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Computer Network can be defined as a set of computers connected with each other to communicate and share resources such as software, hardware, and data.
NIC stands for Network Interface Card. NIC is the bridge between computer and network.
Without NIC Card, the computer cannot connect to any network. It can also be called an Ethernet card or Network Adaptor.
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Network topology is the physical structure of computers. It states the way computers, cables, devices, etc. are connected with each other.
Node: Node can be described as a point or joint where the connection is built. Any device connected in-network is considered a node. To establish a network, two or more nodes are required.
Router: Routers can be termed as a device through which network segments are connected. These network devices save information like routing tables, hops, etc. By using this information, routers can determine the best path available to transfer the data from source to destination.
PAN: Personal Area Network - mostly used in home
LAN: Local Area Network - used in small cafes or offices
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network - used in city or town
WAN: Wide Area Network - spread across the world
The switch can connect various computers together. For instance, 7 port switch can join 7 computers in a single network
Star topology utilizes a hub or switches as a centralized device for connectivity.
In a ring topology, every computer is connected with two more computers and this is how the loop will be formed. Here the data will be flown only in a single direction.
Source computer transmits the data in a circle. Each computer will checks whether data has been intended for them and if yes, they will pick up the data packet from the ring. If it is not then they will pass the data packet to the next computer. This is how the data packet will reach the destination computer.
In Mesh topology, each device is connected with all the rest of the devices residing in-network,
To connect n nodes, n(n-1)/2 connections are required in a mesh topology. So to connect 4 devices, 6 connections will be required in a mesh network.
Pros: Bus topology incurs the lowest cost amongst all the topologies available.
Cons: In a Bus topology, all the devices are connected with a single cable. So if the main cable breaks then the whole network will be affected.
The hybrid topology consists of more than one topology in the same network. For example, hybrid star-bus topology, here multiple star topologies are joined with single bus topology.
These terms can be described as a way network applications are being accessed.
Internet - Everyone and anyone around the world can access the applications
Intranet - Only authorized users from the organization can access the application for which it has been built.
Extranet - Selected external users are allowed to use the application which was built for the Internet
OSI -Open System Interconnection. OSI Model describes the way application interacts with each other over a network.
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol - It is the most widely used protocol.
It describes how data should be packaged, transferred, and routed in the network.
HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol is used to transmit web content. It uses TCP port 80
HTTPS: It is a secure HTTP. To avoid tampering with data, HTTPS encrypts data packets transmitted in the network. It uses TCP port 443.
Transmission: Data is transferred from source to destination. This involves the physical movement of data
Communication: Data is transmitted between source and destination. This involves sending and receiving data packets between source and destination.
There are 3 data transmission modes available to transmit the data
1. Simplex: Data transfer can be established only in one direction. For example radio signal
2. Half Duplex: Data transfer can be established in both directions but not at the same time. For example internet browsing, once we send a request to the server then the server will process it and show us the results
3. Full Duplex: Data transfer can be established in both directions simultaneously. For example phone communication.
IDEA: International Data Encryption Algorithm
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange
DNS is Domain Naming Server. It is the bridge between domain names and IP addresses. The computer only gets numbers whereas humans only remember names. For example, gmail.com is the name given by humans but when we hit gmail.com, DNS translated it to numbers and process our requests.
For any sent data frame, the receiver must acknowledge to sender. Instead of sending acknowledgment stand-alone, the receiver will wait and send acknowledgment along with the next data frame. This process is termed piggybacking.
Ipconfig: Internet Protocol Configuration. This command is used for viewing and configuring the network interface on Microsoft Windows. It is also used to identify DHCP protocol and DNS settings.
Ifconfig: Interface Configuration. This command is for Linux, Mac, and Unix OS. Through this command, we can configure and control the TCP/IP network interface from the command line. We can see the IPs of these networks using this command.
Round Trip Time can also be known as Round Trip Delay. It is the total time taken by a signal to reach the destination node and come back to the sender node with acknowledgment.
If any problem in the network is identified and repaired by the network itself then it is known as beaconing. FDDI and token ring use this mainly.
In baseband transmission, the full bandwidth of the cable will be taken by a single signal. Whereas in broadband transmission, multiple signals with multiple frequencies can be sent simultaneously.
Crosstalk is the disturbance generated by adjacent wires.
Tracert is a tool used to list the path taken by a data packet from the router to the destination node. It also mentions the count of total hops taken in the entire route.
Netstat is a command-line tool. It is used to list out all important TCP/IP settings of a connection.
If we use longer cables than the preferred ones, it will cause a signal loss in transmission.
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