MuleSoft is the world's leading and trusted API and cloud Integration tool for SOA, SaaS and APIs, is the best career to opt for the next generation of professionals. To make it easy for the newbies and already working professionals to clear MuleSoft interviews, we have got the most frequently asked MuleSoft interview questions with answers.
Innovation in the IT industry produces several SOA, SaaS and APIs every year, and firms constantly try to adapt the latest and best. MuleSoft is the world's leading and trusted API, with a market share of about 48 per cent. These stats show the future of MuleSoft and the demand for its professionals in the years coming. MindMajix has got the latest MuleSoft interview questions and answers to help MuleSoft aspirants understand what the industry expects from them. We have collected and curated our experts' set of interview questions and answered them in the best way. Explore and master the key concepts of MuleSoft.
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If you're a beginner in this field and this is supposed to be your first job, you'll be asked the questions listed below.
Ans. MuleSoft is a next-generation integration platform used for connecting Data, Applications, and APIs on-premises and over the cloud platform.
MuleSoft works on the AnyPoint Connectivity Model which helps in connecting any existing SaaS-based applications or set of APIs through one single API interface.
The architecture is service-oriented which gives the flexibility to access all the required applications through this integration.
MuleSoft owns the Programmable Web portal that is widely used by application developers to help them build web, mobile, and other user applications.
So Mule is the most popularly used application integration and communication platform for business needs.
Ans. ESB stands for enterprise service bus, Mule is a runtime engine of the Java-based ESB integration platform. It allows the development teams to connect and access flexibly and easily exchange data.
It helps to enable easy integrations between application platforms without creating fuzz about different technologies being used by the applications (such as HTTP, SaaS, Payment Gateways, Web services, JMS).
EBS can be implemented and deployed anywhere in the application network. It triggers events in real-time or in the batch system providing global connectivity.
Ans. MuleSoft is a lightweight technology that supports a high level of scalability, which means it allows you to start small and scale as per your requirement. You can connect N number of applications within a single environment which has zero restriction for Apps communication.
Mule ESB manages N number of application interactions with each other without restricting that application into the same VM interaction or other VM interaction.
It means even though the application is running into different VMs, they can interact with each other. Its flexibility with transportation protocol enables the interactions easily.
Though there are many ESBs available in the market, MuleSoft gives you the most flexible and reliable services.
Another EBs comes with the restriction of limited functionalities or access to an existing application server or a specific messaging server, they put restrictions for the use of a specific vendor.
Whereas, MuleSoft comes with a high level of accessibility and adaptability with vendor-neutral methods. You can easily plug and play any application through any vendor.
Ans. Mule ESB is equipped with the following features:
Ans. These are the different types of primitives in mediation:
Ans. We can make connectors a reusable component by defining them as common resources and exposing them to all applications deployed under the same domain; these resources are known as shared resources.
These shared resources need to be defined inside the Mule Domain Project and then referred to each of the projects that are meant to use the elements in it.
Ans. There are various ESB's available in the market. Some are open-source, some licensed:
Ans. Web service is a function or program in any language that can be accessed over HTTP. Message format can be XML or JSON or any other program as long as the other programs can understand and communicate.
Any web service has a server-client relationship. Web services can be synchronous or asynchronous. Any web service can have multiple clients.
Ans. ESB implementation is not suitable for all projects. Proper analysis should be done if the use of ESB will really benefit the project.
Some of the points to be considered while analyzing the need of ESB are as follows:
Ans. There are six different types of Flow Processing Strategies. They are
Transformation - Data transformation between canonical data formats and specific data formats required by each ESB connector. Transport protocol negotiation between multiple formats. Such as HTTP, JMS, JDBC.
Mediation - Providing multiple interfaces for the purpose of
Non-functional consistency - For a typical ESB initiative, this can include consistency around the way security and monitoring policies are applied and implemented.
MuleSoft is a secure, robust, and highly scalable communication network that allows the application to do self-services, it helps organizations to integrate applications, data, and multiple devices in a flexible environment.
It is a hybrid application integration platform that includes ESB, unified solutions for APIs management, iPaaS, application design, and publishing.
MuleSoft allows using N number of software and tools which includes the below list
|Related blog: Differences between Dell Boomi and MuleSoft|
Ans. API (Application Programming Interface) is a software interface that allows two different applications to interact in one platform.
Ans. REST stands for Representational State Transfer or RESTful web service. REST is a client-server architecture which means each unique URL is a representation of some object or resource.
Any REST API developed uses HTTP methods explicitly and in a way that’s consistent with the protocol definition.
Ans. RAML – RESTful API Modeling Language
Ans. Message sources in Mule are usually Anypoint Connectors, elements that provide connectivity to a specific external source, either via a standard protocol (such as HTTP, FTP, SMTP) or a third-party API (such as Salesforce.com, Twitter, or MongoDB).
Ans. Mule is lightweight but highly scalable, allowing you to start small and connect more applications over time.
The ESB manages all the interactions between applications and components transparently, regardless of whether they exist in the same virtual machine or over the Internet, and regardless of the underlying transport
Several commercial ESB implementations provide limited functionality or are built on top of an existing application server or messaging server, locking you into that specific vendor.
Mule is vendor-neutral, so different vendor implementations can plug into it. You are never locked in to a specific vendor when you use Mule.
Ans. The payload is a Mule Runtime Variable that stores arrays or objects. It is wrapped under an org. mule.api.MuleMessage helps you get the different means of accessing the payload under different forms.
Mule messages are similar to any other SOAP JMS message; it also containers properties, headers, and multiple names attached to them. The main content of the message is called Payload.
Ans. An endpoint is a destination shared by many other routers in the group. It also helps to create a global endpoint. A global endpoint is not similar to an inbound and outbound routing service, but it makes it useful in many different places in the configuration file.
The entire endpoint destination must be named to be specified during the services. These names identify the global endpoint in the group of routers. The global endpoint also offers to clarify the usage of a specific destination.
Various types of Endpoints in Mulesoft are HTTP, JMS, IMAP, SMTP, and AJAX.
Ans. Mule transfer is an event instance that belongs to org.mule.api.MuleEvent library. This object carries the actual context of the message with the context of the event.
The main purpose of the transformer is to translate the message from one form to another. It is also possible to create a chain of transformers. It transits the message from one medium to another while staging into different services.
Ans. The Transport Service Descriptor (TSD) is a technical configuration of the connector. This is a hidden configuration that is used in each instance of the connector.
It gives definitions to the parameters such as the use of particular parameters, what classes are required for that particular message receiver, dispatchers, and requesters.
The definition is about default transformation to use inbound or outbound and utilizing the response of the router.
Ans. The router is one of the most critical services of MuleSoft. The Router finalizes and assigns the running territory for the messages to move from one service to another.
Basically, routing is a process of controlling the transitory decided by the router for the moving message to transit from one source to another. It can be also called a gatekeeper of the endpoint services.
It keeps track of targeted successions to ensure the message gets to deliver to the right intended destination. Routers can also act as a bundle of classified tasks, such as it can split, sort, group, or regroup messages based on specified conditions or certain mappings.
Ans. Filters are the most powerful capability given to the routers to make smart decisions on the message delivery or request and response environment.
It also gives sight to the router to decide what to do with the messages in the transit stage. Some filters go through intense analysis of the message to find out the actual value for the desired outputs.
Ans. Endpoint defines the specific usage of the transport protocol. Whether you are reading the message, writing it, listening, or polling to a targeted destination the endpoint directs the usability of the protocol.
Endpoint controls the underlined entity which ensures the usability of the connectors. The targeted destination is defined as URI. It depends on the connectors whether the destination will be treated as URI or URL or JMS destination itself.
Service invoke is an initial process of creating a service for either request or response flow. The service can be request, response, or both and One-way implementation.
Multiple instances of a service can be created and permitted into a flow, that allows a series of services to operate within the flow.
The purpose of the CallOut method is to receive messages and request the required service and operation in a flow. There is a CallOut node always presented into the median flow for connected target operation.
Ans. In general, the message context defines the overall purpose of the message but here the context defines the temporary area which is created along with the SMO(server message object) in the median flow while the transition of the message.
SMO contains the shared context in the message flow. This shared context usually gets used at the time of aggregation, which means if you are aggregating and need to iterate the BO for the specified time.
Aggregative context maintains data between FanOut and FanIn primitives. The data(context) present in the request flow cannot be persistent throughout the request and response flow because it only belongs to the request BO.
Ans. The four different parts of the composed message in Mule
Ans. Project applications need to be analyzed very carefully to avoid unnecessary arrangements. ESB benefits in several ways for projects which need to operate in a huge setup of multifunctional application support.
Ans. File age defines the waiting duration of the endpoint before starting to read the file again. Such as file age 60000 indicates that the endpoint should wait about 1 minute before starting the next processing.
Ans. Streaming properties in connectors represent the values in true and false format. If the streaming value is true, it means you are working on streaming data on the connector otherwise if it’s false you are working on the file system.
Ans. If you want a new file inbound endpoints to poll direction to read the new content then you require to set the polling frequency to a few milliseconds to achieve this. Here polling frequency defines the value of the poll.
Ans. Configuration builder in Mule helps to transfer the human authorized configuration file into a complex graph of objects that substitute a running node in ESB. Configuration builder can be defined into two types:
Ans. The auto-delete value of this feature is zero by default which means its inbound endpoint will automatically delete the file from the source directory.
In case the source directory file does not require to be auto-deleted then you need to set the value to false.
Ans. Mule service is a set of all Mule entities that is required to support the processing request in an arranged manner. This service is defined by a particular configuration that defines the different elements from a different layer of services.
It mobilizes the request which is open to receiving a particular request. It depends on the service layer's input channels whether a service can or cannot be accessible outside in a public ESB.
Ans. It represents six types of strategy for Flow Processing
Ans. There are many resources available for modularizing configuration in Mule as:
A Mule instance is capable of loading multiple independent configuration files one after another.
As the term inheritance refers to the parent and child relationships between the instances this configuration also showcases the parent-child relationship between two configurations.
It strongly provides this dependency with the guarantee that no configuration file will be omitted at the time of application booting. It used the same name for the parent and child models.
<model name=”myConfig”><model name=”myConfig” inherit=”true”>
It supports spring configuration so that you can easily use your spring config file to Mule configuration files.
For ex: you need to extend instance.xml then it will import the spring context file:
As the term, heterogeneous means you can configure many types of files using this configuration method. The instances can be created using the Groovy script method and Spring XML Configuration builders.
Ans. The main operating task for the transport layer is to send and receive messages through the inbound and outbound communication networks. The transport layer gets configured with connectors, endpoints, and transformers.
Transport is also responsible for the message adapter where the responsibility of the adapter is to extract all the information from the particular request such as data, Meta information or header info, and attachments. It also stores the information available in it.
Fan-Out: you can use Fan-Out primitive to trigger the output terminal initially with the input message or many times as per need. Fan-Out can be used individually or as a combination of Fan-In and Fan-Out.
Fan-In: FanIn in a combination with Fan-Out works as a decision point to identify when to continue flow execution in the connector.
It accepts “N” number of messages until the decision point is made. The last message received in the flow is represented as an output terminal.
Ans. JDBC adaptor configuration is not a complex task for those who have experience in connecting DB. You need a data source to be connected and configured with a database.
Also if your DB is having secure access then you need to create a security authentication program.
Ans. Fan-In and FanOut is the method to implement a loop in the mediation.
Ans. When the mediation primitive requires passing the value from the request flow to response flow the correlation context plays the role.
Ans. Mediation has many primitive as below
Ans. UMO is Universal Message Object; UMO components are also referred to as service components.
Ans. Data Integrator tool is launched by Mule, which is a data visualization mapping tool having support for flat files, XML Mapping, and Java objects.
It was a tedious task for the developer to code complex mapping functionalities so the Mule Data Integrator tool provides drag and drop features to make the coding process easier.
The mapping process gets support from eclipse (where plug-in has to be done before the process) to run the Data Integrator which is part of top layer applications in Mule Architecture.
Ans. The path for Abstract Mule TestCase is <mulehome>/lib/mule/mule-core-<version>.jar
Ans. There are many advantages of the MuleSoft integration platform
If you are an experienced professional in this field who wants to advance in your career, you should read the following interview questions.
Ans. MuleSoft Anypoint is a unified integration platform that takes a comprehensive approach to API design and implementation. MuleSoft has around 300 databases, a SaaS platform, storage resources, and network service connections.
Ans. MEL is a Mule-specific expression language that is used to access and analyze data in a Mule message's payload, variables, and properties. MEL allows you to rapidly and elegantly filter, route, or otherwise operate on the distinct components of the Mule message object. It is accessible and usable from practically every message processor in Mule.
Ans. From designing and deploying to sharing the API lifecycle in Mulesoft everything is managed by RESTful API Modeling Language (RAML). The information needed to describe RESTful APIs is best expressed in RAML. It's similar to WSDL (Web Services Description Language). Request/response schema, endpoint URL, URI parameter, HTTP methods, and query are all included in RAML.
Ans. In Mulesoft, the concept of caching is to store and reuse frequently called data. The scope of Cache is used to decrease the processing load on Mulesoft and to improve the message processing speed within a flow.
Ans. Using Cache scope or object-store, you can implement caching in Mulesoft. Internally cache scope uses Object store for data storage. Both Cache scope and Object store have their particular use cases whenever required effectively.
Ans. The patterns serve as a framework for developing, implementing, and integrating messaging and integration systems, as well as a common language for teams to use when developing solutions. Mule minimizes the time it takes to build integrations by using the patterns you use to create solutions.
Ans. Errors occur when Mule executes a command. When a Mule app is operating, the Mule runtime engine as well as the module and connector activities set in the app might throw errors, which are represented by a Mule error object and are associated with a Mule event. With On-Error components, you can handle error objects and track them down in the logs.
Mule errors are classified into error kinds, which are organized in a hierarchical sequence and have a naming standard to assist you to identify the cause of the error and treat it at the appropriate level. Custom error types can also be created and mapped to these errors. The mappings might assist you in better distinguishing and grouping errors in your program.
Mule errors can be classified into two groups:
System Errors: When a system error occurs and no Mule event is involved, Mule throws a system error.
Messaging Errors: Whenever an issue arises within a Mule app's flow when Mule events and the messages they contain are handled, Mule throws a messaging error (a Mule error).
Ans. MUnit is an application testing framework of Mule that lets you create automated tests for your APIs and integrations quickly and effectively. It comes with a full set of integration and unit testing tools, as well as a Maven and Surefire interface for seamless integration with your continuous deployment infrastructure.
Since Mule 4.0, MUnit version 2.3 has been compatible with all Mule releases. You may use MUnit to:
MUnit is tightly linked with Anypoint Studio, allowing you to create, design, and run MUnit tests in the same way that Mule applications are.
Ans. The ability to explore, distribute, and incorporate assets and resources into your apps is one of the benefits of Anypoint Exchange. Build API developer portals, test and view APIs, build assets, simulate data to APIs (Mocking Service), and utilize API Notebooks to describe and test API functionality using Anypoint Exchange.
Ans. MuleSoft provides rigorous and effective assistance with data integration. MuleSoft provides the following services and tools:
Ans. Mule processes a message payload as a batch of records in a batch job, which is the scope element of an application. All three phases of processing are included in the phrase batch job: load and dispatch, process, and completion.
Ans. A Batch Aggregator populates a collection with data until it reaches the Nth record, which is equal to the Batch Aggregator's size attribute. The payload of the Mule Message that is processed by the Batch Aggregator processors is then the collection, which contains all records.
Ans. Batch processing is a method for automating and processing a large number of transactions at once. Batch processing is useful for processes such as payroll, month-end reconciliation, and overnight trade settlement.
Ans. A connector is software that links a Mule flow to an external resource. The resource can be any content source, such as a database, protocol, or API. You can create a connector using the Anypoint Connector DevKit and the Anypoint Studio IDE. To make a connector, you'll need Java 6 or 7.
Ans. Anypoint Connectors are reusable Mule runtime engine (Mule) extensions that allow you to connect Mule apps to third-party APIs, databases, and standard integration protocols. The connector configuration can be changed without requiring other elements of the program to be updated.
Ans. A flow is a series of Mule components that are linked together. An inbound endpoint component (from where the communication originates) and an outbound endpoint component are typically included in flow. As a result, the flow is in charge of all of the message's processing phases.
Ans. CloudHub is a platform as a service (PaaS) component of Anypoint PlatformTM, which is a global, fully managed, multi-tenanted, secure, and highly available API and integration platform. You'll get regular software upgrades, and you won't have to worry about complicated hardware upkeep.
Ans. In Mulesoft, PCE is an acronym for Platform Cloud Edition. Mule apps are managed and executed on your local servers with Anypoint Platform Private Cloud Edition (Anypoint Platform PCE). High availability and scalability are built-in to the Anypoint Platform PCE thanks to Docker and Kubernetes. Without knowing Docker or Kubernetes, you can install the platform.
Ans. In Mulesoft, Runtime Fabric is a container service used for deploying mule runtime on the data center or on the cloud. All the benefits of the cloud such as high availability, rolling upgrade, automatic failover, etc., are all supported by Runtime Fabric. Additionally, you can even deploy multiple versions of mule runtime using Runtime Fabric.
Runtime Fabric Architecture is a set of VM work together to form a cluster. And each VM serves as either “worker” or “controller” mode in the cluster.
The controller node manages load balancing, distributed database, and orchestration service. Workers node manage mule applications and API gateways.
Mulesoft application deployment and undeployment are managed by Mule Maven Plugin. With Enterprise Mule Runtime engine and Community Mule Kernel, you can utilize it. You can automatically deploy applications to the cloud, on-premise, and Anypoint Runtime Fabric Manager.
Mule Maven Plugin supports the following tasks:
Package: Used to execute a file or generate jar to Mule application.
Deploy: Used to upload, deploy, and run the application on the target system.
Undeploy: Used to delete applications from the target system.
Ans. Mulesoft Watermarking is a technique associated with duplicating processes while synchronizing data. Watermarking is the most common use of the object store.
Ans. Schedulers use the same time as the machine on which Mule is operating. Mulesoft Schedulers always operate in UTC/GMT timezone.
Ans. Anypoint MQ is a cloud messaging, multi-tenant service that allows users to achieve advanced asynchronous messaging scenarios between their applications.
Permits role-based access control, connectors, and client management by fully integrating with the Anypoint Platform.
With Anypoint MQ Connector, you can connect Mule Apps to ANypoint MQ. Through this, you can post and receive messages, acknowledge and delete messages from queues and exchanges.
Ans. Using the following methods, you can connect Anypoint VPC (Virtual Private Cloud) to a private network:
Ans. Bandwidth between instances in peering VPCs is the same as bandwidth inside the same VPC.
Ans. No, the IP ranges of peering VPCs must not overlap.
Ans. Peering between regions is currently unavailable. Both VPCs must be in the same region.
Ans. CloudHub dedicated load balancers (DLBs) are an optional component of Anypoint Platform that allows you to route external HTTP and HTTPS traffic to various Mule apps running on CloudHub workers in a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC).
You can do the following using dedicated load balancers:
A dedicated load balancer for your Anypoint VPC can be created and configured in three ways:
Ans. API Manager is a component of the Anypoint Platform that allows you to manage, control, and secure APIs. API Gateway and Anypoint Service Mesh, both of which enforce policies, collect and track data of analytics, handle proxies, offer encryption and authentication, and manage applications, are used in the runtime.
Ans. While API gateways and API management are often used interchangeably, API management refers to the overall solution for managing APIs in production, which may include a cluster of API gateways, an administrative UI, and even add items like a developer portal for customers to sign up and generate new API keys.
Ans. API Policies such as Rate Limiting and Throttling are available in MuleSoft, and you may use API Manager to implement them.
Rate Limiting: This policy restricts the number of requests an API can take in a certain period of time. Requests that exceed the limit will be rejected by the API.
Throttling: The Throttling policy puts requests that exceed their limitations in a queue to be processed later. If the processing fails after a specific number of attempts, the API will eventually refuse the request. You can set a retry delay and a retry limit.
Ans. Anypoint Design Center gives you the tools you need to create connectors, implement data and application flows, and make API design, reuse, and testing much easier.
Ans. Runtime Manager is an Anypoint Platform tool that lets you deploy and manage all of your Mule applications in one place, whether they're in the cloud or on-premises.
Anypoint Platform now has the ability to manage Scheduled flows from Mule Runtime 3.9.0 onwards.
Ans. On Cloudhub, it is a unit of computing capability for processing. A maximum of 10 apps can be deployed on a single vCore, with each mule program consuming 0.1 vCore.
Ans. DataWeave is a functional programming language that focuses on data transformation. It's MuleSoft's main data transformation language, as well as the expression language for configuring components and connectors. DataWeave, on the other hand, can be used in different ways, such as as a command-line tool.
Ans. You can access the secure property defined as part of the secure property file in the mule application by using p('secure::property name>').
Ans. To call flow from inside a data weave, you can use the data weave lookup function. It's compatible with Mule programs that run on Mule Runtime 4.1.4 or later. It accepts two parameters: the name of the flow and the input payload. For example, Lookup("flow name", payload").
Ans. A Batch Aggregator populates a collection with data until it reaches the Nth record, which is equal to the Batch Aggregator's size attribute. The payload of the Mule Message that is processed by the Batch Aggregator processors is then the collection, which contains all records.
Ans. Distributed file polling is used in Mule 4 to poll files across cluster nodes. This feature is enabled by default in only a few connectors.
Connectors can be configured to poll exclusively from the primary node @primaryNode Only, overriding the mule runtime engine's default setting.
Ans. We can create a flow that runs in a single thread; there is an option to set the Max Concurrency to 1, which will process only one message at a time.
Ans. The following is an example.
Ans. In Dataweave, use the log(" Current Timestamp ",now()) function.
Ans. To combine two arrays into one, use the flatten operator.
Ans. Users can be set up for single sign-on using identity management.
The SSO Standard is listed below.
Ans. In an OAuth2 Dance, the OAuth2 Provider Module lets a Mule Application be set up as an Authentication Manager (OAuth provider). During the execution of a flow, the application will be able to authenticate registered clients, issue tokens, validate tokens, or register and delete clients with this role.
By adding the Cloudhub Network Administrator permission to the profile of the organization where you're creating the load balancer, your profile is authorized to conduct this activity.
In the organization where you wish to establish a load balancer, create an Anypoint Virtual Private Cloud (Anypoint VPC).
Make at least one certificate and a private key for it.
Ans. MuleSoft hosts an EU-only version of the Anypoint Platform control plane (Frankfurt or Dublin data centers). This allows you to install and manage your APIs, apps, and data exclusively within the European Union. This covers MuleSoft-related data and metadata. The EU control plane assures that all MuleSoft data is stored on the EU.
Ans. Anypoint runtime plane deploys the mule runtime application and runs the mule runtime engine; in the case of Cloudhub, MuleSoft will maintain the runtime plane, while on-premise and RTF runtime planes will be controlled by the customer.
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