The digital world is surrounded by cyber-attacks, this requires a well-trained army of cyber warriors who can foresee, detect and restrict the threats. The demand for Cyber Security Professionals far exceeds the supply - creating exciting opportunities for individuals who are willing to re-skill themselves for a career in cybersecurity.
It’s also expected that the Cybersecurity labor crunch is expected to hit 3.5 million unfilled jobs by the end of 2021, and also the number of open positions will triple over the next five years. This means the career opportunities for cybersecurity professionals are very promising right now. Having said that, clearing a cybersecurity interview is not a simple task as more knowledge is required to become a cybersecurity professional for handling sophisticated threats.
|Gain essential skills to defend your organization from security threats by enrolling in our Cyber Security Training.|
Cybersecurity refers to the protection of internet-connected systems such as software, hardware, electronic data, etc., from cyber attacks. In a computing text, it is referred to as protection against unauthorized access.
Cryptography is a method to transform and transmit confidential data in an encoded way to protect the information from third parties for whom data is not authorized.
Ex: Phishing attack
Ex: SQL injections, cross-site scripting
Threat probability * Potential loss = Risk
Cross-Site Scripting is also known as a client-side injection attack, which aims at executing malicious scripts on a victim’s web browser by injecting malicious code.
The following practices can prevent Cross-Site Scripting:
|Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)||Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS)|
|It only detects intrusions but is unable to prevent intrusions.||It detects and prevents intrusions.|
|It's a monitoring system.||It’s a control system.|
|It needs a human or another system to look at the results.||It needs a regularly updated database with the latest threat data.|
A Botnet is a group of internet-connected devices such as servers, PCs, mobile devices, etc., that are affected and controlled by malware.
It is used for stealing data, sending spam, performing distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack), and more, and also to enable the user to access the device and its connection.
CIA (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) triad is a model designed to handle policies for information security within an organization.
|Purpose||Symmetric Encryption||Asymmetric Encryption|
|Encryption:||Uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt information.||Uses a pair of public and private keys to encrypt and decrypt information.|
|Speed:||Symmetric encryption performs faster||Asymmetric encryption performs slower compared to symmetric encryption.|
|Algorithms:||AES, RC4, DES, QUAD, 3DES, Blowfish, etc.||Diffie-Hellman and RSA|
|Purpose:||Preferred for transferring huge data||Mostly used for exchanging secret keys safely.|
Both hashing and encryption are used to convert readable data into an unreadable format. The significant difference is that encrypted data can be transformed into original data by decryption, whereas hashed data cannot be processed back to the original data.
Related Article: Cyber Security Frameworks
A firewall is a security system used to control and monitor network traffic. It is used for protecting the system/network from malware, viruses, worms, etc., and secures unauthorized access from a private network.
The steps required to set up and configure the firewall are listed below:
A three-way handshake process is used in TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) network for the transmission of data in a reliable way between the host and the client.
It’s called a three-way handshake because three segments are exchanged between the server and the client.
HTTP response codes display whether a particular HTTP request has been completed.
Brute Force Attack is a trial and error method that is employed for application programs to decode encrypted data such as data encryption keys or passwords using brute force rather than using intellectual strategies. It’s a way to identify the right credentials by repetitively attempting all the possible methods.
Brute Force attacks can be avoided by the following practices:
The following are the most common types of cybersecurity attacks:
Data Leakage refers to the illegal transmission of data to an external destination or unauthorized entity within an organization. It can transfer data either physically or electronically. It usually occurs via the web, emails, and mobile data storage devices.
Types of data leakage:
A Traceroute is a network diagnostic tool, used for tracking the pathway of an IP network from source to destination. It records the period of each hop the packet makes while its route to its destination.
CSRF is referred to as Cross-site Request Forgery, where an attacker tricks a victim into performing actions on their behalf.
CSRF attacks can be prevented by using the following ways:
Related Article: Cyber Attacks and Preventions Methods
A port scanning is an application designed for identifying open ports and services accessible on a host network. Security administrators mostly utilize it for exploiting vulnerabilities, and also by hackers for targeting victims.
Some of the most popular port scanning techniques are listed below:
The following practices prevent the ‘Man-in-the-Middle Attacks’:
Related Article: Cyber Security Career Path
Cognitive security is one of the applications of AI technologies that is used explicitly for identifying threats and protecting physical and digital systems based on human understanding processes.
Self-learning security systems use pattern recognition, natural language processing, and data mining to mimic the human brain.
Phishing is a malicious attempt of pretending oneself as an authorized entity in electronic communication for obtaining sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, etc. through fraudulent messages and emails.
The following practices can prevent phishing:
SQL Injection (SQLi) is a type of code injection attack where it manages to execute malicious SQL statements to control a database server behind a web application. Attackers mostly use this to avoid application security measures and thereby access, modify, and delete unauthorized data.
The following ways will help you to mitigate or prevent SQL injection attacks:
The following ways will help you to keep up with the latest cybersecurity updates:
A DDOS (distributed denial-of-service ) is a malicious attempt of disrupting regular traffic of a network by flooding with a large number of requests and making the server unavailable to the appropriate requests. The requests come from several unauthorized sources and hence called distributed denial of service attacks.
The following methods will help you to stop and prevent DDOS attacks:
Compared to both, a false positive is more acceptable than a false negative as they lead to intrusions without getting noticed.
Related Article: Top 10 Cybersecurity Tools In 2020
The following are the various types of system hardening:
A cybersecurity risk assessment refers to detecting the information assets that are prone to cyber-attacks(including customer data, hardware, laptop, etc.) and also evaluates various risks that could affect those assets.
It is mostly performed to identify, evaluate, and prioritize risks across organizations.
The best way to perform cybersecurity risk assessment is to detect:
The main objective of the OSI model is to process the communication between two endpoints in a network.
The seven open systems interconnection layers are listed below:
There are many ways to reset or remove the BIOS password:
Related Article: How to Become a Cyber Security Engineer
ARP is a protocol specifically used to map IP network addresses to physical addresses, such as Ethernet addresses.
It translates 32-bits addresses to 48-bits addresses and vice versa. This is needed because the most common level of internet protocol(IP) we use today is 32-bits long and MAC addresses are 48-bits long.
|Description||Data in Transit||Data in Rest|
|Definition of data||Here data moves actively from one location to another across the internet or private network.||Here data is not transferred from one location to another as data is stored on hard drives, flash drives, etc.|
|Encryption in data protection||It encrypts sensitive data before sending or using encrypted connections(SSL, HTTPS, TLS, etc.)||It encrypts sensitive files before storing or choosing the encrypted storage drive itself.|
The key indicators of compromise that organizations should monitor are listed below:
Related Article: Cyber Security Best Practices
Security misconfiguration is a vulnerability that could happen if an application/network/device is susceptible to attack due to an insecure configuration option. It can be as simple as keeping the default username/password unchanged.
Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .