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Objective C Class and Its Property Attributes - IPhone

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Objective C

Corporation it was designed to enable the powerful feature of objective-oriented programming it works as a powerfull set of extension to the c-language.

1. objective C takes the best feature from c and small talk it is easy to learn and has full objective oriented capabilities Apple has selected objective c has primary programming language for an MVC and iphone.

2. It is a power full language easy to learn and objective-oriented version of C it provides dynamic binding.

3. Easy to understand code and when the organized language that why objective c is selected for coco of the framework.


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Main Topics of objective C


  • Classes/interface
  • Protocol
  • Exception handling
  • Memory management
  • Messaging
  • Categories
  • Id/dynamic binding/enema
  • Overloading / overriding.
  • Threading.


Objective c has same additional keywords to avoid conflict with a keyword in other languages it uses @ at the being of the keywords

  • @ Interface
  • @implementation
  • @end
  • @syn the size
  • @protocol
  • @property

Access specifies:

  • @private
  • @protected
  • @public

Exception handling directives:

  • @try
  • @catch
  • @finally
  • @throws

Directives used for the particular purpose:

  • @class
  • @selector
  • @string
  • @synchronized

Keywords for memory management:

  • alloc
  • init
  • retain
  • release
  • autorelease

Some other keywords:

  • BooL
  • Self
  • Super

Preprocessor directives:

#import, #define

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 A class is nothing but a collection of variables and function it is a blueprint for creating objects

  • A class consists of state and behavior.
  • The state is nothing but variable and behavior is functions or method.
  • In objective c class is declaring by using @ interface directive
  • A class is a written h file the definition of h file is m file.
  • The variable declared in a class can be accessed entire class function.

Note:- NS object is the main base class for all objects

Objective S Class Syntax:

.h file:-

@interface a: other class name
//variable declaration
Int x;
Float y;
Nesting *str”;
//property declaration
@property (non atomic , retain)nesting*str”;
//method declaration
Void addition ();
Void subtraction();

.m file:-

@implementation A
Void addition ()
Void subtraction ()


objective c 2.0 introduces a new syntax to declare instance variables as properties.

  • Properties are instance [variable of] public and private variables.
  • Declare in an instance variable as property provides the external class with access.

Property Attributes

1) Atomic:

In objective c by default property attribute is atomic in atomic multiple threads are created for setting and getting the values for creating thread extra code will be generated and it leads to performance issue

2) Non-atomic:

By using this attribute we tell the compiler that it doesn’t to generate extra code for thread creation. It is a thread safety.

If we don’t specify non-atomic the compiler will generate extra code, and property can be accessed from single threads with improves to performance.

3) Read-only:

This attribute tells the compiler that the property can declare be read but not be said the compiler will be only generated.

  • getter method, not setter method if we attend to write code that assigns a value to the property then compile will generate a warning.

4) Retain:

This specifies that you are instead inputting ownership claim on the object if the caller releases this object it does not deallocate because you retained it.

5) Copy:

This attribute creates a copy of the object can we called the setter method, and then you become an owner of the new object.

Accessory Methods:

1) Setter methods: This is used per setting a value to the property
2) Getter method: This is used per getting a value to the property
3) @synthesize: If you use this directive in a program for the property then no need to write accessory methods to the property.

Syntax:- @synthesize str;

Realizing a property:

Syntax:- [str release];

These statements are written in the deal loc method.

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Subroutines are generally called methods in objective c they are divided into 2 types
1. Class methods
2. Instance methods
→ A class method is noted with a + in declaration and documentation.

→ An instance method is marked within (-) sign

→ Every method can be called by class or instance of the class

Syntax of objective C methods:

 + (return type) method name———–instant class method

_ (return type)method name————instance method.

Eg:-   .hfile:-

@interface auto view controller . UI view controller
//instance methods
  – (void) addition;
– (void) subtraction : (int)a b : (int)b;
//class methods
+ (void) divisions;
+ (void) multiplication;
.m file:-
#import “auto view Controller.h”
@implementation auto view controller
//instance methods
– (void) addition
//calling instance method
[Self Subtraction: 10 B: 20]
//Calling Class method
[Auto view controller division];
– (void) subtraction: (int)a  b:int)b
//class method
+ (void) division
+ (void)multiplication


àHow to print an message in the command prompt
printf (“hello”);
NSLog(@”type message in here”);
àHow to print objects in the command prompt
printf (“%d %f”, a, b);
NSLog (@”%d%@”,a, any object);


  • Categories are one of the most use full features in objective c.
  • Categories allow you to add a method to an existing class without sub-classing.
  • This is particularly useful because you can add methods to built-in objects.
  • If we want add a method to all instance of NS object class in your application you just add a category there is a need to get everything to use a custom sub class [category in that declaration no curly back]


 .h file:-

@ Interface NS object (algebra)
– (void) addition;
– (void)subtraction;
.m file:-
#import NS object + algebra  .h”
@implementation  NS object(algebra)

→ Unlike subclass category can’t add instance method.

→ You can, however, use category to over side existing methods in subclasses.

Note: When we make changes a class using a category it affects all instances of that class throughout the application.

Id: Id is a general type assigning any type of object regards less of class by default all c functions return integer type in objective c it returns id type


NS string *str = @ “Hai”; // str is string object
Id str = str;
// id as return type
Return some obj;
// id as argument
– (void)addition;(id)str bLid)str2

Dynamic Binding:

Its difference between function call’s and messages is that in a function call which are arguments are join  to gather on the compilation code but in case of messages not link until a program is run [ linking and runtime]

Ex:- void view did load

    [Self addition];

Binding on runtime so this is calling as dynamic binding it  

It is not a compile-time error



The extra method that is involved to respond a message can only determine at runtime.


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Last updated: 03 Apr 2023
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