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Terraform Interview Questions

Terraform allows you to build, change, and modify infrastructure securely and efficiently. Terraform can assist with multi-cloud deployments by providing a single procedure for all clouds. The below-listed Terraform Interview Questions enables beginners to understand requirements and integrate with technology.

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General Articles

Cloud computing has been increasingly popular, opening up many new possibilities. The sheer variety and volume of employment available in cloud computing have attracted many candidates. What is the appeal of Terraform? Every facet of the cloud computing environment is essential to all IT positions. The popularity of technologies like Terraform can be attributed to the rise of DevOps. You'll have to confront terraform interview questions if you want to advance in your Terraform interview.

Frequently Asked Terraform Interview Questions

  1. What exactly do you mean by Terraform in AWS?
  2. Is it feasible to use callbacks with Terraform on Azure?
  3. What is a Terraform cloud?
  4. What are Terraform modules?
  5. List all of Terraform's version control options.
  6. What are the components that makeup Terraform architecture?
  7. In Terraform, How Do I Store Sensitive Data?
  8. What is a tainted resource?
  9. Provide the terraform settings for a single AWS EC2 instance.

Terraform Interview Questions And Answers

1. What exactly do you mean by Terraform in AWS?

Terraform, a part of the AWS DevOps Competency and an AWS Partner Network (APN) Advanced Technology, is an "infrastructure as code" tool comparable to AWS CloudFormation that lets you design, edit, and version your Amazon Web Services (AWS) infrastructure. You may programmatically control your on-premises and public cloud resources by developing Terraform's custom AWS CloudFormation resource. You may access that resource directly from the CloudFormation UI or via the AWS Service Catalog, which adds an extra degree of governance and control.

2. What are the essential aspects of Terraform?

  • Terraform allows you to manage all your infrastructures as code and build them as required. The essential features are
  • A console that will enable users to watch functions in action—the capability to convert HCL code to JSON format.
  • Interpolation is supported through a configuration language.
  • A module count maintains track of how many modules have been installed on the infrastructure.

3. Define IAC

Infrastructure as Code (IAC) allows one to code instead of using manual procedures to construct, alter, and maintain the infrastructure. The configuration files may be modified and transmitted securely within an organisation built according to infrastructure standards.

4. What Terraform commands are the most useful?

The useful Terraform commands are as follows:

  • Terraform init - Creates a new directory in the current directory.
  • Terraform refresh - This command updates the state file.
  • Terraform output - Views Outputs of Terraform
  • Terraform apply - Executes the Terraform code and creates objects.
  • Terraform Destroy - Destroys what Terraform has constructed.
  • Terraform graph - Generates a graph in DOT format.
  • Terraform plan - Tests how Terraform will perform.

5. Is it feasible to use callbacks with Terraform on Azure?

Callbacks are possible with Terraform on Azure if you use Azure Event Hubs. Terraform's Azure supplier offers users simple functionality. The Terraform occurrence has already been set up in Microsoft Azure Cloud Shell.

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6. What is Terraform init, and how does it work?

Terraform init is a control that allows you to set up an operational index with Terraform pattern files. This control can be repeated several times. It should be the initial command executed after creating a new Terraform design.

7. What is Terraform D, and how does it work?

Terraform D is a Windows plugin that works with almost all in-service systems. By default, Terraform init looks for plugins in the following directory.

8. While utilizing the TFS API to deliver resources, is the history the same as the web?

Yes, the narrative is comparable to what you'd get on the web because UI uses API as its foundation. Everything on the UI is available through additional methods and the API.

9. What is the purpose of Terraform in DevOps?

The HashiCorp Configuration Language, which is comparable to JSON, is used by Terraform (HCL). HCL provides a concise vocabulary that makes establishing and enforcing infrastructure settings across multiple clouds and on-premises data centres simple for DevOps teams.

10. In Terraform, what is the purpose of a null resource?

The standard resource library is implemented by null resource, but no further action is done. The triggers option allows you to provide an arbitrary collection of values that will cause resources to be replaced if they are modified.

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11. What is a Terraform cloud?

The platform which allows teams to collaborate on Terraform projects on-demand or in reaction to specific circumstances is the Terraform cloud. It is tightly connected with Terraform's processes and data. Terraform modules are shared by a private registry.

12. Describe Oracle Cloud Infrastructure in detail.

Oracle Cloud is a cloud computing service consisting of storage, servers, applications, services, and networks supplied through a global network of Oracle Corporation managed data centers. These services can be accessed at any time over the Internet.

13. What is "terraform backend"?

A backend may be specified in any Terraform setup, which defines two key things:

  • Where are surgeries carried out?
  • Where is the state saved? (In a state file, Terraform maintains track of all the resources generated.) 

14. What version control systems do Terraform support in addition to GitHub?

  • GitLab EE
  • GitLab CE
  • Bucket cloud.

15. Who are Terraform's main competitors?

Terraform's key competitors and alternatives are Azure Management Tools, Morpheus, CloudHealth, Turbonomic, and CloudBolt.

16. What is the purpose of Terraform CLI, and what are some common CLI commands?

Terraform's Command-Line Interface (CLI) is used to manage infrastructure and communicate with Terraform state, configuration files, and providers, among other things.

Here are some simple CLI commands to get you started:

  • Terraform init - Sets up your working directory to run additional commands.
  • Terraform destroy - Destroys the infrastructure you've already built.
  • Terraform validate - Check if the configuration is correct using terraform validate.
  • Terraform apply - This command develops or changes infrastructure.
  • Terraform plan - Depicts the modifications that the existing arrangement necessitates.

17. What are Terraform modules?

In Terraform, a module is a container containing many resources utilized together. The root module is required for every Terraform and includes the resources listed in the. tf files.

18. What is a Private Module Registry, and how does it work?

Terraform Cloud has a Private Module Registry feature that allows you to distribute Terraform modules throughout your enterprise. On the registry, you may set rules or "sentinel policies" that govern how members of your organization can use the modules.

19. Can Terraform be used to build on-premise infrastructure?

Yes, Terraform may be used to create infrastructure on-premise. We may select from a variety of vendors to discover which one best meets our requirements. We only need an API to get started.

20. Can I use Terraform to deploy several providers?

Yes, Terraform supports multi-provider installations, including on-premises solutions like OpenStack and VMware, as well as SDN management.

21. How is a duplicate resource error during terraform application ignored?

We can experiment with the following options:

  • Delete the resources from the cloud provider's API and rebuild them with Terraform.
  • To stop Terraform from managing specific resources, remove them from the code.
  • Perform a resource terraform import and delete the code attempting to replicate them.

22. List all of Terraform's version control options.

The following version controls are supported:

  • Azure DevOps Services.
  • Azure DevOps Server
  • Bitbucket Server
  • Cloud Bitbucket
  • Gitlab Enterprise Edition (EE) and Enterprise Edition (CE)
  • Gitlab.com
  • GitHub Enterprise.
  • GitHub.com (OAuth)
  • GitHub.com

23. What are some of the Terraform provisioners that are pre-installed?

The list of Terraform's built-in provisioners are:

  • Provisioner without a salt-master
  • Provisioner for Remote Execution
  • Provisioner of Puppets
  • Provisioner with local authority
  • Provider of Habitat
  • Provisioner of Files
  • Provisioner Chef

24. What command is used to remove Terraform-managed infrastructure?

For this, the following command is used:

[options] [dir] terraform destroy

25. Tell us some significant Terraform applications.

Terraform has a wide range of applications owing to its ability to enhance its resource manipulation capabilities. The following are some of the unique applications:

  • Development of software demonstrations
  • Schedulers of resources
  • The use of several clouds
  • Environment inventions that can be thrown away
  • Development of multi-tiered apps
  • Clusters of self-service
  • Heroku App Configuration

26. What are the components that makeup Terraform's architecture?

The following components are included in the Terraform architecture:

  • Sub-graphs
  • Evaluation of Expression
  • Evaluation of the Vertex
  • Walk the Graph
  • Builder of Graphs
  • Manager of the State
  • Loader Configuration
  • CLI (Common Language Interface) (Command Line interface)
  • Backend

27. In Terraform, define the Resource Graph.

A resource graph is used to depict the resources. It allows you to simultaneously alter and produce various resources. Terraform creates a plan to update the state of the graph's configuration. It quickly establishes a system to aid us in recognizing drawbacks.

28. Provide a few examples of where we can use Sentinel policies?

Sentinels are an excellent method to use Terraform to apply a range of rules. Listed below are a few examples:

  • Make unambiguous ownership of resources a must.
  • Limit the roles that the cloud provider can play.
  • Examine the Terraform Cloud operations audit trail.
  • Only particular resources, services, or data sources are prohibited.
  • Make resource labelling obligatory.
  • In the Private Module Registry, you may limit how modules are utilized.

29. What are the different degrees of Sentinel policing?

There are three degrees of enforcement in Sentinel: advisory, soft mandatory, and hard obligatory.

  • Advisory - You've been logged in, but you're free to leave. When a user initiates a plan that violates the rules, an advisory is sent.
  • Soft Mandatory - Unless an override is stated, the policy must pass. Overrides are only available to administrators.
  • Hard Mandatory - The policy must pass regardless of the circumstances. Unless it is abolished, this policy cannot be overridden. In Terraform, this is the default enforcement level.

[ Check out: Terraform Private Registry]

30. In Terraform, How Do I Store Sensitive Data?

Terraform requires credentials to interact with your cloud provider's API. These credentials, on the other hand, are typically left unencrypted on your desktop. Significant numbers of API and cryptographic keys are exposed to GitHub every day. As a result, you should never save your API keys explicitly in Terraform code. Anything that shouldn't be retained in plain text, such as passwords, TLS certificates, and SSH keys, should be encrypted.

31. What is Terragrunt, and how does it help you?

Terragrunt is a lightweight wrapper for Terraform that offers extra capabilities, including DRY setups, remote state management, and support for a variety of Terraform modules. It is employed for the following purposes:

  • Managing numerous Amazon Web Services accounts
  • Numerous Terraform commands are being executed on multiple modules.
  • DRYING OUT OUR CLI FLAGS
  • Maintaining the setting of our remote state DRY.
  • We're going to keep our Terraform code. DRY

32. What is the purpose of state file locking?

Terraform's state file locking method prevents numerous users from doing the same task by blocking activities on a given state file. When one user unlocks the lock, only the other user can access that state. This helps to keep state files from becoming corrupted. This is a backend procedure.

33. What is a "tainted resource"?

A tainted resource must be deleted and regenerated when the following apply command is sent. The state files are changed when a resource is identified as contaminated, but nothing changes the infrastructure. The terraform plan reveals that assistance will be destroyed and rebuilt. When the next application occurs, the modifications are applied.

34. What could be the best way to lock Terraform module versions?

A known and reliable technique of locking Terraform module versions is to use the Terraform module registry as a source. The Terraform configuration file's version attribute can be used. We'll need to use '?ref' to describe the versions, branches, and query string because we're utilizing the Github repository as a source.

35. What is Terraform Core, and how does it work? Tell us about some of its essential tasks.

Terraform Core is a statically compiled binary written in the Go programming language. The produced binaries can be used as a starting point for Terraform users. 

The major responsibilities are as follows:

  • Infrastructure as code functions read and interpolate modules and configuration files.
  • Construction of a Resource Graph
  • RPC connection between plugins
  • Implementation of the strategy
  • Management of the current status of resources

36. Provide the terraform settings for a single AWS EC2 instance.

The Terraform setup for launching a single EC2 instance on AWS is as follows:

"AWS" as a provider
"region" = "
"AWS instance" is a resource.
"as an example"
"" = ami
"" instance type="" instance type="" instance type="" instance_
tagging
"example" as a name

37. How will you upgrade Terraform plugins?

When executing 'terraform init,' use the '-upgrade' option. This command looks for new provider versions that are acceptable on releases.hashicorp.com. If available, it also downloads provider versions.

38. How will you make a high-level object from one module available to the other?

In resource configuration, an output variable is defined.

  • Declare module A's output variable.
  • Make a variable.tf file for module B.
  • In this file, create an input variable with the same name as the key defined in module B.
  • Rep the procedure to make variables accessible to other modules.

39. What are some of the most recent Terraform Azure Provider considerations?

In the recent editions, new data resources such as Azure batch certificate, which assists in certificate administration, are provided. This resource is used to control the prefix in networking. The Azure app service has been upgraded, and bugs have been fixed.

40. How will you manage and regulate rollbacks if something goes wrong?

In my VCS, I need to recommit the prior code version to make it the new and current one. This would start the terraform run command, which would execute the old code. Because Terraform is more declarative, I'll ensure that everything in the code reverts to its previous state. If the state file was damaged, I would utilize Terraform Enterprise's State Rollback feature to restore the previous form.

Conclusion:

Terraform interviews may be tough at times, therefore familiarity with the platform is essential. It's advisable to keep exploring and experimenting with the platform to improve your chances of passing the interview.

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Soujanya

Soujanya is a Senior Writer at Mindmajix with tons of content creation experience in the areas of cloud computing, BI, Perl Scripting. She also creates content on Salesforce, Microstrategy, and Cobit. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter.