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Manual Testing Interview Questions

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Software testing is an essential activity conducted in the software development lifecycle to verify whether it is adequate and working as per the requirements. Thus, in the entire software development project, manual testing plays an essential role. As a result, there is a great demand for people with manual testing competence.

So, if you're thinking about a career as a Manual Test Engineer or Software Tester, then this post will walk you through the most common manual testing interview questions that you can be asked in your next interview. Stay updated, stay prepared!

We have divided it into the following sections for your easier understanding based on the applicant’s Skillset.

Table of content - Manual Testing Interview Questions

Manual Testing Interview Questions for Freshers

If you are a fresher in this field and this is supposedly going to be your first job, below-mentioned are the questions you will be asked.

1) What do you know about software testing?

Software testing refers to the validation process that helps evaluate whether the system is working according to the requirements of the business. This process helps qualify software on varying aspects, like efficiency, completeness, accuracy, and usability. 

2) When is the ideal time to stop the process of testing?

The testing activity stops once the team has completed the following objections:

  • Successful completion of the full test cycle once the final bug has been fixed
  • The end date of the validation stage if no high-priority or critical defects have been left behind
  • In case the team has achieved the expected level of Code Coverage (CC) ratio
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3) In software testing, what is the meaning of verification and validation?

In software testing, verification is a process that helps confirm that the development of a product is underway according to the specifications and the standard procedures of development. In this process, inspection, reviews, walkthroughs, and demos are a few stages. On the other hand, validation is all about confirming that the developed product is devoid of bugs and working as expected. In this process, functional testing and non-functional testing are two stages. 

4) Define static testing.

Static testing is the white-box testing technique that helps direct developers to cross-check their code through a checklist to find errors. 

5) When does static testing begin?

Developers can effortlessly begin static testing without really finalizing the program or application. 

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6) What do you mean by black-box testing?

Black-box testing is a standard testing approach that needs testers to evaluate the software’s functionality according to the business needs. The software gets tested as a black box and gets the validation according to the end-user’s point of view. 

7) What do you mean by a test plan?

A test plan is a plan that retains all of the potential testing activities to make sure the product is qualitative. It accumulates data from use case documents, requirements, and product descriptions. 

8) What does the test plan include?

The test plan document comprises the following things:

  • Testing objectives
  • Risk factors
  • Test scope
  • Deliverables
  • Testing the frame
  • Criteria for entry and exit
  • Environment
  • Reasons for testing

9) Define test coverage?

Test coverage is referred to as the quality metric that displays the amount of testing that has been completed (in percentage). Test coverage is relevant for both non-functional and functional testing activities. Also, it is used to add those test cases that have been missing. 

10) Can you achieve 100% testing coverage?

It is not possible to perform 100% testing of any software or product. However, can do the following steps to come closer:

  • Setting a hard limit on:

            Percentage of test cases passed

            Number of bugs discovered

  • Setting a red flag in case:

            There is a depletion of test budged

            There is a breach in deadlines

  • Setting a green flag in case:

            The entire functionality is covered in test cases

            All critical and major bugs must have a ‘CLOSED’ status

11) Define unit testing.

Unit testing is also known with different names, such as component testing or module testing. A lot of times, developers test individual modules or units to see if they work adequately. 

12) Define Integration testing.

Integration testing helps validate how well two or more software units will be interacting with one another. There are three different ways to validate the integration: the big bang approach, bottom-up approach, and top-down approach. 

13) Is it possible to do system testing at any possible stage?

No, it is not possible. System testing should begin only once all of the modules are in place and are working correctly. However, it is better if performed before User Acceptance Testing (UAT). 

14) What is the difference between a test stub and a test driver?

The test stub is referred to as a dummy program that helps integrate with an application to complete the functionality. It is relevant for such testing types that use a top-down approach. And, the test driver is a code section that calls a software component under the test. It is effective in testing that follows a bottom-up approach. 

15) What are the different types of software testing?

Different types of software testing include:

  • Unit testing
  • Functional testing
  • Integration testing
  • Smoke testing
  • Regression testing
  • Shakeout testing
  • System testing
  • White-box and black-box testing
  • Alpha and beta testing
  • Performance testing
    • Load testing
    • Stress testing
    • Endurance testing

Software Testing Interview Questions

If you are planning to appear for a software testing interview, here are a few questions you should vary of:

16) Define the PDCA cycle.

In a normal software development process, there are four varying steps, referred to as PDCA. It stands for Plan, Do Check, Act.

  • The plan defines the objectives and a comprehensive strategy to achieve that objective.
  • Do depends upon the strategy finalized during the first stage. 
  • Check is the testing part of the software development stage. It is used to make sure that everything is happening as per the plan.
  • The act is a step that is used to solve any issue arising during the checking cycle. 

While the developers take responsibility for planning and building the project, testers handle the check part of it. 

17) What are the benefits of designing tests early in the life cycle?

By designing tests early in the life cycle, we can effortlessly avert defects from being available in the main code.

18) Define exploratory testing.

Exploratory testing is referred to when design and execution take place simultaneously against an application. In this testing type, the tester uses domain knowledge and the testing experience to forecast under what conditions and where the system may behave in an unanticipated way. 

19)How can you explain risk-based testing?

Risk-based testing is one such testing strategy that is based upon prioritizing tests by keeping risks in mind. It is based on a comprehensive risk analysis approach that further categorizes the risk by their priority. Those with the highest priority get resolved first. 

20) What do you know about accessibility testing?

Accessibility testing comes into the picture when there is a need to verify whether the software is accessible to everybody, including those with disabilities, such as blind, deaf, mentally disabled, and more. 

21) Define agile testing.

Agile testing is one such practice that uses agile methodologies and follows the paradigm of test-first design. 

22) What is automated testing?

When done by software tools and executed without any manual intervention, testing is referred to as automated testing. This type of testing can be used in API, performance, GUI, and more. 

23) Define baseline testing.

In baseline testing, a specific set of tests is run to gain information regarding the performance. Baseline testing enhances the capabilities and performance of the application with the help of collected information to make changes in the application. Baseline helps compare the application’s present performance with the previous performance.

24) What are the important testing types for web testing?

Two major types of testing are important for web testing, such as:

  • Performance Testing: It is a testing technique wherein the quality attributes are evaluated, such as responsiveness, scalability, speed under varying load conditions, and more. The performance testing defines the attributes that require improvement before the launch.
  • Security Testing: This one is a testing technique that comprehends the resources and data that must be saved from hackers or intruders. 

25) State the difference between validation and verification.

Validation

Verification

It is a dynamic testing

It is a static testing

Validation takes place after verification

Verification takes place before validation

Validation assesses products

Verification assesses documents, plans, specifications, and requirements

Invalidation testing, a real product is tested

In verification testing, inputs are the issues list, checklist, inspection, and walkthroughs

Here, the actual product is the output

Here, plans, documents, requirements, and specifications are the output.

26) State the difference between reactive and preventative approaches to testing.

The reactive tests are designed once the software is developed, while the preventative tests are designed earlier than that.

27) What is the use of decision table testing?

A decision table comprises inputs and outputs in the same column, only that the outputs come above and inputs are placed below them. Also, decision table testing is used for the testing systems for which the specification takes the cause-effect combination or rules. 

28) What are positive and negative testing?

Positive testing is when you put valid input and anticipate to expect certain actions that are completed as per the specifications. On the other hand, negative testing is when you put an invalid input and get an error. 

29) What is the meaning of boundary value analysis?

In boundary value analysis, we test precise boundaries. For instance, suppose there is a bank application where you can withdraw a minimum of 100 and a maximum of 25000. Thus, we will test the above and below the maximum scenarios in boundary value analysis.  

For example, if there is a bank application, you can withdraw a maximum of 25000 and a minimum of 100. So in boundary value testing, we only test above the max and below the max. This covers all scenarios.

30) Define the types of performance testing?

Performance testing is a technique that helps determine the system’s performance, such as stability, scalability, and speed. There are different types of software testing, such as:

  • Load Testing: A technique wherein a system is tested with an increasing load until it attains the threshold value
  • Stress Testing: This one is a technique that helps check the system when hardware resources are not sufficient, such as disk space, memory, CPU, and more
  • Spike Testing: Spike Testing is a subset of load testing that checks the application’s instability when the load is varying
  • Endurance Testing: This is the subset of load testing and checks the system’s behavior
  • Volume Testing: This is a technique wherein the system gets tested when the data volume is increased
  • Scalability Testing: It is referred to as a technique that makes sure the system is working well in proportion to the increasing demands of the users. 

Functional Testing Interview Questions

Functional Testing has various phases that must be considered while testing. We'll look at a variety of interview questions and answers in this section to help you prepare for your interview.

31) What is the meaning of functional testing?

Functional testing is a black-box testing technique where the application’s functionality is tested to come up with anticipated results by offering a specific input. The role of functional testing is not just to validate the application’s behavior but also to verify whether the application can be released or not. 

32) Define the important steps covered in functional testing.

Some of the important steps covered in functional testing include:

  • Understanding the requirement documents and resolving doubts as well as queries in the review comments
  • Writing the test cases in regards to the requirement specifications by keeping every scenario in mind
  • Discovering the test inputs along with requesting the test data needed to execute the test cases and check the application’s functionality
  • Comprehending the real outcomes according to the tested input values
  • Executing the test cases that understand whether the behavior of the application is as per the expectation or if any defects are there

33) What is the difference between functional and non-functional testing?

The difference between functional and non-functional testing is as follows:

Functional Testing

Non-Functional Testing

It is performed to comprehend the behavior of the system according to the client functional needs and requirements

It is the process that helps comprehend whether the performance of the system is according to the client’s requirements

Manual and automation testing tools are used to perform it

Effective tools are used to perform it after functional testing

It is quite easy to perform

It is difficult to perform

Functional testing covers:

  • Unit Testing
  • Regression Testing
  • Smoke Testing
  • User Acceptance Testing
  • Sanity Testing
  • Integration testing

Non-functional testing covers:

  • Performance Testing
  • Compatibility Testing
  • Load, Stress, Volume Testing
  • Security Testing

34) What is the difference between build and release?

The build is one executable file that is regarding the application’s part handed over to the tester to test the functionalities and fix bugs. The build can also reject the testing team if it doesn’t have anything critical or major. The release is a software application that doesn’t exist in the testing phase anymore. It has been handed over to the client.

35) What is the bug cycle?

A bug refers to an unwanted flaw, mistake, or error occurring in the application and preventing it from generating the needed result. When any bug is discovered when testing the application, it goes through a definite cycle, from logging to resolving, known as the bug life cycle.

36) State some of the bug statuses.

Some of the bug statuses are:

  • New: It is when a bug is logged for the first time
  • Assigned: It is once a bug is logged, it will be reviewed by the team lead and assigned to the developer team
  • Open: It is when the tester has logged the bug in the Open state, and it remains so until the developed has worked on it
  • Fixed / Resolved: This status comes up when the developer has resolved the bug
  • Reopen: This status comes if the tester has detected the bug again
  • Invalid / Not a Bug:  It can be marked invalid when the developer reports an issue according to the functionality but logged because of the misinterpretation

37) What is data-driven testing?

Data-driven testing is a methodology where a series of test scripts, comprising test cases, gets executed consistently with the help of data sources, such as SQL database, CSV file, XML file, or Excel spreadsheet for input values. Here, the real result is compared to the anticipated one during the verification process. 

38) What essential points should be considered when writing test cases?

Writing a test case is meant to be an essential activity for the test execution process, requiring writing skills and profound knowledge of the application to make reusable and effective test cases. Some of the essential points to be kept in mind include:

  • There should be a precise understanding of the requirements before writing the test cases. There should be no assumptions or doubts.
  • Every requirement should be in the form of test cases. Generally, a traceability matrix is maintained to keep track of every requirement integrated and testing completed.
  • According to the requirements of document specifications, every non-functional and functional requirement should be covered.
  • Test cases should be checked periodically for no redundancy or repetition.

39) Define automation testing.

Automation testing is one such method that uses an automation tool to execute test cases suite to improve test coverage and speed to test execution. Automation testing doesn’t need any human intervention as it executes pre-scripted tests and can compare and report results with previous test runs. 

40) What are stress testing and load testing?

Stress testing is a performance testing type where the application goes through stress or exertion, meaning the application is executed above the break threshold to comprehend the point where it will crash. Usually, this condition comes when there is too much data or too many users.

Loading testing is a performance testing type where the application gets executed above a variety of load levels to monitor the server’s peak performance, server throughput, response time, and more. 

41) What is volume testing?

Volume testing is a performance testing type that comprehends the response time and server throughput level when concurrent users and large data loads from the databases are put into the application or system under tests. 

42) What are different test techniques in functional testing?

There are two different types of test techniques, such as:

  • Requirement Based Testing: This is a functional testing form that is performed by prioritizing the needs on the basis of risk criteria. This also makes sure that all of the critical test paths get included in the process.
  • Business Process-Based Testing: This functional testing form is performed from the perspective of the business process. The scenarios included in this are business processes' knowledge. 

43) What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing means exploring or testing the application without following any procedures or schedules. When performing this testing type, testers don’t track any set patterns but use out-of-the-box thinking and varying ideas to see how the application will perform.

44) What are the potential login features to be tested for any web application?

The potential scenarios to perform so as to test the login feature of an application fully include:

  • Checking the fields of inputs, such as username and password, for both invalid and valid values
  • Entering a valid email ID with an incorrect password and an invalid email ID with a valid password
  • Entering valid credentials to log into the application
  • Entering the application after logging in and navigating back to the login page to check if the user is asked to log in again or not
  • Sign in from a browser and open the application from another browser to check if you are still logged in
  • Changing password after logging and then trying to login with the old password

45) What is the importance of accessibility testing?

In the present scenario, the web is dominating our lives through varying forms, including online payments, online learning, shopping, and more. Hence, to grow better, everybody should be a part of technology. With accessibility testing, disabled people can use the internet with much ease through:

  • Speech recognition software
  • Special keyboard
  • Screen reader software
  • Screen magnification software

Manual Testing Interview Questions for 3/5/7/8 Years of Experience

If you are an experienced professional working in this domain for 3/5/7/8 years and are planning to go higher-level in your job, jotted down below are some interview questions that you should prepare. 

46) What will be your strategy if you find a bug during testing?

When a bug is discovered, we can:

  • Run additional tests to ensure the problem has a precise description
  • Run tests to make sure the similar problem does not exist with  other inputs
  • Once the certainty is established, can add more details and then report the bug.

47) How will you test if the requirements have to be freezed yet?

If the specifications haven’t been freezed for a product, can curate the test plan based on assumptions regarding the product. However, these assumptions should be well-documented in the plan. 

48) How will you conquer the challenges that occurred because of the unavailability of documents during the testing?

In case the standard documents, such as Feature Description Document or System Requirement Specification are missing, then quality assurance will be based upon the following references, such as:

  • Screenshots
  • Wireframes
  • A previous version of the application

Another method could be having discussions with developers and business analysts. It will help resolve doubts and open a channel for bringing transparency to the requirements. 

49) Can you spot the difference between regression testing and retesting?

Possible differences that we can spot between regression testing and retesting are:

  • Regression testing ensures the fixed bug doesn’t break other application components, while the retesting is performed to verify that the defect has been fixed.
  • With regression test cases, the functionality of all or some modules is verified.
  • Retesting offers higher priority in comparison to regression.

50) What would be the key challenges of manual testing?

As per my understanding, the following are some of the key challenges of manual testing:

  • The lack of standard documentation to comprehend the application
  • Testing the application entirely with the help of optimized test cases
  • Unavailability of skilled testers
  • Deciding the test that should be executed first
  • Understanding the requirements clearly
  • The ability to know when to stop the testing

51) Define functional and non-functional test cases?

Functional testing is the testing of the functionality of a product or an application. It helps test the software’s behavior. Based on the client's requirements, a document, known as the software specification or requirement specification, gets used to test the application. On the other hand, non-functional testing is when an application works according to the user’s expectations, regardless of the condition. 

52) What is the meaning of STLC?

STLC is referred to as Software Testing Life Cycle. It proposes the execution of tests in a systematic and planner manner. In this model, a lot of activities take place intending to enhance the product’s quality. This method covers requirement analysis, test planning, test case development, environment setup, test execution, and test cycle closure.

53) What is the meaning of a fault?

 A fault is a condition that leads to the failure of software execution when performing a regarded function. 

54) State the difference between a bug, defect, and error.

An error occurs when there is a slip in coding. This can be discovered by a manual tester when it becomes a defect. If the development team admits the defect, it becomes a bug. In case a built code misses the requirements, it turns out to be a functional failure. 

55) What is the relationship between severity and priority?

Severity signifies the depth or gravity of a bug. It helps describe the application’s perspective. On the other hand, priority talks about the bug that must be fixed on a priority basis. It also defines the point of view of users. 

56) List down the severity types.

The criticality or the severity of a bug can be high, medium, or low, depending on its context, such as:

  • User interface defects come under low severity
  • Boundary related defects and error handling defects come under medium severity
  • Error handling defects, calculation defects, misinterpreted data, hardware failures, compatibility issues, control flow defects, and load conditions come under high severity

57) Define defect removal efficiency.

Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE) is a testing metric that indicates the development team’s efficiency in fixing errors and issues before releasing the software. It is measured as the ratio of fixed defects to the total number of discovered issues. For instance, if there were 80 discovered defects during the testing and 60 were fixed, the DRE will be 80/60 = 1.3%.

58) How will you perform automated testing in an environment?

Automation testing is one such process that helps execute the tests automatically. It decreases the need for human intervention significantly. Various tools can be used for it, such as WinRunner, Selenium, and QTP.  With the help of testing tools, we can speed the testing tasks. Also, these tools help us create test scripts to verify the application and generate test reports automatically. 

59) What is the difference between software testing, quality control, and quality assurance?

Software testing is one process that ensures that the product meets the requirements of users. The objective of performing this test is to discover bugs and fix them. Hence, it helps maintain the product’s quality so that it can be delivered to the customer.

Quality Control (QC) is related to the product’s quality. It not just discovers the defects but also suggests improvements as well. Hence, the testing team is liable for QC.

Quality Assurance (QA) is a systematic and planned way of monitoring the quality of the entire process, meant to come up with a quality product. It helps track the test reports and modify the process to fulfill expectations. 

60) State the difference between bug release and bug leakage.

Bug release is when a specific software version is released with known bugs. Generally, these bugs are of low priority or severity.

Bug leakage happens when a bug is identified by the end customer and missed by the testing team when testing the software. 

Conclusion

Now that you have a comprehensive, in-depth list of manual testing interview questions, you can definitely prepare well. So, go through these questions repeatedly until you are ready to give correct answers without pausing in between.

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Last updated: 06 Apr 2022
About Author
Ravindra Savaram

Ravindra Savaram is a Content Lead at Mindmajix.com. His passion lies in writing articles on the most popular IT platforms including Machine learning, DevOps, Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, RPA, Deep Learning, and so on. You can stay up to date on all these technologies by following him on LinkedIn and Twitter.

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