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Ans: The statistical programming language is widely used amongst data miners and statistics analysts for the development of data analysis and statistical software respectively.
Ans: R is an application of the S programming language with lexical scoping semantics encouraged by Scheme. This computing program was created by Mr. Ross Ihaka and Mr. Robert Gentleman at Auckland University, New Zealand. The language is named “R” after the first names of the authors. Although the project was initiated in the year 1992, its first version was released in 1995 and a stable version after half a decade (2000) respectively.
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1. Data Science: A data scientist is a statistical analyst with an addon asset which is i,e. Computer programming skills. R gives data scientists an edge that authorizes them to conduct statistical and anticipating analysis, collect data, create graphical illustrations, etc.
2. Statistical Computing: With a repository of more than 90,000 packages with every statistical function, the R program is the fundamental and famous language built and used by statisticians for statisticians. The language’s artistic syntax allows researchers from a noncomputer science background to instantly import, analyze and clean data from various data sources. Additionally, R has charting competencies where the user can plot their data and create alluring illustrations from any dataset.
3. Machine Learning: Tasks like Linear and NonLinear regression and classification, decision trees are part of the various package for common machine learning. The R language has been useful in a predictive analytical model as well. Most of the people who are interested in machine learning and researchers use R to initiate algorithms in finance, retail, marketing, and many more fields.
Ans: The following are the alternatives that can be replaced in the place of R t obtain statistical computing and graphics:
1. Python: A superiorlevel, objectoriented programming language with a simple and easytouse syntax. Apart from R, Python is equally famous among datascientists and researchers. Almost every package in R has proportionate libraries in Python as well. The parameter to choose between R and Python depends on what the user is trying to accomplish with their code, i,e. If the main objective is to analyze the data set and present the finding through a research paper then the former is a better choice. On the other hand, if the motive is to draft a data analysis program, running in a distributed system and interacts with a whole lot of factors, then the latter can be considered.
2. Statistical Analysis System: SAS has always been the first choice for exclusive and independent enterprises for their analytics needs. Extensive documentation and GUI, paired with authentic technical support makes SAS a reliable tool for business organizations. R is considered as the foremost programming tool in the field of academics and research when compared to SAS which is extremely famous in commercial analytics.
3. Software package for statistical analysis: a Software package for statistical analysis (SPSS) is often used in social sciences and is studied as the easiest to learn in comparison to other statistical tools. It is very prominent amongst nonstatisticians because of its similarities to excel, making it easy for the users who are priorly aware of excel easy to understand SPSS.
[ Related Article: Compare R vs SAS ]
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Ans: RStudio is defined as the opensource, costfree, integrated development environment for the computing language R. This integrated environment is written in C++ programming language and for graphical userinterface, adopts Qt framework. RStudio runs on the platform as a desktop application and the RStudio server at the same time is available in both opensource and commercial editions.
Ans: While working in a programming language, the user must adopt variables to store various information. These variables are in other words, reversed memory locations that serve the purpose to store data. Based on the data type of the variable which can either be a character, wide character, integer, floatingpoint, etc, the system accommodates memory and concludes what can be reserved in the memory. Unlike C and Java in R, the variables are not termed as any datatype. They are assigned with RObjects and become the data type of the variable.
Ans: The following are the Robject variables frequently used in R.
Ans: Atomic vector, group of atomic vectors, or a combination of many R Objects can be stored in a variable of R.A variable is defined as valid if it contains letters, numbers, and the dot or underlines characters. The name of the variable either starts with a letter or a dot which is not followed by a number.
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Variable Name

Validity

Basis of Validation

var_name%

Invalid

Has the character (%), whereas only (dot) at the end constitutes a valid variable.

var_name2

Valid

Contains alphabets, numerical, (dot), and underscore.

2var_name

Invalid

Starts with a (dot) which is followed by a numerical which is against terms it invalid.

Ans: Variable assignment is derived through the assigned values with the help of right, left, or equivalent to the operator. These can either be printed using print()
or cat()
function respectively. The later option combines various items into a continuous print output.
Ans: In the statistical computing program R, the variable itself is not entitled to any data type, it rather acquires the data type of the R
objects assigned to it. That is the reason behind terming R as dynamically typed language. We can conclude that a user can constantly change the data of a variable when being used in a program.
Ans: The function Is()
is used in order to know all the currently available variables in the concerned workplace. This function can at the same time use patterns to match the names of the variables.
The variables can be deleted by executing the rm() function. Both Is()
and rm()
the function used together can also delete the required variables.
Ans: The R programming and computing language contain numerous libraries in order to create charts and graphical representations. The following are the types of illustrations available in the program:
1. Pie charts
2. Bar charts
3. Box Plots
4. Histograms
5. Line graphs
6. Scatterplots
Ans: The statistical analysis takes place by using numerously inbuilt functions, most of the concerned functions are a part of the R basic package, The R vector is considered as the input along with the arguments in order to produce results.
mean()
” is calculated by dividing the sum of all the values with the number of values in the data presented. Median()
” is the middlemost value present in the entire data series.Ans: The factor data object is used in the programming language to store and process categorized data.
Ans: R base package is the package that is stored by default when the R programming language is installed primarily. It offers core functionalities such as input/output, calculations of arithmetics, and many more in the R environment.