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PostgreSQL vs Oracle - What are the Differences

PostgreSQL and Oracle are both well-known relational database management systems. PostgreSQL is open-source, while Oracle has a commercial version that requires a license. Although both are employed for similar functioning, the databases differ in capabilities, features, compatibility, support and replication, security and pricing.

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PostgreSQL is a leading open-source and enterprise-level relational database management system; however, Oracle is also famous. While both databases have various features, there are essential differences between PostgreSQL and Oracle that must be considered when choosing the right one to do your job perfectly. 

PostgreSQL, an open-source object-relational databases system, is a powerful and flexible platform that supports many features, including triggers and stored procedures. Similarly, Oracle is a proprietary enterprise-level relational management system. It offers a wide variety of features, including enterprise-level security and scalability.

Oracle is known for its powerful and robust capabilities that can handle complicated queries and tasks for data security. PostgreSQL can be used for versatility and extensively in diverse industries. PostgreSQL is compatible with Python and PL/SQL, while Oracle supports Java and PL/SQL. 

POSTGRESQL VS ORACLE : Table Of Contents

What is the language of Oracle and PostgreSQL?

Oracle language is PL/SQL, vs. PostgreSQL uses user-defined functions as server-side scripts. Both Oracle vs. PostgreSQL Performance is popular choices in the market.

Do you need clarification on either of the technologies? No worries, we have listed a deep study of PostgreSQL vs. Oracle below. 

If you want to enrich your career and become a professional in PostgreSQL , then enroll in "PostgreSQL Online Training" - This course will help you to achieve excellence in this domain.

What is PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL is an open-source object-relational database management software (ORDBMS). Many organizations and professionals use it to store, manage and process large amounts of data. PostgreSQL can handle large data sets and has features like built-in replication and views, stored procedures, and triggers. It supports many programming languages, including SQL, PHP, and Perl, as well as Python, Tcl, and Ruby. PostgreSQL offers advanced levels of scalability and extensibility as well as performance.

A database vs. PostgreSQL Schema, a database contains the subset of schema. It has all the schemas, records, and constraints for tables vs. PostgreSQL Schema is a namespace that contains all the named database objects like tables, indexes, data types, functions, stored procedures, etc. 

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What is Oracle?

Oracle is a commercial database management system (RDBMS) that stores and manages data. Due to its reliability, security, and scalability, it is the most popular database system in the world. It allows users to store large amounts of data and manage them safely and efficiently. 

Oracle includes features like replication, partitioning, encryption, and more. Oracle supports many programming languages, including Java, C++, and PL/SQL. Oracle offers high performance and extensibility that help organizations manage their data efficiently and securely.

Releated Article -  Oracle Workflow Interview Question

Top 8 Key Differences between Oracles vs. PostgreSQL

1. Functionality

Oracle Functionality

Oracle is a unique database system that enables users to access large amounts of data from various locations. It can run complex queries, handle data security tasks, and perform analytics, making it ideal for use across retail, finance, and healthcare industries.

PostgreSQL Functionality

PostgreSQL, an open-source database software, is reliable, extensible and robust. It can handle large data sets with multiple users simultaneously. PostgreSQL can be utilized to build web applications in finance, healthcare, and retail.

Releated Article - PostgreSQL Interview Questions

2. Support

Oracle Support

  • Customer service personnel dedicated to customer needs
  • Comprehensive online support resources
  • Technical support contracts
  • Oracle Partner Network Expert Advice
  • Access to the knowledge base for Oracle solutions

PostgreSQL Support

  • Community-driven support forums
  • Access to extensive online tutorials and other resources
  • Third-party vendors offer professional support services
  • The PostgreSQL core team provides assistance
  • PostgreSQL IRC channels and mailing lists access

3. Replication and Compatibility

Compatibility and replication are important factors in determining the performance of a database. Compatibility refers to the system's ability to use different software and hardware.

Oracle Replication & Compatibility

  • Oracle Database supports data replication across multiple nodes
  • Oracle Database is compatible with Windows, Linux, Unix, and other operating systems.
  • Oracle Database supports many data types, including text, numbers, and images.
  • Oracle Database supports a variety of programming languages, including SQL, PL/SQL, and Java PostgreSQL. 

PostgreSQL Replication and compatibility

  • PostgreSQL supports data replication across multiple nodes.
  • It works on Windows, Linux and Unix operating systems and supports many data types such as text, numbers and images.
  • Plus it comes in a range of programming languages like SQL, PL/pgSQL and Python for advanced users.

4. Security

Oracle Security

  • Advanced authorization and authentication methods
  • Database Firewall to protect data from external threats
  • Role-based access control ensures data security
  • Data encryption and audit logs are essential for monitoring and logging activities.
  • Database security can also be ensured through automatic patching and updating processes.

PostgreSQL Security

  • Advanced authorization and authentication methods
  • Data encryption to protect data at rest and in transit
  • Data security is ensured by role-based access control
  • Audit Logging for monitoring and logging
  • Database security is ensured by automatic patching and updating

5. Pricing

PostgreSQL vs. Oracle has different pricing approaches when it comes to pricing. Oracle is a commercial database and requires a paid license. PostgreSQL, on the other hand, is an open-source database that is free to use. Each database offers different features and services. It is essential to evaluate your needs and choose the correct database for you.

Oracle Pricing

  • Oracle Database Standard Edition: $17.500
  • Oracle Database Enterprise Edition: $47,500
  • Oracle Database Cloud Service: Starting at $0.19 an hour
  • Oracle Database Exadata Cloud Service: Beginning at $50/month

PostgreSQL Pricing

  • PostgreSQL can be used as an open-source database.
  • PostgreSQL has additional features and services such as replication, clustering, and high availability. Additional licensing fees may apply.
  • PostgreSQL is available on cloud services like AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud Platform. These services have their pricing models.

6. Compliance

Oracle SQL Compliance

  • Oracle Database conforms to the most recent ANSI SQL standards.
  • Oracle Database offers advanced features like query optimization, stored procedure, triggers, and more
  • Oracle Database conforms to current industry standards, such as JSON, XML, and REST.
  • Oracle Database supports various programming languages, including SQL, PL/SQL, and Java.

PostgreSQL SQL Compliance

  • PostgreSQL conforms to the most recent ANSI SQL standards
  • PostgreSQL offers advanced features like query optimization, stored procedure, triggers, and more
  • PostgreSQL conforms to current industry standards, such as JSON, XML, and REST.
  • PostgreSQL supports various programming languages, including SQL, PL/pgSQL, and Python.

7. Migration Tools

Oracle Migration Tools

  • Oracle Migration Workbench to migrate from Oracle Database into Oracle Database
  • Oracle Data Pump to migrate from Oracle Database into other databases
  • Oracle SQL Developer to migrate from non-Oracle databases into Oracle Database
  • Oracle GoldenGate for real-time data replication

PostgreSQL Migration Tools:

  • PostgreSQL Migration Toolkit to migrate from PostgreSQL into PostgreSQL
  • PostgreSQL Data Pump to migrate from PostgreSQL into other databases
  • pgloader to migrate from a non-PostgreSQL database to PostgreSQL
  • Slony I for real-time data replication

8. Backup and Recovery

Oracle Backup and Recovery

  • Oracle RMAN is an automated backup and recovery system
  • Oracle Data Guard for failover and replication
  • Oracle Advanced Security data encryption
  • Oracle Flashback technology to point-in-time recovery
  • Oracle Enterprise Manager is used to monitor and manage databases

Postgres Backup & Recovery9

  • pg_dump to back up databases
  • pg_restore to restore databases
  • WAL-E is for replication and failover
  • pgcrypto for data encryption
  • pg_recovery point-in-time recovery
  • The PC monitor is used to monitor and manage databases

Features of PostgreSQL and Oracle

PostgreSQL boasts several key characteristics, such as:

PostgreSQL is an open-source database system, meaning it's free to use, modify and distribute. As such, it has become a go-to choice for small and large businesses.

  •  ACID Compliance: PostgreSQL is ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) compliant, meaning data can be securely stored and retrieved easily.
  •  Data Integrity: PostgreSQL offers mechanisms to guarantee data integrity, such as constraints, triggers and foreign keys that help enforce data validation rules.
  •  Concurrency: PostgreSQL offers concurrent access to the database, allowing multiple users to view and modify identical data simultaneously.
  •  Extensibility: PostgreSQL's extensibility allows users to create custom data types, operators and functions.
  •  JSON Support: PostgreSQL has built-in support for JSON data types, allowing users to store and query JSON information directly in the database.
  •  Full-text Search: PostgreSQL offers comprehensive full-text search capabilities, such as stemming, ranking and phrase searching.
  •  Replication: PostgreSQL offers various types of replication, such as master-slave and multi-master, that enable users to build high-availability and fault-tolerant systems.
  •  Scalability: PostgreSQL was designed for scalability, meaning it can easily handle large data sets and high transaction rates.
  •  Security: PostgreSQL offers several security features, such as SSL support, access controls and encryption, that help to safeguard sensitive data from unauthorized access.

Oracle boasts several key characteristics, including:

  • Scalability: Oracle is designed for enterprise applications of all sizes, supporting massive amounts of data and high transaction rates.
  • High Availability: Oracle provides several high-availability features, such as automatic failover, real-time data replication and clustering, that help guarantee the database remains operational.
  • Security: Oracle offers comprehensive security solutions, such as authentication, authorization, encryption and auditing, to safeguard sensitive data from unauthorized access.
  • Multitenancy: Oracle supports multitenancy, which enables multiple users to access a single instance of the database while ensuring data isolation and security.
  • Performance: Oracle provides several performance optimization features, such as query optimization, indexing and caching, that help guarantee the databaseuns efficiently and quickly.
  • Backup and Recovery: Oracle offers several backup and recovery solutions, such as hot backups, incremental backups, and point-in-time recovery, to guarantee that data is not lost during a disaster or system failure.
  • Cloud Integration: Oracle can be seamlessly integrated with various cloud platforms, such as Oracle Cloud, Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure, simplifying database management and increasing scalability.
  • Spatial and Graph Processing: Oracle offers comprehensive support for spatial data processing, including spatial indexing, functions, and algorithms - ideal for applications such as geospatial mapping and social network analysis.
  • Extensibility: Oracle offers several options for extending the database, such as user-defined functions, stored procedures and triggers that allow you to customize it according to specific application needs.
  • Oracle Support and Documentation: Oracle provides comprehensive support and documentation, such as user guides, technical documentation, and online forums that enable users to resolve problems quickly and gain more insight into the database system.

Choosing a Database Management System

There are many factors to consider while choosing a database: These include performance, compatibility, and pricing. PostgreSQL and Oracle are the most popular relational databases in the industry. Oracle is a commercial database that manages large data sets and complex queries. On the other hand, PostgreSQL is an open-source database that's reliable and powerful. 

Oracle vs. PostgreSQL performance, Oracles performance is better because it can handle large data sets and complex queries. It supports many programming languages making it an excellent choice for web applications. PostgreSQL's performance is excellent since it supports replication and clustering. This allows data to be stored on multiple nodes.

Oracle provides various capabilities, including data encryption, role-based access control, and advanced authentication. PostgreSQL also offers many features, including data encryption and role-based access control. Both databases offer extensive online support and resources for users.

PostgreSQL and Oracle are compatible with each other. Both databases can also handle many data types, making them ideal for many applications.

Oracle and PostgreSQL both provide powerful databases with a range of capabilities. However, the specific needs of each application will determine which database is most suitable; both provide excellent performance and compatibility. Oracle is best suited to large databases with complex queries, while PostgreSQL works better for web applications or mission-critical programs.

Frequently Asked Questions 

1. Is PostgreSQL Better Than Oracle?

Both databases are optimal for your application depending on its specific needs; they provide superior performance and compatibility. Oracle excels with large databases with complex queries, while PostgreSQL works great for web applications and mission-critical programs.

 2. How is PostgreSQL Different From Oracle?

Oracle is a commercial database designed for large data sets and complex queries, while PostgreSQL is an open-source alternative designed to be reliable. Oracle provides features like data encryption, role-based access controls, advanced authentication and data encryption; PostgreSQL also includes these capabilities and role-based access control.

 3. Can Postgres Replace Oracle?

PostgreSQL is an efficient and dependable database that could replace Oracle in certain applications.

 4. What Does Oracle Do?

Oracle is a commercial database that manages large data sets and complex queries. Additionally, it offers extensive online resources as well as support forums.

5. Why Switch from Oracle to PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL, an open-source database, offers superior reliability and power. It supports replication and clustering, enabling data storage across multiple nodes, and offers support for various programming languages, making it ideal for web applications.

6. What are the Advantages of PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL offers support for numerous programming languages, making it a perfect platform for web applications. PostgreSQL is one of the leading open-source database systems that powers thousands of websites, services, and applications worldwide.

 7. What is the main disadvantage of PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL's primary disadvantage is its inability to scale like Oracle. Therefore, it might not be suitable for handling large datasets or complex queries.

 8. Is PostgreSQL outdated?

PostgreSQL has not been discontinued. It is a reliable and powerful database widely used by the

industry.

 9. Why is PostgreSQL the best database?

PostgreSQL, a reliable and powerful database widely used within the industry, is highly recommended. Open-source database PostgreSQL supports replication and clustering. This allows data to be stored on multiple nodes. It supports many programming languages making it an excellent choice for web applications.

 10. When to choose PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL can be used for web applications as well as mission-critical applications. For systems that require the execution of complex queries or data warehousing and data analysis, you choose PostgreSQL.

 11. Do big companies use PostgreSQL?

Yes,6118 companies use PostgreSQL in their tech stack, including Uber, Netflix, and Instagram. 

 12. Is PostgreSQL an ETL tool?

PostgreSQL is not an ETL platform.

Conclusion

This article explored what PostgreSQL and Oracle are, how they differ, and which might be better for you to use. All your questions regarding PostgreSQL versus Oracle were addressed and clarified here in detail. Comparing PostgreSQL to Oracle Database Management Systems will include six key factors like scalability, support, functionality, and replication security pricing that should be considered before making your choice.

If you want to enrich your career and become a professional in PostgreSQL , then enroll in "PostgreSQL Online Training" - This course will help you to achieve excellence in this domain.

 

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Last updated: 25 March 2023
About Author
Remy Sharp
Madhuri Yerukala

Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .

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