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Q. What is SAP? How is it used in industries?
1. SAP is the most popular enterprise resource planning (ERP) software application used to provide enterprise business solutions. It was first introduced in 1972 in Mannheim, Germany. SAP stands for Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing.
2. SAP provides complete business solutions by integrating various business tasks such as sales, purchase, and production. SAP takes information from one business process and incorporates it into another business process, thereby speeding up all business processes. For example, information about the raw material in stock is used by the production department to determine how to prepare products.
3. SAP is widely used in various industries because as it updates and processes important data very quickly, it can automate business processes and provide real-time solutions for businesses.
Q. Briefly describe the history of the SAP software?
The SAP software was developed by a company of the same name. SAP (the company) was founded in 1972 by five former IBM employees: Dietmar Hopp, Hans-Werner Hector, Hasso Plattner, Klaus Tschira, and Claus Wellenreuther. SAP released its mainframe product, called SAP R/2, in 1979. The client/server version of the SAP software, called SAP R/3, was released in 1992. Today, SAP is the largest vendor of standard business-application software. SAP constantly delivers scalable solutions to its customers, allowing them to respond to dynamic market conditions and helping them to maintain an advantage over their competitors. Some of the major SAP applications presently available are defined in question 4 and include SAP R/3, my SAP ERP, mySAP Customer Relationship Management (CRM), mySAP Supplier Relationship Management (SRM), mySAP Supply Chain Management (SCM), and mySAP Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), to name a few.
Q. Why is SAP so popular? What are some of the other ERP applications available in the market?
SAP is the most popular ERP software available because it updates and processes business data in real time. Available ERP software can be divided into two categories: open-source ERP software and proprietary ERP software. Some of the most commonly used ERP applications are listed in the following table.
Q. What is mySAP ERP? What business components can it be classified into?
mySAP ERP is the next-generation ERP application from SAP AG in Germany, and was first launched in 2003. The mySAP ERP application has all the features of previously released SAP ERP software, such as SAP R/3 and SAP Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM), along with its own extensions. The mySAP ERP application provides e-commerce solutions by using Web technology. The mySAP ERP application has the following advantages:
1. Mobile infrastructure, which improves workforce mobility
2. Transparency through a business intelligence framework
3. Delivery of people-centric services
4. Faster access to information, which facilitates quick decision making
5. Seamless integration of processes throughout the business
mySAP ERP includes the following products:
1. mySAP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
2. mySAP Supply Chain Management (SCM)
3. mySAP Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)
4. mySAP Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
5. mySAP Product Life Cycle Management (PLM)
mySAP R/3 can be classified into the following business components:
1. Financial applications
2. Human resource applications
4. Sales and distribution applications
Q. What are the industry-specific solutions available in mySAP?
The mySAP ERP application provides business solutions for almost every industry, including automotive, chemical, and media. Various industry-specific solutions available in mySAP include the following:
1. mySAP Automotive
2. mySAP Aerospace and Defense
3. mySAP Consumer Products
4. mySAP Banking
5. mySAP Chemicals
6. mySAP High Tech
7. mySAP Engineering and Construction
8. mySAP Healthcare
9. mySAP Higher Education and Research
11. mySAP Media
12. mySAP Oil and Gas
13. mySAP Mill Products
14. mySAP Mining
15. mySAP Public Sector
16. mySAP Pharmaceuticals
17. mySAP Service Providers
18. mySAP Retail
19. mySAP Telecommunications
20. mySAP Utilities
Q. What is SAP R/3?
SAP R/3 is an ERP software that was officially launched in 1992. It is a replacement for the SAP R/2 mainframe computing-based ERP software and is based on client-server computing. With the advent of client-server computing, SAP AG in Germany (founder of the SAP ERP software) launched SAP R/3 to provide client-server-based real-time business solutions. The letter “R” in SAP R/3 represents the real-time business data processing, while the number “3” represents the three tiers in client-server computing.
1. The three tiers in client-server computing are: presentation (client), application (business logic), and database (stores the actual business data).
2. SAP R/3 integrates various business areas, such as sales, purchase, and procurement, by using different functional modules, such as Materials Management (MM), Sales and Distribution (SD), Financial (FI), Controlling (CO), and Human Resource (HR).
3. Different versions of SAP R/3 include 3.1i, 4.0b, 4.5b, 4.6b, and 4.6c; the latest version is 4.70.
Q. How did different versions of SAP evolve?
Since its inception, SAP has continued to support changing business processes and to adapt itself to the needs of organizations. In order to support the most current business strategies, SAP has evolved over time and progressed through the following versions:
1. SAP R/1—This was the first version of SAP and was developed for financial accounting systems. This version is no longer available.
2. SAP R/2—This was the second version of SAP. It replaced the R/1 version in the 1970s and was a mainframe-based business application. SAP R/2 supported multiple currencies and languages to help internationalize business management. This version is also no longer available.
3. SAP R/3—This version replaced SAP R/2, adding support for client-server-based distributed systems. This new version of SAP is multi-platformed, meaning it can be installed and used on multiple platforms, such as Windows or UNIX.
Q. Why are industry-specific solutions used in SAP R/3?Industry-specific solutions are used in the SAP R/3 ERP application in order to automate various business processes for almost every industry, including automotive, oil and gas, and chemical. By automating business processes, the SAP R/3 application helps organizations meet the following challenges:
1. Emerging markets—Earning revenue in emerging markets
2. Competition—Maintaining successful business operations in a world of fierce competition
3. Increasing demands—Handling increasing and varying customer demands
4. Labor issues—Solving the problems that arise for business operations requiring efficient skilled labor
5. Workforce shortages—Solving the problem of a shortage of skilled personnel
- The importance of industry-specific solutions comes from a very basic foundation of thought: every type of business is unique and therefore needs to be catered to accordingly. The same philosophy may not be applicable for automotive businesses and integrated steel plants, because both require entirely different approaches to business planning. The automotive industry is based on the assembling of equipment and parts–discrete manufacturing, whereas the integrated steel plant is a continuous manufacturing unit. Therefore, each business’s functionalities are different in areas such as production and inventory management.
Q. What benefits will be realized after implementing SAP in any organization?
After the installation of SAP R/3 in an organization, the following changes will occur:
1. Improvement in project management and project execution capabilities
2. Integration of suppliers and subcontractors
3. Optimization of sales-order capabilities
4. Comprehensive business support specific to a particular industry type
5. Minimal cost of ownership
6. Uniformity of business processes
7. Ability to make safe strategic choices
Q. What are the different modules in SAP R/3?
and CO. These modules are further grouped into various business-functional areas. The functional areas and the SAP R/3 modules in those functional areas are as follows:
- Financial applications—Deals with an organization’s financial matters, such as preparing and analyzing financial documents and reporting the document output to the appropriate authorities for further processing. To manage all these concerns, the following SAP R/3 modules are grouped in this functional area:
Human resources—Deals with documents related to an organization’s human resources department. The SAP R/3 modules grouped in this area help an organization to manage processes such as salary creation and distribution, employees’ payroll across the organization, and transferring data to other relevant departments, such as finance. This area consists of the following modules:
Logistics applications—This is the largest area covered by SAP R/3. This area helps manage broad-level business processes such as sales and distribution of products, materials management, production planning, and quality management. This area consists of the following modules:
Q. What are the core functionalities of the SAP system?
The core functionalities of the SAP system are Sales and Distribution (SD), Materials Management (MM), Financial Accounting (FI), and Production Planning (PP). In the first phase, companies implement the SAP software with these core functionalities. Later, in the second and third phases, they may also introduce other functionalities, such as Controlling (CO), Warehouse Management (WM), and Human Resource (HR). However, the types of modules and the phasing of implementation depends solely on the type of industry in which the client works, as well as the organization’s readiness and the urgency with which the integrated enterprise system, such as SAP, must be adopted.
Q. How can we define an MM module? What is its importance in SAP R/3?
MM stands for Materials Management and is a part of the Logistics functional area of SAP R/3. It is an important SAP R/3 module because it helps manage broad-level business activities, such as procurement, valuation and assignment, batch management, and materials storage. Since materials are the most precious resource of an organization, extreme care needs to be taken in all the processes related to materials management. Efficient materials management is the essence of the MM module of SAP R/3.
Q. How is the MM module integrated with other modules of SAP?
Q. What are the main components of the MM module? How are these components used in SAP?
The MM module of SAP R/3 is used for materials procurement and management. This is the largest of all the SAP modules and is divided into the following subcomponents:
- Purchasing—Allows users to control the entire purchasing process.
- Inventory management—Allows users to keep track of the materials in stock. It also helps users to perform operations, such as goods receipts, goods issues, and physical stock transfers.
- Invoice verification—Allows users to verify invoices from vendors. The invoices are compared with the purchase order and the goods receipts in the following three ways:
Physical inventory—Allows users to keep track of the materials stored in an organization. Inventory is taken on the basis of measurement units, such as number or weight of items, at a given storage location at a specific time.
- Valuation—Allows users to calculate the value of all fixed and current assets, along with all payables, at a certain time and with the appropriate legal requirements.
- Materials requirements planning—Helps users to create a materials procurement plan for a plant or company.
- Materials master—Helps users to manage all of the materials-related data.
- Service master—Helps an organization keep records of the services that it procures.
- Foreign trade/customs—Allows users to manage the export and import of merchandise among different customs territories.
Q. What is the organizational structure in the materials management (MM) module?
The organizational structure in the MM module is a hierarchy in which various organizational units are arranged according to their tasks and functions. The different organizational units that constitute the organizational structure of the company are as follows:
Q. What are the levels of organizational units in Enterprise Structure in SAP R/3?
The client is the highest level unit of the organizational units in Enterprise Structure in SAP R/3. The client is followed by the company code, which represents a unit with its own accounting, balance, and profit and loss (P&L). The next level of organizational units in Enterprise Structure is the plant, which represents an operational unit of a company.
Q. Define “client.” What is its importance in SAP?
A client can be defined as a person, company, or organization that purchases goods from another person, company, or organization. In terms of SAP, a client is defined as a unit that has its own master records and a set of tables. The client is important in SAP because it stores and maintains data about the organization where SAP is implemented.
Q. How do we create a client in the MM module?
You can create a client in the MM module either by using the transaction code SCC4 or by performing the following steps:
Q. Define “company.” How is it different from a client? What are the data in the MM module that are maintained at the company code level?
A company is an organizational unit for which individual financial statements are drawn per the relevant commercial laws. A company consists of one or more company codes. Within a company, all company codes must use the same transactions in addition to the same fiscal year breakdown; however, company code currencies can vary.
A company is different from a client because a client can itself be a company, or an organization that has multiple companies. For example, the owner of the entire SAP system is a client. The system will have only one operational client, but the client may further have a group of companies. The following data are held at the company code level:
Q. What are Features of SAP ERP?
SAP is an enterprise resource planning software which is produced by the German corporation. SAP is a enterprise information software that was basically designed to manage resources, information and activities that are required to complete business processes like procurement and managing orders, billing of orders and management of human resources.
Q. What are the organizational levels in SAP R/3?
The top level of the organizational structure is the client, followed by company code, which represents a unit with its own accounting unit. The next level down is plant where procurement activities take place. A plant will produce goods and makes goods available for the company. The purchasing organization is the legally responsible for procurement transactions. This group is further subdivided into purchasing groups.
Q. What are important steps in procurement life cycle?
Procurement Process starts with gathering requirements, then creating a purchase requisition and then we create a formal document that has to be sent to vendor i.e. purchase order. After this goods will be supplied by vendor and goods receipt is done along with invoice verification. Then vendor is paid for supplied goods and services.
Q. What do you mean by special stocks?
Special stocks are stocks that are managed differently as these stocks did not belong to company and these are being kept at some particular location.
Q. How stock is being transferred from one plant to another plant?
Stock within plants is transferred with the help of stock transport order. One plant order the goods internally from another plant(receiving plant/issuing plant) with the help of stock transport order.
Q. What are some of the movement types for stock transport order?
One step transfers of materials can be posted using movement type 301. Other movement types are 303, 351, 641, or 643 in the stock transport order.
Q. What is difference between purchase requisition and purchase order?
Purchase requisition is an internal document and it is a request that is made to purchasing organization to procure certain list of material while purchase order is formal document that is given to vendor containing list of items to be procured from vendor.
Q. What is a RFQ and how it is different from quotation?
A: RFQ is request for quotation and it is a form of invitation that is sent to vendors to submit quotation indicating pricing and their terms and conditions while quotation is a reply by a vendor in response to request for quotation.
Q. What are transactions that will cause change in stock?
Goods receipt and goods issue will cause change in stock as goods receipt will increase warehouse stock and goods issue will decrease warehouse stock.
Q. What do you mean by reservation?
Sometimes, stock need to be blocked in advance so that it can be available at a particular point of time. This is known as reservation. Reservation ensures that stock is available and it can be used when required. Reserved quantity can be viewed by tcode MMBE.
Q. Can you manually create purchase requisition with reference to documents such as purchase order or scheduling agreement?
No, purchase requisition cannot be created with either of these as it is an internal document which is controlled by purchase organization.
Q. Is material and vendor data available at all organizational levels?
Yes, material and vendor data is available at all levels as it is normally created for company and it is valid for the levels below company.
Q. What do you mean by release procedure?
Release procedure means approval of documents like purchase orders and purchase requisition manually by the criteria defined in the configuration.
Q. If you have multiple line items in purchase order, can you release line by line that purchase order?
No, release is done only at header level in a combined way for all line items in case of purchase order.
Q. What do you mean by material type?
Materials with some common attributes are grouped together and they are assigned to a material type. This will differentiate materials and allow organization to manage different materials in systematic manner in accordance to company’s requirement.
Q. What is a source list?
Source list include list of possible sources of supply for a material over a given framework of time. A particular material can be ordered from different vendors in different time intervals. This information can be maintained in a source list.
Q. What do you mean by consignment stock?
In Consignment, material is available at our store premises, however it still belongs to the vendor(seller)/Owner of the material. If you utilize the material from consignment stocks, then you have to pay to the vendor.
Q. What is invoice verification?
Once goods are procured from vendor and placed in company’s premises through goods receipt then we need to pay to vendor for acquired goods and services. The amount to be paid along with details of material is provided by vendor in form of document that is known as invoice. Before paying to vendor we need to verify the invoice. This process of verifying invoice and paying to vendor is known as invoice verification.
Q. What do you mean by outline agreement?
Outline agreement is a long term purchasing agreement with vendor containing terms and conditions regarding the material that is supplied by vendor. Outline agreement are valid up to certain period of time and cover a certain predefined quantity or value.
Q. What is difference between contract and scheduling agreement?
Contract is a long term outline agreement between vendor and ordering party over predefined material or services over certain framework of time whereas scheduling agreement is a long term outline agreement between vendor and ordering party over a predefined material or service which are procured on predetermined dates over a framework of time.
Q. What is difference between planned and unplanned services?
In planned services at the time of procurement specifications like quantity and price are known in advance. It means nature and scope of service is clear before procurement whereas in unplanned services at the time of procurement specifications like quantity and price are not known in advance. It means nature and scope of service is not clear before procurement. These services can be extended as per the requirement.
Q. What is quota arrangement?
A particular material can be procured from different vendors depending upon the requirement. So, total requirement of a material is distributed to different vendor’s i.e. quota is assigned to each source of supply. This is known as quota arrangement.
Q. What do you understand by posting period?
Various documents like purchase order, request for quotation, goods receipt are essential documents in a business. These documents need security i.e. if any of documents is posted incorrectly then business can be affected at various concern levels. So, to secure these documents we have a concept of posting period. Posting period means it will allow you to post and make changes in the documents only in a specific time period.
Q. Problem is that after goods receipt and AFTER invoice verification, reversal of goods receipt is being done. Client wants this more controlled as the GRIR account is being affected. So no reversals to be done after Invoice verification. How to approach this?
Make this setting: SPRO > Materials Management > Inventory Management and Physical Inventory > Goods Receipt > For GR-Based IV, Reversal of GR Despite Invoice
- Here remove the tick against Mvt 102 & 122.
- Now the system will not allow to return the Good at any case.
Q. I have created a new vendor. Later I found that there were some mistakes and that I want that the system should not allow me to make any PO or post any entries to this vendor. How to deactivate this vendor?
You can block a vendor at the following levels:
Q. Where to Get the Goods Movement Type List?
Step 1) Run spro command/TC
Step 2) Then move to “SAP Reference IMG” screen
Step 3) Then navigate following path:
IMG –> Materials Management –> Inventory Management and Physical Inventory –> Movement Types –> Copy, Change Movement types
Here with “Copy, Change Movement types” option a help tutorial is available (rectangular blue colour icon). In that go to “Further information” section where you can find a big list of movement types with some brief explanation.
Q. Where the schedule margin key is customized?
You define the order float in the scheduling margin key, The scheduling margin key is copied from the material master. The float before production or float after production and the release period are defined in the scheduling margin key
- For Customizing for Shop Floor Control, by choosing Operations –> Scheduling –> Define Scheduling Margin Key .
The scheduling margin key is assigned to the material ( MRP area in the material master) and is transferred when the production order is created. These values can be changed in the production order.
Q. What is the function of OBYC?
Function of the OBYC stand for Configure Automatic Postings. In this step, you enter the system settings for Inventory Management and Invoice Verification transactions for automatic postings to G/L accounts.
- Postings are made to G/L accounts automatically in the case of Invoice Verification and Inventory Management
transactions relevant to Financial and Cost Accounting.
- For example, Posting lines are created in the Stock account and Consumption account.
Q. Tell me what is *make to order*?
Make-to-order production is a process in which a product is individually manufactured for a particular customer. In contrast to mass production for an unspecified market where a material is manufactured many times, in make-to-order production a material is created only once though the same or a similar production process might be repeated at a later time.
- In global trade, you often need to process several different kinds of transactions at the same time. The Trading Execution Workbench (TEW) provides a central cockpit where traders can process trading contracts and their subcomponents, such as purchase orders and sales orders and follow-on documents. In addition, TEW automates a large part of the data entry, making processing quicker, easier, and more error-free.
Q. How to delete a material completely?
Try MMDE transaction but be careful this will remove all material from Client.
Q. What is the use of Tables in MM. i.e. How the tables get created?
Through SE11 you can create a new Table. In MM if you create a Material Master MARA, MARM, MARC,MARD, MBEW & MVKE will updated. In Vendor Master LFA1, LFB1 & LFM1 will be updated. The same applies to EKKO,EKPO for P.O, MSEG & MKPF for MIGO & RBKP for MIRO.
Q. If in any error, only the message no. ! or the table no. is shown , then how to resolve the error using message no. or table no.?
Contact ABAP or BASIS person to resolve this.
Q. How to create new transaction codes?
In transaction code SE93 you can create, Change & Display a Transaction Code.
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