Functional testing is an effective testing methodology that helps to test and deliver high-quality software. Functional testing methods include smoke testing, unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and so on. Performing this testing earlier in the software development cycle will help you save time and costs remarkably. This blog provides crucial information about functional testing, its different methods, benefits, and many more.
If you want to build high-quality software, undoubtedly, you must perform robust software testing. That’s why functional testing is considered essential in every software development. By performing this testing, you can identify code bugs at earlier stages and rectify them altogether. Not just bugs, you can test the behavior of the software in different test scenarios. Doing so can ensure that the software will generally work in a real-time environment.
We hope that it might be intriguing to know better about functional testing. Don’t worry! This blog will help you understand functional testing, its types, best practices, benefits, and more.
Let’s continue reading the blog to explore more.
It is one of the effective Quality Assurance methods with which we can test the basic functionalities of software elaborately. Mainly, functional testing focuses on the results of the functions or features of the software. The features can be User Interface, data retrieval, API, Client/Server communication, security, etc.
It is essential to note that this testing method doesn’t test the performance of the software. But functional testing helps ensure that the software meets the desired specifications. In other words, it checks whether the requirements of end-users and business owners are satisfied or not.
Once the software passes the functional testing, it can be immediately deployed into a production environment. Besides, we can conduct functional testing either manually or using automation.
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If you are wondering why function testing is crucial to test software, then look at the points below to know the reasons better.
By performing functional testing, you can:
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Let’s discuss the various types of functional testing with relevant examples in the following one by one.
Know that unit testing is a sort of white-box testing. Like smoke testing, most of the time, it is performed by developers rather than testers. With unit testing, individual units or components of the software are tested, and defects are found before performing high-level tests such as integration testing, system testing, and regression testing. In other words, unit testing focuses on the individual components of the software to verify that they are working as expected.
Suppose you have built an online shopping application. In that case, you must have developed codes for the various components of the application, such as the product page, payment part, user account, order history, my cart, recommendations, etc. Unit testing allows you to test the codes of the various mentioned components. As a result, you can identify code defects and debug them to meet the desired expectations.
Module testing is also known as component testing. It helps to test individual parts of the software. The parts are not necessarily to be the units of the software, but they can be any part of the software, such as a piece of code, screen, web page, submodules, etc. Note that this is the main difference between unit testing and module testing.
Take the previous online shopping application example for this case too. You can use module testing to test how UI works, how the product information is displayed, how a particular page loads, how information is retrieved, how the login page works, and so on.
Smoke testing is a sort of acceptance testing. It is nothing but a 'build verification testing'. In its basic form, smoke testing is basic and quick testing. Testers usually perform this testing. At times, developers conduct this testing based on needs.
We can perform smoke testing once the build is ready. With smoke testing, we can test the function of the software's main features before applying any advanced testing. This is because if the main features don’t work correctly, there is no point in continuing with advanced testing.
If you have built an employee portal for an organization, the portal may include many features such as adding new employees, payroll, attendance, etc. By using smoke testing, you can test one of the crucial features of the application – ‘adding new employees'. Suppose the employee name section doesn’t have enough fields to enter first name, surname, and last name but has only one field to enter a name; no doubt it is a significant flaw in the software.
Testing the other features without resolving this bug is a waste of time. Developers should rectify this issue first and then move to advanced testing, which will save their time significantly.
This testing is yet another basic level of testing. It is performed before regression testing or system testing. This test is used to verify how a software build works after a code change. Once the software build passes the sanity testing, it is ready for advanced testing. Unlike smoke testing, sanity testing examines only the stable builds.
Again, take the same online shopping application. If you have added a new feature in the application like 'Rewards and Offers', you must perform sanity testing before making any advanced testing.
This testing is required to verify the interoperability between the various components of the software. No matter how good the individual components of the software are, the software may not work as expected when all the components are put together. In a way, integration testing is complete testing where all the software components are combined and tested. Thus, the interaction level is measured between the components of the software.
Consider the online shopping application. It may have many features, from the product to the payment page. As you know, unit testing is used to test the features' functionalities individually. But the question is, how the whole application will work together when you want to make a purchase? You can test this with the help of integration testing because if you want to complete a purchase, all the application features should work together without noise.
This testing is also named Beta testing. It is conducted before launching software. Only selected users can test the software to check whether it meets the user requirements. This testing allows for verifying how the software works in a real-time environment. Simply put, you can assess various software functionalities from the users’ perspective.
Take the online shopping application once again. You can design different test scenarios to test the application. Using the application, you can arrange a set of users to order different items from different locations. By doing so, you can test various application functionalities in many aspects. For instance, users who order different products will use different currencies, payment gateways, etc., which opens up many chances to identify errors and debug them thoroughly.
If you have modified one or more software modules, this testing must be performed. This is because when new features are added to the software, it opens up many opportunities to malfunction the software. With regressing testing, you can ensure that the new features, as well as existing functionalities, are working smoothly and don’t create conflicts in the software.
It is also known as visual testing. It helps test the functionalities of a Graphical User Interface. By conducting this testing, you can test the UI components of the software, such as the menu, text fields, buttons, etc., to test whether it meets the users' expectations.
|Learn Top Functional Testing Interview Questions and Answers that help you grab high-paying jobs|
You need to know the procedure to perform functional testing on software effectively.
Let’s take a look at them below:
Let us know a few best practices with which you can simplify performing functional testing seamlessly.
There are a lot of excellent benefits that you can achieve by conducting functional testing. Let’s have a look at them below:
In short, the goal of functional testing is to ensure that all the functions or features of the software works as desired. Keep in mind that functional testing helps to meet the expectations of businesses and users. If you have completed functional testing, it will allow avoiding disasters after the software is set up in a production environment. Additionally, you can increase reliability, boost the software's credibility, and save costs with functional testing.
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Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .
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