Today, technology is expanding at a rapid pace, and companies are using a whole set of technologies for product development. This created a huge demand for Full Stack developers as they possess great command over multiple programming languages. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment opportunities for Full Stack Developers is estimated to grow from 135,000 to more than 853,000 by 2024. If you are aspiring a career in Full Stack Development, well then the future is yours. We at Mindmajix, have curated a list of top Full Stack Interview Questions and Answers that will help you breeze through your interview.
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Ans. Full Stack development involves developing both front end and back end of the web application/website at the same time. This process includes three layers:
Presentation layer (frontend part responsible for user experience)
Business logic layer (backend part refers to the server-side of the application)
Ans. A Full Stack Web Developer is a person who is familiar with developing with both client and server software. In addition to mastering CSS and HTML, they are also know how to program browser, database and server.
To fully comprehend the role of Full Stack developer, you must understand the web development components - front end and back end
The front end comprises a visible part of the application in which the user interacts, while the backend includes business logic.
Ans. Some of the popular tools used by full-stack developers to make development more accessible and efficient are:
Ans. A Full Stack developer should be familiar with:
Ans. As the name suggests, Pair Programming is where two programmers share a single workstation. Formally, one programmer at the keyboard called the "driver" writes the code. The other programmer is the "navigator" views each line of the code written, spell check, and proofread it. Also, programmers will swap their roles every few minutes and vice-versa.
Ans. Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) is a process that utilizes additional HTTP headers to tell browsers to provide a web application running at one origin. CORS accesses various web resources on different domains. Web scripts can be integrated using CORS when it requests a resource that has an external origin (protocol. Domain, or port) from its own.
Ans. Inversion of Control (IoC) is a broad term used by software developers for defining a pattern which is used for decoupling components and layers in the system. It is mostly used in the context of object-oriented programming. Control of objects or portions of a program is transferred to a framework or container with the help of Inversion of Control. It can be achieved using various mechanisms such as service locator pattern, strategy design pattern, factory pattern, and dependency injection.
Ans. Dependency Injection is a design pattern by which IoC is executed. Injecting objects or connecting objects with other objects is done by container instead of by the object themselves. It involves three types of classes.
Ans. Continuous Integration (CI) is a practice where developers integrate code into a shared repository regularly to detect problems early. CI process involves automatic tools that state new code's correctness before integration. Automated builds and tests verify every check-in.
Ans. The main purpose of multithreading is to provide multiple threads of execution concurrently for maximum utilization of CPU. It allows multiple threads to exist within the context of a process such that they execute individually but share their process resources.
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Ans. This is typically a difficult question to answer, but a good developer will be able to go through this with ease. The core difference is GraphQL doesn't deal with dedicated resources. The description of a particular resource is not coupled to the way you retrieve it. Everything referred to as a graph is connected and can be queried to application needs.
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Ans. There are quite a lot of possible ways to optimize your website for the best performance:
Ans. The purpose of the Observer pattern is to define a one-to-many dependency between objects, as when an object changes the state, then all its dependents are notified and updated automatically. The object that watches on the state of another object is called observer, and the object that is being watched is called the subject.
Ans. A Full-Stack engineer is someone with a senior-level role with the experience of a Full Stack developer, but with project management experience in system administration (configuring and managing computer networks and systems).
Ans. Polling is a method by which a client asks the server for new data frequently. Polling can be done in two ways: Long polling and Short Polling.
Ans. The following table compares the GET and POST:
|GET is used to request data from a specified resource.||POST is used to send data to a server to create/update a resource.|
|Can be bookmarked||Cannot be bookmarked|
|Can be cached||Not cached|
|Parameters remain in the browser history||Parameters are not saved in the browser history|
|Data is visible to everyone in the URL||Data is not displayed in the URL|
|Only ASCII characters allowed||Binary data is also allowed|
Ans. The following table compares the abstract and interface:
|An abstract class can have abstract and non-abstract methods||The interface can have only abstract methods.|
|An abstract class can have static, non-static, final, non-final variables.||The interface has only static and final variables.|
|An abstract class can provide the implementation of the interface.||Interface can’t provide the implementation of an abstract class.|
|An abstract class can be extended using the keyword "extends".||An interface can be implemented using the keyword "implements".|
|A Java abstract class can have class members like private, protected, etc.||Members of a Java interface are public by default.|
Ans. If the data within the API is publicly accessible, then its not possible to prevent data scraping completely. However, there is an effective solution that will deter most people/bots: rate-limiting (throttling).
Throttling will prevent a specific device from making a defined number of requests within a defined time. Upon exceeding the specified number of requests, 429 Too Many Attempts HTTP error should be thrown.
Other possible solutions to prevent a bot from scrapping are:
Ans. REST stands for representational state transfer. A RESTful API (also known as REST API) is an architectural style for an application programming interface (API or web API) that uses HTTP requests to obtain and manage information. That data can be used to POST, GET, DELETE, and OUT data types, which refers to reading, deleting, creating, and operations concerning services.
Data attribute consists of two parts:
|Removes all the built-in browser styling.||Normalizing makes elements render consistently across browsers.|
|Provides bug fixes||Includes bug fixes|
Ans. Acronym ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. In database systems, ACID refers to a standard set of properties that ensure database transactions are processed reliably.
In a rolling deployment, a new version of application gradually replaces the previous one. Upgrading system takes a period of time, and both old and new versions will coexist without affecting user experience or functionality in that phase.
In a blue-green deployment, two identical production environments work in parallel. One is a blue environment that runs the production environment by receiving all user traffic. Another one is the green environment which you want to upgrade. Both use the same database backend and app configuration. If you swap the environment from blue to green, then traffic is directed towards a green environment.
Ans. An application server is a software framework that allows the creation of both web applications and server environment. It contains a comprehensive service layer model and supports various protocols and application programming interfaces (API).
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Ans. Referential transparency is a term used in functional programming to replace the expression without changing the final result of the program. This means that whether the input used is a reference or an actual value that the reference is pointing to the program's behaviour is not changed.
|Basis for comparison||Server-side scripting||Client-side scripting|
|Definition||Works in backend and not visible to the client-side.||Works in frontend and scripts are visible among users.|
|Processing||Server Interaction required||Interaction with the server is not required|
Ans. In general, a design pattern is a repeatable solution for common problems occurring in software design. These patterns show the interactions and relationships between classes and objects.
Mainly, there are three types of design patterns:
Creational - These are about object creation or class instantiation. Further, these patterns are categorized into object-creational patterns and class-creational patterns.
Structural - These are about organizing different classes and objects to form larger functionality and provide new functionality.
Behavioural - These are about identifying common communication patterns between objects.
|Normalization is used to reduce data redundancy and data inconsistently from the table.||Denormalization is used to add redundancy to execute queries.|
|Data integrity is maintained||Data integrity is not maintained|
|In normalization, no of tables is increased.||In denormalization, no of tables is decreased.|
|Normalization optimizes the usage of disk space.||Denormalization does not optimize the disk spaces.|
Ans. The following ways are used to optimize website: