Today, technology is expanding at a rapid pace, and companies are using a whole set of technologies for product development. This created a huge demand for Full Stack developers as they possess great command over multiple programming languages. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment opportunities for Full Stack Developers is estimated to grow from 135,000 to more than 853,000 by 2024. If you are aspiring a career in Full Stack Development, well then the future is yours. We at Mindmajix, have curated a list of top Full Stack Interview Questions and Answers that will help you breeze through your interview.

Full Stack Interview Questions and Answers for Beginners

Q1. What is Full Stack development?

Ans. Full Stack development involves developing both front end and back end of the web application/website at the same time. This process includes three layers:

  • Presentation layer (frontend part responsible for user experience) 

  • Business logic layer (backend part refers to the server-side of the application)

  • Database layer

Q2. Explain Pair Programming.

Ans. As the name suggests, Pair Programming is where two programmers share a single workstation. Formally, one programmer at the keyboard called the "driver" writes the code. The other programmer is the "navigator" views each line of the code written, spell check, and proofread it. Also, programmers will swap their roles every few minutes and vice-versa.

Q3. What is CORS?

Ans.  Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) is a process that utilizes additional HTTP headers to tell browsers to provide a web application running at one origin. CORS accesses various web resources on different domains. Web scripts can be integrated using CORS when it requests a resource that has an external origin (protocol. Domain, or port) from its own.

Q4. What is Inversion of Control (IoC)?

Ans. Inversion of Control (IoC) is a broad term used by software developers for defining a pattern which is used for decoupling components and layers in the system. It is mostly used in the context of object-oriented programming. Control of objects or portions of a program is transferred to a framework or container with the help of Inversion of Control. It can be achieved using various mechanisms such as service locator pattern, strategy design pattern, factory pattern, and dependency injection.

Q5. What is Dependency Injection?

Ans. Dependency Injection is a design pattern by which IoC is executed. Injecting objects or connecting objects with other objects is done by container instead of by the object themselves. It involves three types of classes.

  • Client class: It depends on the service class.

  • Service class: It provides service to the client class.

  • Injector class: It injects service class object into the client class.

Q6. What is Continuous Integration?

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Ans. Continuous Integration (CI) is a practice where developers integrate code into a shared repository regularly to detect problems early. CI process involves automatic tools that state new code's correctness before integration. Automated builds and tests verify every check-in.

Q7. What is multithreading and how it is used?

Ans. The main purpose of multithreading is to provide multiple threads of execution concurrently for maximum utilization of CPU. It allows multiple threads to exist within the context of a process such that they execute individually but share their process resources.

Also Read: Mean Stack Interview Questions

Q8. How is GraphQL different from REST?

Ans. This is typically a difficult question to answer, but a good developer will be able to go through this with ease. The core difference is GraphQL doesn't deal with dedicated resources. The description of a particular resource is not coupled to the way you retrieve it. Everything referred to as a graph is connected and can be queried to application needs.

Q9. List the ways to improve your website load time and performance.

Ans. There are quite a lot of possible ways to optimize your website for the best performance:

Q10. What is Observer pattern?

Ans. The purpose of the Observer pattern is to define a one-to-many dependency between objects, as when an object changes the state, then all its dependents are notified and updated automatically. The object that watches on the state of another object is called observer, and the object that is being watched is called the subject.

Q11. How is rolling deployment different from blue-green deployment?

Ans. 

  • In a rolling deployment, a new version of application gradually replaces the previous one. Upgrading system takes a period of time, and both old and new versions will coexist without affecting user experience or functionality in that phase.

  • In a blue-green deployment, two identical production environments work in parallel. One is a blue environment that runs the production environment by receiving all user traffic. Another one is the green environment which you want to upgrade. Both use the same database backend and app configuration. If you swap the environment from blue to green, then traffic is directed towards a green environment.

Q12. What is an Application server?

Ans. An application server is a software framework that allows the creation of both web applications and server environment. It contains a comprehensive service layer model and supports various protocols and application programming interfaces (API).

Related Blog - React JS Interview Questions for Beginners

Q13. What is referential transparency?

Ans. Referential transparency is a term used in functional programming to replace the expression without changing the final result of the program. This means that whether the input used is a reference or an actual value that the reference is pointing to the program's behaviour is not changed.

Q14. What are the differences between Server-side Scripting and Client-side Scripting?

 

Ans. 

Basis for comparison Server-side scripting Client-side scripting
Definition Works in backend and not visible to the client-side. Works in frontend and scripts are visible among users.
Processing Server Interaction required Interaction with the server is not required
Languages Ruby on Rails, PHP, ASP.net, Python, ColdFusion, etc. CSS, HTML, JavaScript, etc.
Security Relatively Secure Insecure

Q15. What are the types of design patterns?

Ans.  In general, a design pattern is a repeatable solution for common problems occurring in software design. These patterns show the interactions and relationships between classes and objects.

Mainly, there are three types of design patterns:

  • Creational - These are about object creation or class instantiation. Further, these patterns are categorized into object-creational patterns and class-creational patterns.

  • Structural - These are about organizing different classes and objects to form larger functionality and provide new functionality.

  • Behavioural - These are about identifying common communication patterns between objects.