Manual testing requires a human being to sit in front of the computer and execute each testing step carefully. In automation testing, an automation tool executes the test suite instead. In the technique of automated testing, the application implements the entire life cycle of the software in a very short time. The testing software offers the necessary efficiency and effectiveness.
The automation testing is a technique where the tester uses a suitable software and writes test scripts for the automation of the tests. It actually automates the normal testing process.
The application is tested from loading to the termination, and every aspect from performance to the stress points is checked. The automation tools are used to write and execute test cases during the execution of the automated test suite.
The testers create the test scripts and test cases through the tools and group them into test suites. The main aim of automation testing is to use the tool to group them into test suites. It is possible to record the test suite and replay them. No human intervention is required once the test suite is recorded.
When software comes up with bug fixes or new releases, you might be unsure about the fact that there could be new bugs that weren’t present in the previous versions. The best way to know is to check the entire software thoroughly. Manual testing certainly has a lot of drawbacks, which can be overcome by automation. The following are the reasons why automation testing is required:
The following scenarios could require automation testing:
Automating testing depends on the frameworks which define a set of rules or practices that can be followed to get the desired results. The following are some of the most common types of testing frameworks.
These are some of the most popular automation testing frameworks today and prove to be useful in different cases.
Appium is a mobile application UI testing framework which is open source and freely distributed. Hybrid, native, and web application testing is allowed by Appium. Automation testing is supported on physical devices, simulators, and even emulators.
Cross-platform application testing is allowed, which include the APIs which work for both iOS platforms and Android. There is no dependency on the mobile device operating system. Selenium Webdriver commands can be translated through the Appium framework or wrapper into UIAutomator (Android) or UI Automation (iOS) commands. The commands do not depend on the type of device or operating system.
Appium has the power to automate and no recompilation of the app is necessary. This means access to the application code is not required. Appium is built to follow a few philosophies. It is important to look at them as it helps to understand Appium.
Written using a Node.js platform, Appium is an HTTP server. It drives the Android and iOS session through the Webdriver JSON protocol. Node.js must be pre-installed before the Appium Server is initialized. A server is set up on the machine that exposes the REST API when Appium is downloaded and installed. The API receives the connection and command request from the client and the commands are executed on mobile devices.
The responses are HTTP requests. The mobile test automation framework is used to drive the interface of the apps and the request is executed. The frameworks include Google UIAutomation for Android API level 16 or higher, Apple INstruments for iOS and Selendroid for Android API level 15 or higher.
The architecture of Appium is fairly straightforward. One of the first things to know about architecture is the client/server nature. In the client/server architecture, it is necessary to understand the roles of both the client and server of Appium.
As the Appium server is started, a REST API is exposed. The client begins a session using the JSON 'desired capabilities' object. The server also initiates a session. The responses to the client require a session ID. The result is the creation of a session between the client and the server. After the session has been established, the client would automatically send commands to the server. The commands are executed by the Appium server on the mobile device. The necessary responses are offered to the client.
The Appium commands are not executed directly on mobile devices. Automation frameworks offered by the vendors are invoked which are specific to the platform. There are vendors like Google, Microsoft, and Apple who provide the automation frameworks for the platforms. The Appium server hooks itself to the frameworks and executes the device automation. Appium uses different frameworks for various platforms.
The following are some of the things that should be present in the system:
Selenium is a popular web-based automation tool that is entirely open source and is meant for web apps over different platforms and browsers. Selenium cannot be thought of as a single tool. It is a suite of services and software, and each caters to the different needs of the organization. The four components include:
At the time when Selenium was created, QTP was a famous automation tool and was developed by Mercury Interactive before being acquired by HP. Selenium was used as an antidote in the treatment of mercury intoxication. Jason Higgins was an engineer at ThoughtWorks who suggested the name of Selenium.
The Integrated Development Environment of Selenium or the Selenium IDE is a Firefox plugin - a simple framework offered by Selenium. The testers can record and play the scripts using this. THough people can create scripts using Selenium IDE, Selenium WebDriver or Selenium RC would be required to design more advanced and robust test cases. It is supported on Windows, Linux and Mac OS. The browser support is Mozilla Firefox.
Selenium WebDriver, also known as Selenium 2, is a browser automation framework that accepts the commands and sends them to a browser. It is implemented through a browser-specific driver. Selenium WebDriver manages the browser and directly communicates with it. PHP, C#, Perl, Ruby, Python, and Java are supported. The supported operating systems are Linux, Solaris, Mac OS, and Windows. The supported browsers are Google Chrome from version 12, Mozilla Firefox, Opera from version 11.5, Internet Explorer and Safari.
The Selenium Grid is used in conjunction with Selenium Remote Control in order to execute tests on the different machines against browsers in parallel. Multiple tests are run at the same time against different machines through different browsers and operating systems.
Selenium IDE should be chosen in the following cases:
Selenium RC can be chosen if:
Selenium WebDriver can be chosen in the scenarios:
Selenium Grid can be chosen if you would like to:
Prerequisites for using Selenium
Limitations to using Selenium
Calabash is an open source testing framework, where tests can be written and executed for the Android and iOS apps. This Automated User Interface framework allows tests which are to be written in Cucumber and Ruby. UI interactions are enabled by Calabash within a mobile application through input text, buttons and by validating responses. It can be configured to different iOS and Android devices. Real-time feedback and validations are offered. Calabash also offers a great foundation for cross-platform testing strategy.
Calabash is Behavior Driven Development or BDD. This framework is quite similar to Test Driven Development, but application behavior is specified instead of creating tests to describe the shape of APIs. BDD is a process where multiple stakeholders weigh in to create a common understanding of what needs to be built. This strategy helps to build the right software and design it from the perspective of the owner.
Calabash is a test automation framework enabling mobile developers to develop anything without the necessary coding skills and execute automated tests for iOS and Android apps. UI interactions are enabled by Calabash. Though this is a great first step in the UI acceptance test automation, the real benefits can be seen when the tests are executed on mobile devices. Calabash tests can be configured on hundreds of iOS and Android devices to get real-time feedback and validation.
The Behavior Driven Development Calabash is based on defines a philosophy where development takes place from the outside-in. It isn't much different from creating functional specifications and building them to shape, Calabash takes the specifications and makes them executable and provide means to test the actual specifications.BDD is meant to be a process where multiple stakeholders can create a common understanding of the project to be built.
Calabash is quite easy while writing tests and makes the entire process quite fun. The language syntax is easy to read and coding experience is not really necessary. The advantages include:
|Design Concept||The work engine of Appium is a third-party automation framework, while does not require to embed Appium in the application.||Selenium uses Keyword-Driven Testing and Behaviour Driven Development to separate presentation from data modelling.||Calabash uses Behaviour Driven Development and uses application behaviour instead of creating tests.|
|Platform support||Appium is supported both on iOS and Android.||Selenium would support browsers like Firefox, Safari, Chrome, Internet Explorer and Chrome. Linux, OS X, and Windows are all supported by Selenium.||Calabash can interact with both iOS and Android. However, it requires a Ruby-based test framework.|
|Use Cases||Appium can be used to run parallel tests and register N nodes. The nodes can be added to the existing environment and perform the polarization of tests.||The Selenium use cases would include those tests where automation is necessary. These include authentication protocols like login processes and responses.||Calabash can ensure that a given feature is comprised of the right features, scenarios, step and step definitions. Calabash can ensure if the app is running with the right inputs.|
Though none of the automation tools would offer a universal solution for the native and hybrid mobile applications, Appium and Selenium can offer good language support and a comprehensive platform, while calabash gets good testing but lacks stability. Often addressing one testing challenge introduces another one. Thus, automated testing tools should be chosen depending on the project. If necessary, two or more of them can be combined to address the challenges.
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