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Golang vs Python

Today, Golang and Python are the two widely used programming languages. At a basic level, Golang is the statically typed and compiled language, and Python is the dynamically typed and interpreted language. At a common point, they are the languages – simple to learn and easy to use. Although they have many similarities, many differences exist between the two languages. This blog will compare the languages from many angles, such as features, pluses and minuses, etc., which will help you better understand the languages. Let’s unpack the story!

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Developers have used many programming languages for application development for the last few decades. However, nowadays, there is much talk about Python and Golang among software professionals, undeniably. Know that Golang is the procedural, lightweight, compiled language. On the other hand, Python is the Object Oriented Programming Language (OOPS) based and interpreted language. Be it Golang or Python - developers must analyse the languages based on many parameters when choosing the correct programming language for developing applications. For example, they need to analyse them based on the learning curve, simplicity, scalability, debugging, maintenance, etc.

On that note, this blog aims at analysing Golang and Python in all possible dimensions. Once you complete this blog, you should get a clear-cut idea about the two, which will assist you in picking the right one for your application development.

Let’s get on board now!

Golang vs Python - Table of Contents

What is Golang?

Golang, also known as Go, is the programming language supported by Google. It is an open-source, simplest, multipurpose, and statically-typed programming language. Know that Golang is named one of the top ten programming languages by the survey of IEEE Spectrum. No wonder Golang allows you to build reliable and maintainable codes confidently.

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Who uses Golang?

You can use Golang for web development, cloud computing, front-end development, and much more. It is widely used across various applications such as Kubernetes, Terraform, Openshift, Docker, and Juju. Additionally, the companies such as Google, Cloudfare, DropBox, Couchbase, Netflix, Twitch, MongoDB, Suncloud, and Uber use Golang for developing their applications.

What are the Key Features of Golang?

Golang comes with many features you can see below:

Golang Features

1. Static Typing: Basically, Go is a statically typed language. This language can accurately compile codes and ensure compatibility and type conversions. Thus, you can minimise errors during runtime and avoids issues arising in the production stage.

2. Concurrency Support: Generally, concurrency is applied to programs where there is a need to execute multiple tasks simultaneously. This way, Golang offers many concurrent options for developers, which are usually easy to use and track. Especially, mobile application developers widely use concurrency options to handle multiple tasks simultaneously. Also, developers can quickly free up resources when they use concurrency options. Because of this, Golang is used as the forefront language for developing scaled applications, microservices, and cloud applications.

3. Standard Library: Golang has a robust standard library. This library supports developers in avoiding third-party packages.

4. Toolset: Golang offers many tools that support developers in multiple ways while developing applications. You can see the listicles of a few tools in the following:

  • Gofmt: This tool helps to format Go codes automatically. Therefore, it improves the readability of codes.
  • Gorun: This tool allows adding bang lines in the source code so developers can run it quickly. Developers use this tool while experimenting with the codes written in Python.
  • Goget: This tool helps to download libraries from GitHub and save them in Gopath. In return, it eases the process of importing libraries.
  • Godoc: This tool analyses source codes as well as comments allowing you to create a document in HTML or plain text format. It helps to navigate documents easily.

5. Goroutines: Generally, Goroutines is a lightweight tool that helps to increase the efficiency of Go programming by providing concurrency support.

6. Compilation and Testing Capabilities: One of the prime features of Golang is its compilation and testing capabilities. No doubt that you can run codes written in the Go language on any platform. Golang performs high-speed compilation and execution of codes. Mainly, Golang generates only one executable file without any dependencies. And this file can be uploaded and run anywhere. Besides, Golang allows you to run unit tests while writing codes in parallel.

7. Garbage Collection: Golang offers a single executable automatic garbage collection and memory safety. It allows you to free up pointers or the situations connected with the dangling pointer.

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What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Golang?

Advantages of Golang

Given below is the list of advantages of Golang over other similar languages. Know what they are below:

  • Learning Golang is a simple process.
  • Golang is an easy-to-use language since its syntax is similar to C and C++.
  • It allows you to develop multiple types of applications.
  • Execution speed is faster in Golang. The reason behind this is nothing but the automatic declaration of variables, latency-free garbage collection, and faster compile time.
  • Golang works well in cross-platforms. It means that Go applications can run on all platforms such as Linux, Windows, Android, etc.
  • It uses low memory and CPU utilisation.
  • Applications written in the Go language have a short start-up time.
  • Golang is the language to write codes for microservices since it has a fast start-up time and low runtime overhead.
  • Golang comes with an extensive collection of built-in libraries and independent error-handling mechanisms.

Disadvantages of Golang

No doubt Golang has a few shortcomings as well. Let’s take a look at them.

  • Golang is not an object-oriented language.
  • It is still a growing programming language and lacks runtime safety
  • It is incompatible with function overloading
  • You cannot make abstractions using Golang and perform complex processes because Golang is a too simple language
  • Golang has no native GUI. Users have to connect to external libraries if they need GUI.
  • Error handling is not a simple process in Golang.
  • Golang has low flexibility due to its static typing nature
  • Only limited users use Golang for application development.

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What is Python?

Python is an open-source, object-oriented, interpreted, and powerful language. Not just that, it is a language that is easy to read, understand, and learn. This is because Python doesn’t allow using semicolons and brackets in codes. Also, Python offers developers a simple syntax format and dynamic typing option. In a way, the Python program will look like a collection of English words. Know that Python is one of the high-level languages with high-level built-in data types used to write complex operations in a single statement. Additionally, Python offers high-level data structures, interfaces, ready-made classes, and many more.

As mentioned, Python is one of the dynamically typed languages. So, you don't need to declare data types of variables. In other words, argument and variable declarations are not needed while programming in Python. It allows you to write compact and readable programs quickly. Overall, Python is an ideal language for application development and is used to increase applications' productivity significantly.

Who uses Python?

Web developers and data analysts use Python widely. You can use Python for web development, data analytics, Machine Learning, Cyber Security, software development, mobile applications, and so on.

What are the Key Features of Python?

Python has many fantastic features for developing robust software applications. Let's explore a few of them:

Python Features

1. Python Interpreter

Basically, Python is an interpreted language. It means that compilation is not carried out separately but will be taken place during run time. It allows developers to save development time significantly. Unlike other programming languages, the interpreter executes codes line by line. This is the reason that Python comes up as a popular language among developers. Not only that, you can easily add built-in functions and modules to the interpreter.

2. Python Launcher

It allows developers to execute Python scripts from desktops. With the finder window, you can use Python launcher as a default application to open any .py script. Not just that, you can control the way developers launch Python scripts with many options provided by the Python launcher.

3. Modules

No wonder Python programs can be split into many modules. Because of this, Python comes up with an extensive collection of modules. You can use these modules in other programs as well. In a way, modules form the basis for Python programs. Every module will have elements such as file I/O System calls, interfaces, and sockets to GUIs.

4. Standard Library

Python offers a robust and extensive library for image manipulation, unit testing, databases, expressions, etc. For developers, this library helps to avoid writing codes repeatedly. The Python package management system offers a standard format to distribute programs and libraries in this regard. It simplifies the installation and use of third-party packages, modules, and extensions. And Python package index allows you to access libraries. Besides, extensions are used to perform critical operations at high speed and link Python programs to libraries.

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What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Python?

Advantages of Python

Here, we will find the list of advantages of Python. Let's have a look at them below.

  • Python is an easy-to-learn language.
  • It has dozens of in-built functions that support reducing application development time. And with this, it has expansive third-party libraries and modules.
  • As it is an OOPS-based language, it has a modular structure. So, you can reuse objects and use abstractions.
  • No doubt, Python is a highly versatile language. So, you can easily edit, test, and debug codes without compilation.
  • Dynamic typing creates good flexibility in programming.
  • You can link the Python interpreter with the applications written in C and use the interpreter as an extension as well as command language for those applications.
  • Since Python is portable, you can use it on any platform. For instance, you can use programs written on Windows, whether Linux or macOS.
  • Programs written in Python are usually shorter than in C, Java, C++, and programs.

Disadvantages of Python

Keep in mind that when there are pros, there must be cons as well, undoubtedly. Based on this concept, Python has a few drawbacks as well. Let’s see them below:

  • Python has a complicated runtime setup.
  • It has a slow execution speed. This is because the interpreter converts each line of code into machine codes for execution. That’s why Python is not suitable for large-scale programs.
  • Python creates runtime errors. It occurs because of the dynamic typing feature.
  • Python has low memory efficiency.
  • It is unsuitable for system-level programming because Python is a high-level language.

Golang vs Python - Similarities

Golang and Python go parallel in many ways. Let’s see the similarities between them below:

  • Golang and Python are growing, general-purpose programming languages.
  • Both are easy to learn, and codes are simple to read. That’s why they named beginner-friendly languages.
  • The great thing about Golang and Python is that both are easy to use and have a good set of libraries.

[ Related Article: Golang vs Java ]

Golang vs Python - Differences

Golang and Python have many differences in terms of performance, execution, structure, etc. let’s examine them one by one below:

  • Trends: Below is the chart that describes the trends of the two languages over the last two decades. You can infer that Python maintains a steady trend in the market when compared to Golang.Golang vs Python Trends
  • Language: Golang is the statically typed language, whereas Python is the dynamically typed language. In other words, Golang is the compiled language; on the contrary, Python is the interpreted language. What’s more! Golang uses a compiler, whereas Python uses an interpreter. Note that compilation takes place in Python only at runtime.
  • Structure: Golang is the OOPS-based language. So, it will have classes and objects. And there will be more code repetitions. On the other side, Python won’t have classes and objects since it is a procedural language.
  • Syntax: Python has straightforward syntax when compared to Golang. Golang uses more verbose and braces in codes, whereas Python uses only indentations and low verbose.
  • Performance: Golang executes codes faster than Python because it doesn’t compile codes during runtime. On the other hand, execution time is a bit longer in Python than in Golang. No wonder its execution time in Golang is 40 times faster than in Python.
  • Concurrency and Scalability: Golang offers concurrency support. So, scalability is good in Golang since it has in-built concurrency options. On the contrary, there is no inbuilt concurrency in Python. Alternatively, it uses parallelism through threads.
  • Exceptions: Python provides exceptions. On the contrary, Golang doesn't provide exceptions but shows errors after compilation.
  • Inheritance: Python supports inheritance, whereas Golang doesn’t support the same.
  • Use case: Golang is the best language for system programming. On the other hand, Python is the best language for data science programs.         
  • Community: Python has a larger community than Golang.
Parameters Golang Python
Language Statically typed and Compiled language Dynamically typed and Interpreted language
Structure Procedural based OOPS based
Syntax Not simple as Python. Uses brackets, more verbose Simple. Uses indentations, less verbose
Performance Speed execution Not so speed as Golang
Concurrency Yes No, But parallelism using threads.
Exceptions No Yes
Inheritance No Yes
Use case Mainly used for System Programming Mainly used for Data science programs
Community Small Large

Conclusion

Let’s wrap off! Golang and Python are essentially simple to learn and simple to use languages. Golang is OOPS based compiled language, whereas Python is the procedural-based interpreted language. Golang is mainly used for system programming, whereas Python is used for data science programs. Now the question is, which is the best language for software development – Golang or Python? For system programmers and web developers, Golang is the best language. On the contrary, Python is the best language for data science professionals. Ultimately, it relies on developers who should make the best deal out of the two based on their needs.

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Last updated: 22 November 2022
About Author
Madhuri Yerukala

Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .

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