Software testing is an essential activity conducted in the software development lifecycle to verify whether it is adequate and working as per the requirements. Thus, in the entire software development project, manual testing plays an essential role. As a result, there is a great demand for people with manual testing competence.
So, if you're thinking about a career as a Manual Test Engineer or Software Tester, then this post will walk you through the most common manual testing interview questions that you can be asked in your next interview. Stay updated, stay prepared!
We have divided it into the following sections for your easier understanding based on the applicant’s Skillset.
|Table of content - Manual Testing Interview Questions|
If you are a fresher in this field and this is supposedly going to be your first job, below-mentioned are the questions you will be asked.
Software testing refers to the validation process that helps evaluate whether the system is working according to the requirements of the business. This process helps qualify software on varying aspects, like efficiency, completeness, accuracy, and usability.
The testing activity stops once the team has completed the following objections:
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In software testing, verification is a process that helps confirm that the development of a product is underway according to the specifications and the standard procedures of development. In this process, inspection, reviews, walkthroughs, and demos are a few stages. On the other hand, validation is all about confirming that the developed product is devoid of bugs and working as expected. In this process, functional testing and non-functional testing are two stages.
Static testing is the white-box testing technique that helps direct developers to cross-check their code through a checklist to find errors.
Developers can effortlessly begin static testing without really finalizing the program or application.
Black-box testing is a standard testing approach that needs testers to evaluate the software’s functionality according to the business needs. The software gets tested as a black box and gets the validation according to the end-user’s point of view.
A test plan is a plan that retains all of the potential testing activities to make sure the product is qualitative. It accumulates data from use case documents, requirements, and product descriptions.
The test plan document comprises the following things:
Test coverage is referred to as the quality metric that displays the amount of testing that has been completed (in percentage). Test coverage is relevant for both non-functional and functional testing activities. Also, it is used to add those test cases that have been missing.
It is not possible to perform 100% testing of any software or product. However, can do the following steps to come closer:
Percentage of test cases passed
Number of bugs discovered
There is a depletion of test budged
There is a breach in deadlines
The entire functionality is covered in test cases
All critical and major bugs must have a ‘CLOSED’ status
Unit testing is also known with different names, such as component testing or module testing. A lot of times, developers test individual modules or units to see if they work adequately.
Integration testing helps validate how well two or more software units will be interacting with one another. There are three different ways to validate the integration: the big bang approach, bottom-up approach, and top-down approach.
No, it is not possible. System testing should begin only once all of the modules are in place and are working correctly. However, it is better if performed before User Acceptance Testing (UAT).
The test stub is referred to as a dummy program that helps integrate with an application to complete the functionality. It is relevant for such testing types that use a top-down approach. And, the test driver is a code section that calls a software component under the test. It is effective in testing that follows a bottom-up approach.
Different types of software testing include:
If you are planning to appear for a software testing interview, here are a few questions you should vary of:
In a normal software development process, there are four varying steps, referred to as PDCA. It stands for Plan, Do Check, Act.
While the developers take responsibility for planning and building the project, testers handle the check part of it.
By designing tests early in the life cycle, we can effortlessly avert defects from being available in the main code.
Exploratory testing is referred to when design and execution take place simultaneously against an application. In this testing type, the tester uses domain knowledge and the testing experience to forecast under what conditions and where the system may behave in an unanticipated way.
Risk-based testing is one such testing strategy that is based upon prioritizing tests by keeping risks in mind. It is based on a comprehensive risk analysis approach that further categorizes the risk by their priority. Those with the highest priority get resolved first.
Accessibility testing comes into the picture when there is a need to verify whether the software is accessible to everybody, including those with disabilities, such as blind, deaf, mentally disabled, and more.
Agile testing is one such practice that uses agile methodologies and follows the paradigm of test-first design.
When done by software tools and executed without any manual intervention, testing is referred to as automated testing. This type of testing can be used in API, performance, GUI, and more.
In baseline testing, a specific set of tests is run to gain information regarding the performance. Baseline testing enhances the capabilities and performance of the application with the help of collected information to make changes in the application. Baseline helps compare the application’s present performance with the previous performance.
Two major types of testing are important for web testing, such as:
It is a dynamic testing
It is a static testing
Validation takes place after verification
Verification takes place before validation
Validation assesses products
Verification assesses documents, plans, specifications, and requirements
Invalidation testing, a real product is tested
In verification testing, inputs are the issues list, checklist, inspection, and walkthroughs
Here, the actual product is the output
Here, plans, documents, requirements, and specifications are the output.
The reactive tests are designed once the software is developed, while the preventative tests are designed earlier than that.
A decision table comprises inputs and outputs in the same column, only that the outputs come above and inputs are placed below them. Also, decision table testing is used for the testing systems for which the specification takes the cause-effect combination or rules.
Positive testing is when you put valid input and anticipate to expect certain actions that are completed as per the specifications. On the other hand, negative testing is when you put an invalid input and get an error.
In boundary value analysis, we test precise boundaries. For instance, suppose there is a bank application where you can withdraw a minimum of 100 and a maximum of 25000. Thus, we will test the above and below the maximum scenarios in boundary value analysis.
For example, if there is a bank application, you can withdraw a maximum of 25000 and a minimum of 100. So in boundary value testing, we only test above the max and below the max. This covers all scenarios.
Performance testing is a technique that helps determine the system’s performance, such as stability, scalability, and speed. There are different types of software testing, such as:
Functional Testing has various phases that must be considered while testing. We'll look at a variety of interview questions and answers in this section to help you prepare for your interview.
Functional testing is a black-box testing technique where the application’s functionality is tested to come up with anticipated results by offering a specific input. The role of functional testing is not just to validate the application’s behavior but also to verify whether the application can be released or not.
Some of the important steps covered in functional testing include:
The difference between functional and non-functional testing is as follows:
It is performed to comprehend the behavior of the system according to the client functional needs and requirements
It is the process that helps comprehend whether the performance of the system is according to the client’s requirements
Manual and automation testing tools are used to perform it
Effective tools are used to perform it after functional testing
It is quite easy to perform
It is difficult to perform
Functional testing covers:
Non-functional testing covers:
The build is one executable file that is regarding the application’s part handed over to the tester to test the functionalities and fix bugs. The build can also reject the testing team if it doesn’t have anything critical or major. The release is a software application that doesn’t exist in the testing phase anymore. It has been handed over to the client.
A bug refers to an unwanted flaw, mistake, or error occurring in the application and preventing it from generating the needed result. When any bug is discovered when testing the application, it goes through a definite cycle, from logging to resolving, known as the bug life cycle.
Some of the bug statuses are:
Data-driven testing is a methodology where a series of test scripts, comprising test cases, gets executed consistently with the help of data sources, such as SQL database, CSV file, XML file, or Excel spreadsheet for input values. Here, the real result is compared to the anticipated one during the verification process.
Writing a test case is meant to be an essential activity for the test execution process, requiring writing skills and profound knowledge of the application to make reusable and effective test cases. Some of the essential points to be kept in mind include:
Automation testing is one such method that uses an automation tool to execute test cases suite to improve test coverage and speed to test execution. Automation testing doesn’t need any human intervention as it executes pre-scripted tests and can compare and report results with previous test runs.
Stress testing is a performance testing type where the application goes through stress or exertion, meaning the application is executed above the break threshold to comprehend the point where it will crash. Usually, this condition comes when there is too much data or too many users.
Loading testing is a performance testing type where the application gets executed above a variety of load levels to monitor the server’s peak performance, server throughput, response time, and more.
Volume testing is a performance testing type that comprehends the response time and server throughput level when concurrent users and large data loads from the databases are put into the application or system under tests.
There are two different types of test techniques, such as:
Exploratory testing means exploring or testing the application without following any procedures or schedules. When performing this testing type, testers don’t track any set patterns but use out-of-the-box thinking and varying ideas to see how the application will perform.
The potential scenarios to perform so as to test the login feature of an application fully include:
In the present scenario, the web is dominating our lives through varying forms, including online payments, online learning, shopping, and more. Hence, to grow better, everybody should be a part of technology. With accessibility testing, disabled people can use the internet with much ease through:
If you are an experienced professional working in this domain for 3/5/7/8 years and are planning to go higher-level in your job, jotted down below are some interview questions that you should prepare.
When a bug is discovered, we can:
If the specifications haven’t been freezed for a product, can curate the test plan based on assumptions regarding the product. However, these assumptions should be well-documented in the plan.
In case the standard documents, such as Feature Description Document or System Requirement Specification are missing, then quality assurance will be based upon the following references, such as:
Another method could be having discussions with developers and business analysts. It will help resolve doubts and open a channel for bringing transparency to the requirements.
Possible differences that we can spot between regression testing and retesting are:
As per my understanding, the following are some of the key challenges of manual testing:
Functional testing is the testing of the functionality of a product or an application. It helps test the software’s behavior. Based on the client's requirements, a document, known as the software specification or requirement specification, gets used to test the application. On the other hand, non-functional testing is when an application works according to the user’s expectations, regardless of the condition.
STLC is referred to as Software Testing Life Cycle. It proposes the execution of tests in a systematic and planner manner. In this model, a lot of activities take place intending to enhance the product’s quality. This method covers requirement analysis, test planning, test case development, environment setup, test execution, and test cycle closure.
A fault is a condition that leads to the failure of software execution when performing a regarded function.
An error occurs when there is a slip in coding. This can be discovered by a manual tester when it becomes a defect. If the development team admits the defect, it becomes a bug. In case a built code misses the requirements, it turns out to be a functional failure.
Severity signifies the depth or gravity of a bug. It helps describe the application’s perspective. On the other hand, priority talks about the bug that must be fixed on a priority basis. It also defines the point of view of users.
The criticality or the severity of a bug can be high, medium, or low, depending on its context, such as:
Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE) is a testing metric that indicates the development team’s efficiency in fixing errors and issues before releasing the software. It is measured as the ratio of fixed defects to the total number of discovered issues. For instance, if there were 80 discovered defects during the testing and 60 were fixed, the DRE will be 80/60 = 1.3%.
Automation testing is one such process that helps execute the tests automatically. It decreases the need for human intervention significantly. Various tools can be used for it, such as WinRunner, Selenium, and QTP. With the help of testing tools, we can speed the testing tasks. Also, these tools help us create test scripts to verify the application and generate test reports automatically.
Software testing is one process that ensures that the product meets the requirements of users. The objective of performing this test is to discover bugs and fix them. Hence, it helps maintain the product’s quality so that it can be delivered to the customer.
Quality Control (QC) is related to the product’s quality. It not just discovers the defects but also suggests improvements as well. Hence, the testing team is liable for QC.
Quality Assurance (QA) is a systematic and planned way of monitoring the quality of the entire process, meant to come up with a quality product. It helps track the test reports and modify the process to fulfill expectations.
Bug release is when a specific software version is released with known bugs. Generally, these bugs are of low priority or severity.
Bug leakage happens when a bug is identified by the end customer and missed by the testing team when testing the software.
Now that you have a comprehensive, in-depth list of manual testing interview questions, you can definitely prepare well. So, go through these questions repeatedly until you are ready to give correct answers without pausing in between.
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Ravindra Savaram is a Content Lead at Mindmajix.com. His passion lies in writing articles on the most popular IT platforms including Machine learning, DevOps, Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, RPA, Deep Learning, and so on. You can stay up to date on all these technologies by following him on LinkedIn and Twitter.
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