Rust Interview Questions

Are you getting ready for Rust interviews? Then, don’t miss this blog. This blog includes the mostly-asked rust interview questions for both beginners and experienced. This blog covers hand-picked Rust questions from key topics such as modules, macros, generic parameters, and more. By the end of the blog, you will enhance your prowess in Rust concepts and stand out in today’s ever-changing tech landscape.

According to Statista, Rust has been the most desired language among software developers in recent years. It is a fast-growing language with robust memory safety, performance, and reliability. Not only that, Rust provides key features such as concurrency, no garbage collection, zero-cost abstractions, and much more.

Today, there is a soaring demand for Rust developers in the job market. If you acquire expertise in Rust, the chances of getting placed in top software development companies are high. The Rust interview questions and answers included in this blog will help you boost your knowledge of Rust and accelerate your career.

Table of Contents:

Rust Developer - Skills required and job responsibilities:

Let’s go through the crucial skills required for Rust developers and their job responsibilities at various expertise levels.

  • Primary skills

Below are the primary skills needed for Rust developers.

    • Sound expertise in Rust programming
    • Good exposure to the cargo package manager
    • Familiar with Rust’s ownership and borrowing model
    • Knowledge of concurrency and multithreading
    • Knowledge of system-level programming concepts
    • Strong skills in the Rust ecosystem, such as the latest libraries and frameworks
    • Good problem-solving and collaboration skills
  • Secondary skills

Following are the secondary skills required for Rust developers.

    • Knowledge of C and C++ programming
    • Exposure to GraphQL and REST APIs
    • Familiar with Linux operating systems
    • Understanding of the software development cycle
    • Exposure to asynchronous programming
    • Knowledge of authorization and authentication concepts
    • Good documentation and communication skills
This topic is essential for the Rust interview, and our trainer has offered extensive coverage of it within our Rust Training program.
  • Job responsibilities of Rust developers with 1-2 years of experience:
    • Developing high-quality Rust codes
    • Creating Rust program logic from end-user requirements
    • Maintaining Rust codebases
    • Collaborating with other developers for software development and integration
    • Troubleshooting and solving bugs in Rust codes
  • Job responsibilities of Rust developers with 3-5 years of experience:
    • Ensuring code quality and standards
    • Collaborate with stakeholders to understand user requirements and enhance application performance.
    • Building web applications using Rust and programming and web frameworks such as Actix, Rocket, etc.
    • Developing a wide range of Rust applications from system-level programming to web development
    • Optimizing Rust codes to increase the speed and boost the efficiency
    • Implementing software security practices extensively.
  • Job responsibilities of Rust developers with more than five years of experience
    • Develop Rust codes to launch high-performance applications
    • Maintaining and enhancing the existing Rust codebases
    • Integrating Rust applications with third-party software components, libraries, and systems
    • Developing and deploying Rust applications and gathering users' feedback
    • Setting up CI/CD pipelines for application deployment

Rust version and features-based interview questions:

Let’s walk through the Rust version and its features-based interview questions.

1. What is the latest version of Rust, and when was it released?

The latest stable version of Rust is 1.76.0. It was released on 08 Feb 2024.

2. What are the new features added in the latest version of Rust?

Below are the latest key features added with Rust 1.76.0.

  • Language
    • ABI compatibility is enabled between various types
    • Char and u32 are ABI-compatible
  • Compiler
    • Computing the offset of an unsized field is fixed in a packed struct
    • Rust is enabled to use the Windows’ EHCont security capability
    • Fixing the dynamic align computation logic for packed types
  • Libraries
    • Adding a column number to dbg! ()
    • Allowing file::create to work on hidden files
    • Fixing rounding issues with exponents in fmt

Apart from the above, this version was released with many Rustdoc, stabilized APIs, and compatibility notes.

Rust Interview Questions and Answers:

Let’s go through important Rust Interview Questions and Answers at various expertise levels.

Rust Interview Questions for Beginners:

In this section, you will go through various Rust interview questions on key topics such as modules, cargo, channels, borrowing, and many more. This section will help you to make a strong foundation on Rust concepts.

Let’s have a read ahead!

1. What are the key features of Rust programming language?

Below are the key features of the Rust language.

  • Rust allows using abstractions without compromising the performance.
  • It provides informative error messages, which simplifies debugging codes.
  • The move semantics feature of Rust allows data to be transferred between variables. This approach eliminates the need to copy the data totally and increases productivity.
  • It avoids explicit type declarations since Rust automatically finds an expression’s data type.
  • Rust provides memory safety while compiling codes. It helps to reduce errors significantly.

2. What is a module in Rust?

Rust programming allows dividing large programs into many modules. A module is a logical unit that contains functions, blocks, structs, and traits. Modules generally increase the visibility and readability across their elements.

3. What is the unwrap method in Rust?

We use the unwrap method to get the output of the result and option enums operations. If any error, such as None or Err, is thrown while running this method, the program will stop its execution. That’s why it is important to handle this method carefully.

4. What is a channel in Rust?

A channel in Rust enables communication between threads. It allows unidirectional data flow from the sender to the receiver. Know that the channels in Rust are typically asynchronous.

5. What are the disadvantages of Rust?

The following are a few disadvantages of Rust.

  • Rust’s multi-thread programming model is highly complicated
  • It consumes more compiling time than other programming languages.
  • Rust is not a beginner-friendly language. The learning curve for Rust is so steep.
  • Rust’s single implementation capability may cause unexpected errors.

6. What packages can you use to perform asynchronous I/O operations in Rust?

The following three Rust async packages can help to perform I/O operations in Rust. 

  • Tokio
  • Futures
  • Async-std

MindMajix Youtube Channel

7. What is Cargo in Rust?

Cargo is a robust package manager of Rust language. It provides a list of commands that we can use to create powerful Rust programs.

8. What are the most popular cargo commands?

Jotted down are the most popular cargo commands.

  • Cargo install [options] crate…
  • Cargo uninstall [options] [spec..]
  • Cargo search [options] [query…]
  • Cargo tree [options]
  • Cargo edit
  • Cargo expand
  • Cargo expand
  • Cargo
  • Cargo tarpaulin
  • Cargo deny
  • Cargo audit

9. What is the option type in Rust, and why is it important?

The option type in Rust represents an optional value that can be a value or null. We can use Option types with pattern matching to query the presence of a value. The example below shows the use of the option type in pattern matching.

#! [allow(unused)]
fn main() {
fn divide(numerator: f64, denominator: f64) -> Option<f64> {
     if denominator == 0.0 {
         None
      } else {
          Some(numerator / denominator)
          }
}
let result = divide(6.0, 3.0);
// Pattern match to retrieve the value
match result {
       Some(x) => println!("Result: {x}"),
       None => println!("Cannot divide by 0"),
}
}

10. Explain error Handling in Rust with examples.

Developers encounter two types of errors in rust programming: recoverable and unrecoverable. A Rust program can recover from a recoverable error soon after discovering it. One example of a recoverable error is ‘file not found’. If any rust program creates this error, the program recovers from the error instantly.

On the other hand, Rust programs that encounter an unrecoverable error cannot recover. Instead, the program execution will be stopped immediately. For example, if a program attempts to access the location of an array beyond its boundaries, it will cause an unrecoverable error.

11. What is the relation between the Rust language and reusable codes?

The various features of the Rust language allow for reusing codes. They are:

  • Crates and Modules
  • Libraries
  • Dependency management and Packages
  • Traits
  • Generic Programming
  • Macros

12. Does Rust have a runtime?

No, Rust doesn't have a runtime. But at the same time, Rust uses many methods to run futures and perform asynchronous operations. The methods are Tokio, async-std, and smol.

13. What is borrowing in Rust?

The borrowing mechanism is used in Rust to access data without taking ownership of the data. In other words, we can access a value used in another part of the program without taking ownership of the value. In this method, passing a reference to the value is made instead of passing the value itself.

Know that there are two types of references in Rust: mutable references and immutable references. When it comes to mutable references, we can both read and modify the values. On the other hand, we can read the value but cannot modify the value in the case of an immutable reference.

14. What do you mean by procedural macro in Rust?

Procedural macros help to create syntax extensions. They support running codes at compile time. The Rust compiler runs all types of Rust syntax. Know that there are three types of procedural macros: function-like macros, attribute macros, and derived macros.

15. What are the uses of the unsafe keyword in Rust?

The uses of the unsafe keyword are mentioned below.

  • The unsafe keyword helps declare the function contracts the Rust compiler cannot verify.
  • The keyword also helps to declare that programmers are ready to uphold the function’s contracts.

Celebrate! You have learned the basic Rust interview questions and answers in this section. You might have established a strong foundation on Rust concepts, undoubtedly.

Rust Interview Questions for Intermediate-level Learners:

In this section, you will read through the interview questions on core topics such as declaring variables, generics, macros, typestate patterns, and more. This section will boost your expertise in the Rust language.

16. How do you declare global variables in Rust?

We can declare global variables in Rust by using:

  • The static keyword – best for simple and immutable global variables
  • std::sync::RwLock – best for both read and write access
  • The lazy_static – best for complex and mutable global variables
  • std::sync::Once – best for one-time initialization

17. Describe the match statement in Rust.

The match statement in Rust supports pattern matching. In other words, the match statement compares a variable with every case value. If it finds any match, it executes the corresponding block of code. This statement is similar to the C++, JavaScript, and Java switch statements.

18. How does Rust support macros?

Declarative macro is widely used in Rust programming. This macro allows writing codes similar to the Rust match expression. Macros simplify repetitive codes and make them more concise. The most used macros in Rust are vec!, printIn!, and panic!.

In Rust, we can use the macro_rules! Macro to create a new macro. The syntax for the same is given below.

macro_rules! macro_name {
( ... ) => {. . . }
}

19. What is the difference between the traits and where clause in Rust?

A trait instructs the Rust compiler about the functionality that is provided by a type. The syntax gets complicated if we write functions with many trait bounds and generic types. However, the where clause resolves this issue. We need to add the where clause after the parameter list. This approach avoids using trait bounds while defining type parameters.

20. Explain how you will declare variables in Rust.

We can declare variables in Rust using the specific syntax pattern. Below is an example of variable declaration.

let number: i32 = 41:

Here, i32 is the data type, which is a 32-bit signed integer. In this example, a number is declared with the initial value of 41.

If we want to declare mutable variables, we can use the following syntax.

let mut number: f64 = 3.5423

In this example, f62 denotes the 62-bit floating number.

21. Why Rust consumes less memory?

Rust consumes less memory because of the following reasons:

  • Rust comes with key features such as the ownership model and borrow checker. These features prevent common memory issues such as null pointer dereferences and memory leaks.
  • Rust supports object pools. An object pool is where we can store and use objects as and when required. This approach eliminates the need to allocate and deallocate objects frequently.
  • Rust doesn’t make any unnecessary cloning. This is because cloning takes more memory allocations and creates copying overhead.
  • Rust efficiently uses stack allocation. It deallocates the variables stored in a stack when they are no longer required. This method improves memory efficiency and safety.

22. How will you create an infinite loop in Rust?

We can use the loop keyword to loop a block of codes indefinitely. The looping continues until a terminating statement is reached. We can use the following syntax to create an infinite loop.

loop {
println! ("Loop forever!");
}

23. Explain generics in Rust.

Generics help to minimize code duplication in many ways. The simplest generic type is type parameters. Generic type parameters are described as <T>.

For example, foo is a generic function that can be defined with an argument T of any type, as shown below.

fn foo<T>(arg : T) {....}

24. How does the Typestate pattern work in Rust?

Typestate pattern in Rust works by using the type system and Rust compiler. The typestate pattern in Rust follows a simple working process.

  • A struct is used to model every state in a process
  • The structs are the inputs moved into state transition functions
  • The next state is returned from the transition functions in the same process.

25. Is Rust language safe when compared with C++?

Yes, Rust is a safer language than C and C++. When it comes to C++, it lacks in preventing data races. However, Rust prevents data races and improves the code quality. 

Moreover, Rust is good at identifying errors at the early stages of program development, even before compiling codes. So it can avoid memory leaks and undefined program behavior. On the contrary, C++ is inefficient in controlling memory leaks and undesired code behaviors.

26. How can you enable concurrency in Rust codes?

Below are the ways through which we can enable concurrency in rust codes.

  • Rust offers two traits, such as send and sync to make rust codes to be concurrent.
  • It provides a library of threads, which helps to run rust codes in parallel
  • We can use channels to enable synchronization in rust codes. Besides, we can use the mpsc::channel () method to construct a new channel.

27. What are the job responsibilities of Rust developers with 3-5 years of experience?

The following are the job responsibilities of rust developers at the middle level.

  • Ensuring code quality and standards
  • Collaborate with stakeholders to understand user requirements and enhance application performance.
  • Building web applications using Rust and programming and web frameworks such as Actix, Rocket, etc.
  • Developing a wide range of Rust applications from system-level programming to web development
  • Optimizing Rust codes to increase the speed and boost the efficiency
  • Implementing software security practices extensively.

28. Why is Rust highly suitable for systems programming?

We can leverage Rust for writing operating systems like Windows since it offers high performance and trustworthiness. It also provides speed, safety, and concurrency, which are highly required for systems programming. On top of all that, rust offers enhanced memory safety, zero-cost abstractions, and interoperability. Thus, rust is a suitable language for systems programming.  

Congrats! You have become familiar with the core Rust topics through this section. It's time to dive into the advanced Rust interview questions.

Rust interview questions for advanced learners:

In this section, you will learn the Rust interview questions on advanced topics such as multithreading, mutable references, concurrency, etc. The section will develop you as a master of the Rust language.

29. How will you transform a rust option into a result?

We can use the ok_or method to convert a rust option into the result.

pub fn ok_or<E>(self, err: E) -> Result<T, E>

The above code converts an Option <T> into a Result <T, E>. It maps Some (v) to Ok (v). Not only that, it maps None to Err (err). If we pass arguments to ok_or, they are eagerly evaluated.

The below examples show the use of the ok_or method.

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Ok("foo"));
let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Err(0));

30. How would you create an iterator in Rust from a data structure?

We must follow the steps below to create an iterator in Rust from a data structure.

  • First, create a new rust project
  • Build a new data structure to implement an iterator
  • Next, execute the 'iterator' trait for the data structure
  • Testing the iterator in the main function

31. Why does rust code fail to compile if you use threads?

The following are the reasons why the rust code may fail to compile if we use threads.

  • Rust cannot presume how long a spawned thread will run.
  • The Rust standard library doesn’t support threads
  • Using multiple threads is inefficient
  • If the main thread execution is over and the program exits, the remaining threads will stop running without running fully.

32. How will you optimize performance in Rust?

We can employ the following ways to optimize the performance of rust.

  • Benchmarking: Rust offers built-in benchmarking capabilities such as a test module. It helps to write benchmarks and measure the performance of the different code parts of a main program.
  • Profiling: Rust provides tools like perf and flamegraph to identify hotspots in Rust codes and improve the efficiency of the codes
  • Eliminating redundant copying: Rust offers ownership and borrowing rules, which avoids mutual access to data at a time. It reduces the use of locks and atomic operations.
  • Accurate use of data structures: We need to use the relevant data structures based on the given data. For instance, if the order of data elements is not important, we can use the Vec struct. If you perform key-value mapping, we need to use the key-value stores such as HashMap and BTreeMap.

33. Explain mutable borrowing of Rust in managing data.

Mutable borrowing allows a single mutable reference to modify data. The mutable reference provides exclusive access for mutation.

The code below shows how to create a mutable reference to a value and modify it through a reference. The important thing is that Rust ensures that only a single mutable reference exists at a point in time to prevent data races.

fn main() {
let data = vec![1, 2, 3];
let reference = &data; // Immutable borrow
println! ("Data: { :? }", *reference);
}

34. Explain lifetimes in Rust and how they are used in function signatures.

Lifetimes in Rust are the methods that track the scope of an object’s reference in memory. They ensure that the object’s reference remains valid until the object is required.

The 'a symbol typically denotes a Lifetime. It is defined as a generic parameter in a struct or function with angle brackets. The below example shows the use of rust lifetimes.

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Ok("foo"));

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Err(0));

Output: x = 3200, y = 1600

The function signature is a common place where lifetimes are typically used. Specifying the lifetime of references that pass as function arguments in Rust codes is important. This is because the Rust compiler needs to know how long a reference is valid. This is required to ensure memory safety.

35. Why doesn’t Rust use a garbage collector?

Here are the reasons why Rust doesn't use garbage collector.

  • The garbage collector performs poorly because of the frequent pauses for the memory cleanup.
  • Rust makes zero-cost abstractions. It avoids using the garbage collector.
  • Rust follows the ownership and borrowing model, which offers fine-tuned memory management
  • Embedded systems and Low-level system programming use limited memory resources. That's why garbage collection is avoided when running these systems.

36. What is the difference between the mutable and immutable references in Rust?

Mutable reference allows the borrower to read and modify data. On the other hand, immutable reference allows the borrower only to read the data.

37. Explain about Actix and Rocket libraries in Rust.

Actix: It is a fast, high-performance, and robust framework that we can use to develop web application frameworks. It uses the actor model to manage state and concurrency in rust codes. Also, it supports routing, Websockets, automatic server reloading, and many more. It provides tools and libraries to build HTTP servers and web applications.

Rocket: It is a fast and type-safe framework that helps create secure web applications. It offers a plethora of tools and libraries for Rust developers. It provides async streams, built-in templates, testing libraries, and more. It offers a type-safe design to eliminate potential server issues altogether.

38. How does Rust perform resource management and cleanup?

The following are the ways Rust performs resource management and cleanup.

  • Destructor: The drop::drop method is called automatically when an object goes out of scope. This method removes all the resources associated with the object before it is deallocated.
  • Ownership and Borrowing: Every value in Rust has an owner. When the variable that holds the value goes out of scope, the associated memory is freed up.
  • Resource Acquisition Is Initialization (RAII): It is a technique in which resources are gathered when an object is created. The resources are released when the object is dropped. This method ensures that resources are neatly cleaned up.

39. Can you briefly explain what a borrow checker is?

Borrow checker is a safety mechanism followed by Rust. It ensures ownership, lifetimes, double frees, borrowing, and data races. It ensures memory safety without the garbage collector.

The code below will help you understand the implementation of the borrower checker.

fn main() {
let mut s = String :: from("hello");
let r1 = &s;
let r2 = &s;
let r3 = &mut s;
}

The borrower checker won’t allow the Rust compiler to run this code because it doesn’t satisfy one of Rust's safety mechanisms. To be precise, this code has both mutable and immutable references, which is not allowed in Rust.

40. How will you create a hashmap in Rust?

Know that HashMap is a part of Rust standard libraries. We can import the HashMap module using the use declaration. Next, we can use the new () method to create a HashMap in the HashMap module.

We can use the below codes to import the HashMap module and use the new () method to create a new hashmap.

          use std: : collections: :HashMap;

let mut info: HashMap<i32, String> = HashMap :: new();

Here, let mut info represents declaring a mutable variable

HashMap<i32, string> shows the type of the HashMap. Also, the Key is an integer, and the value is a string in this type.

HashMap:: new() helps to create a new HashMap.

Kudos! You have completed learning advanced Rust intermediate questions. Undoubtedly, this section might have made you master the Rust language.

Key Takeaways:

  • Rust is the programming language that offers enhanced memory safety and performance.
  • It doesn't include garbage collection. Instead, it supports ownership and borrowing rules to manage memory.
  • It is a statistically typed language. So, variables and expression types are compiled at runtime.
  • It offers a Cargo package manager, which supports streamlining dependency tracking, project management, and more.
  • It enables developers to match complex data structures with specific patterns. It allows them to extract different scenarios precisely.

Frequently Asked Question and Answers

1. Is it hard to learn Rust?

No, you can quickly learn the Rust language. The essential thing is that you need to have a non-stop passion for learning and work hard. MindMajix is a pioneer eLearning provider offering top-class rust training for all learners. Your learning journey with MindMajix will be exciting and fruitful, undeniably.

2. Why is Rust popular?

Below are the reasons why Rust is popular.

  • Rust is a dynamically typed language
  • It doesn’t have a garbage collector
  • Rust’s borrow checker helps to remove bugs and ensure memory unsafety
  • It offers zero-cost abstractions and fine-grained control over system resources
  • The ever-growing Rust's ecosystem of libraries and tools allows developers to build a wide set of applications

3. Is it worth learning Rust?

According to Payscale, entry-level Rust developers can earn up to 11 LPA on average. In the USA, they can earn up to 104k USD annually on average. Moreover, top companies hire Rust developers in large numbers every year. These figures show that those who learn Rust will have a bright future.

4. Is Rust a fast language?

Of course! Rust is a fast language for many reasons. Rust comes with zero-cost abstractions. Also, Rust is built over LLVM, which speeds up its performance. Besides, Rust supports asynchronous execution, improving Rust's efficiency.

5. Does Rust support cross-platform?

Yes, Rust supports cross-platform. It can run on both iOS and Android platforms.

Conclusion:

It’s a wrap! We hope that the Rust interview questions and answers might have improved your expertise of Rust to greater heights. As Rust opens up doors of opportunities, your chances of getting placed in MNCs with lucrative salaries are high. However, you must sharpen your skills on Rust unfailingly.

If you want to learn more about Rust, you can enroll for a Rust course in MindMajix. It will enrich your knowledge of Rust to a high level. The real-time projects and latest use cases offered in the course will elevate your hands-on experience and bag your dream job.  

Course Schedule
NameDates
Rust TrainingJun 22 to Jul 07View Details
Rust TrainingJun 25 to Jul 10View Details
Rust TrainingJun 29 to Jul 14View Details
Rust TrainingJul 02 to Jul 17View Details
Last updated: 05 May 2024
About Author

Kalla Saikumar is a technology expert and is currently working as a Marketing Analyst at MindMajix. Write articles on multiple platforms such as Tableau, PowerBi, Business Analysis, SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, and other courses. And you can join him on LinkedIn and Twitter.

read less