of slowness.
Q19) What is the meaning of cells found in WebSphere?
Ans: When the group of nodes is put or found in the single domain of WebSphere administration then it is known as the cell. Various nodes can be present in the cell and all these are managed from a particular proper point of access.
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Q20) For gaining information on users, when does WAS gets in touch with the registry?
Ans: WAS gets in touch with the registry when -
1. The passwords are checked by users
2. The users successfully convert the userid to the unique registry.
3. Group information is obtained from them
4. Certificate information is mapped to the userid by users.
Q21) Define WebSphere MQ.
Ans: Communication between users with the help of messages is done with the help of WebSphere MQ. This is basically a type of application program. Mainly commercial communication or messaging is done by WebSphere MQ. The communication through application by this can be done in two ways - Fire and Forget and Request and Response.
Q22) Define extended deployment.
Ans: In WebSphere, deployments are extended due to the purpose of increasing the service quality. This gets increased with the help of the optimization of the IT resources. It works in three main areas as follows -
1. Websphere extreme scale
2. Compute Grid
3. Websphere virtual enterprise
Q23) List the various WebSphere MQ programming APIs.
Ans: The programming APIs of WebSphere MQ are as follows -
1. Application Messaging Interface (AMI)
2. Message Queue Interface (MQI)
3. Java Message Service (JMS)
Q24) How is proxy cached in the WebSphere edge server?
Ans: Generally, the proxy is cached in the forward direction and is hence configured in this particular direction. On request of a particular content by users, the WebSphere edge first caches it and then sends it according to their requests. Page fragments of applications are also cached by WebSphere edge and when this process becomes slow then it gets optimized by the Websphere edge server.
Q25) Define SSL.
Ans: For the communication of the data which are encrypted, between various processes, a certain protocol is used and this is known as SSL.
Q26) Differentiate between the horizontal and vertical cluster.
Ans: General, two types of the cluster are done. The horizontal cluster refers to the cluster which can be done between a huge number of multiple nodes and all the servers found in the cell. On the other hand, the vertical cluster is mainly done between the members I'd the same bode and server.
Q27) Define connecting pool.
Ans: The connecting pool is basically the cache of various connections of the database and is maintained in such a way that can be used again in the near future. Such requests for database caching are very frequent and common in WebSphere. However, when all the connections get occupied then a whole new connection is made and gets automatically added to the pool.
Q28) Differentiate between web logic and WebSphere.
Ans: Web logic includes various attributes which are default transactions like for example supports. However, WebSphere doesn't include any such type of default transactions. The focus on creativity and integration is mainly done by WebSphere. Web services are also maintained peppy by it. Hence, the performance by WebSphere is much nicer and better than that of web logic. In fact, integration and the management of transactions are also better than web logic.
Q29) What is the meaning of SSLPEER found in the WebSphere MQ of IBM?
Ans: The MQ client often has a particular name that distinguishes it from any other client and this is known as SSLPEER. This gets linked to the queue manager and is used for the identification of clients.
Q30) Give an explanation of how the Queue Manager works in the IBM WebSphere MQ.
Ans: Queue Manager refers to as the most important component or feature of the WebSphere MQ. The messages between the two Queue Managers get stored within the MQ and communication with the rest of the outside world is also possible.
Q31) Define Ripplestart?
Ans: Ripplestart - It can be used for Stopping and Starting the instances of a cluster at a time. Simply it's a combo of two distinct operations i.e., start and stop. First, it stops and then restarts each instance of the cluster. Once you click on the Ripplestart, tx1 stops after then turns on again, following by tx2 stops after then turns on again, & then finally tx3 stops reboots. Rather than considering a manual approach, Ripplestart is considered here. Actually, all the applications within the cluster can easily be stopped, and whenever the need for the same is felt.
Q32) What is Websphere?
Ans: It is basically a powerful tool that is actually an initiative of IBM. The primary purpose is to simply create and manage the websites in a reliable manner. When it comes to building web applications that are scalable, this tool can simply be used. The good thing is that almost all the functions related to a business can easily be supported by it. Even if the data belongs to Operating Systems which are different in nature, it is possible to combine the same with the help of this tool.
Q33) Explain the common of WebSphere
Ans: Mostly there are 5 WebSphere Components: Generic servers, WAS, Web Server, and Data Server.
Q34) What are some important features that WebSphere is equipped with?
1. Support to the container functionality
2. Support to HTML pages
3. Supports the HTTP servers
Q35) What exactly do you know about the working of an application server cluster?
Ans: WebSphere’s server plugin element routes all requests to WebSphere’sweb containers. Whenever there is any communication failure within a specific member of the cluster, it mark’s the member down & starts routing all the requests to other clusters until the primary is available.
Q36) What exactly do you understand by node group and node agent? What differences or similarities you can find in them?
1. Node can be considered as a process alignment that is related to the server and is being managed by IBM WebSphere which shares a common setup.
2. Nodeagent: Every node is equipped with an agent which acts as its assistant and is responsible for the administration tasks.
3. Clustering techniques in both of these are generally the same in a number of aspects.
Q37) In a situation where the administrator requires to migrate the server profiles of an application from v6.1 to v8 using the Profile Management Tool (PMT) and wants to keep all the windows services generated for these profiles, how can he make sure that windows services are preserved after migration the process?
Ans: The administrator must generate the profile with services enabled before starting the wizard, & point to the profile while working on the migration.
Q38) What are the new capabilities in IBM Installation Manager V8?
Ans: IBM Installation Manager V8 New Capabilities:
- It is equipped with a single installation tools for installation and un-installation of the product
- It can Update and roll back iFixes & fixpacks.
- Auto Installation and un-installation of the entire feature packs.
- GUI interface performs the individual operations. Response files are recorded either from GUI or generated by specifying the suitable XML file for simple installation purposes.
- For invoking many operations, Silent mode is supported.
Q39) State the difference between WebSphere Business Integration Modeler Advanced Edition V5.1 & WebSphere Business Integration Modeler Entry Edition V5.1?
Ans: The business owner can now execute complex operations based on “what if “scenarios, followed by analyzing and creating reports from the simulated results to detect the problem areas in the processes. Advanced Edition of WebSphere offers all the capabilities of the Initial Edition apart from Advanced Edition which also provides a “jump-start” to any development of the application by enabling more focused users, like IT architects, to export the models to UML, or other FDL models, for further development.
WebSphere Business Edition Version 5.1 is a cost-effective option for businesspersons looking for simple models, documents, and print their business transactions &processes.
Q40) Differentiate between Websphere and Web logic.
Ans: Weblogic maintains attributes in order to support default transactions, whereas the Websphere would not have such kind of default transactional attributes.
Websphere is more focused on integration, connectivity, and web services. It performs better in implementation of J2EE, and in extensive integration and management of transactions as compared to Weblogic.
Q41) Brief, the ways we can deploy the Websphere applications>
Ans: In two way we can install the IBM Websphere application:
1. We can copy the files to install the application folder directly in Websphere.
2. Using Websphere specific ant automate tasks to generate robotic scripts for installation of the application, through administration console
Q42) Mention the Websphere MQ programming APIs.
Ans: Websphere MQ programming APIs include
1. JMS is known as Java Message Service
2. AMI known as Application Messaging Interface
3. MQI known as Message Queue Interface
Q43) Mention the functionality performed by the caching proxy server
- Reverse Content &proxy based routing
- Caching server provides functionality
- Dynamic Content Caching and
- Integration with servlet caching.
Q44) What do you understand by WebSphere Application Server Edge components?
Ans: WebSphere Edge is a group of web application server components that are supposed to improve the productivity of web-based information systems and is an integral part of the IBM WebSphere product suite. It comprises 4 basic components:
1. Caching Proxy
2. Network Dispatcher
3. Application Edge Service
4. Content Distribution
Edge is configured for high availability with a backup of Edge failover server which makes over sessions in case the primary Edge server fails.
Q45) How the caching proxy of WebSphere will be done on the edge server?
Ans: Caching proxies are configured as an explicit proxy or in a forward direction. When any user requests for the content, and it will be cached by the edge server previously sending or following the query. Edge server caches page fragments that generate from JSP or Servlets and the process of Caching becomes slow. Edge will optimize the Scalability & Performance.
Q46) What do you understand by extended deployment in WebSphere?
Ans: Extended deployment in WebSphere provides advantageous qualities of service with optimizing features. It covers three areas
1. WebSphere eXtreme Scale
2. WebSphere Virtual Enterprise
3. Compute Grid
Q47) Explain MQ in WebSphere?
Ans: WebSphere MQ is a program that allows us to communicate with each other using queues&messages. Communication in this form is known as commercial messaging. There are two methods of communication amongst the application,
1. Request/Response and
2. Fire & Forget.
Q48) Explain the functions of Queue Manager in IBM Websphere MQ.
Ans: queue manager is an important element of WebSphere MQ. It is responsible for routing &storing messages to all other queue managers within the MQ and communicates with the outside world too.
Q49) When does the WebSphere Application server contact registry for any user information?
1. Web-sphere application server contacts the registry when users.
2. Maps the certificate information to a userid.
3. Checks for the user’s password.
4. Obtains any group information.
5. Converts userid to registry unique id.
Q50) Explain the functions offered by the caching proxy server?
1. Proxy server provides dynamic content caching which minimizes the load of the application’s contents
2. Reverse proxy configuration allows the proxy server to intercept the user requests arriving from the internet, to the host & caching the returned data
3. It also provides a content-based routing function, which routes all the requests based on rules that we write. The common type of rule is the content rule, which directs all the requests based on the pathname of the URL.
Q51) What will happen if the JVM heap is very small?
Ans: Applications need a minimum amount of memory to reach a stable state, which occurs when the heap is no longer growing consistently. If the JVM is configured with a maximum heap, which is too small, it will never permit the JVM to reach the stable state, which will make allocation failures and the JVM will initiate to throw OutOfMemoryError.
Q52) What are the functions of the attribute CHANNEL in WebSphere MQ.
Ans: The CHANNEL attribute along with WebSphere MQ applications is used to specify the receiving and sending messages in a file, which defines sender & receiver channels. Channel can be considered as a link that basically connects a receiver with a sender. It is actually a channel that is responsible for data transferring. There are some set of rules that governs the control over it and it is not always necessary that the capacity of all the channels in WebSphere is the same.
Q53) What exactly do you know about the WebSphere’s architecture
- Every single Web server has its own API, which allows the filters to be deployed.
- Web server plug-in is used for several purposes and the common among them is monitoring the applications.
- The architecture is not always necessary to be modified
- It is possible to impose a limit on the architecture if it fails to provide the desired security
- The architecture design is not always necessary to be the same for all the models. There are many factors due to which it gets influenced. However, security is always the first concern
- Architecture can be a combination of various platforms and should be free from any compatibility issues that are becoming common. This is due to the rise in technology.
Q54) What exactly do you mean by WebSphere Virtual Enterprise
Ans: WebSphere Virtual Enterprise increases the flexibility and alertness to ensure the integrity of the business process, &improve the service, help managing the health, and application performance.
WebSphere Virtual Enterprise offers the virtualization capabilities of application infrastructure, which lower the overall amount for the production, manage, and operate enterprise applications in a reliable manner.
Q55) What do we understand about WebSphere eXtreme Scale?
1. It is basically an initiative by IBM to conduct intense transactional processes.
2. All the applications which are related to a business can simply be managed and bulk transactions with excellent efficiency can be assured.
3. It offers all transactional integrities& transparent failovers which ensures high availability, reliability, &constant response times.
4. It manages a data grid, which is dynamically caching the data apart from partitioning & replicating the application data. It also manages and applies various business logic across the multiple servers of its cluster.
Q56) Tell something about the concept of Asymmetric clustering
1. In this, all the logics which are related to a business are divided into simple panels for better understanding
2. It cannot stand equal to a stateless server due to obvious reasons. Actually, it acts opposite to the same and always make sure of functionality.
3. The Asymmetric clustering in the architecture cannot be considered similar to the stateless server. In fact, it is totally opposite to the same. Generally in the stateless server, the applications are frequently repeated. This can sometimes help in boosting efficiency.
4. All the nodes show outcomes due to cluster implantation through the cache which is local in most of the cases. Actually, this also contributes to making sure of efficiency under every situation.
Q57) What do we understand by WebSphere MQ JMS Provider?
- It is basically an important set that contains all the Java Classes which are useful
- All the JMS applications are managed through it
- For clients, only a part of it is accessible rather than the whole.
- Users need to check the efficiency, again and again, to make sure of a constant output.
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