There are quite a number of lower level plumbing commands that we must encounter.
While the reflog, interactive rebasing, and resetting may be more complex features of GIT, but they are still considered as a part of the porcelain, as in every other command. In this module, we’ll take a look at Git’s plumbing—the low-level commands that give us access to Git’s true internal representation of a project.
Unless you start hacking on Git’s source code, you’ll probably never need to use the plumbing commands presented below. But, manually manipulating a repository will fill in the conceptual details of how Git actually stores your data, and you should walk away with a much better understanding of the techniques that we’ve been using throughout this tutorial. In turn, this knowledge will make the familiar porcelain commands even more powerful.
We’ll start by inspecting Git’s object database, then we’ll manually create and commit a snapshot using only Git’s low-level interface.
DOWNLOAD THE REPOSITORY FOR THIS MODULE
If you’ve been following along from the previous module, you already have everything you need. Otherwise, download the zipped Git repository from the above link, uncompress it, and you’re ready to go.
After you have created several commits, or if you have cloned a repository with an existing commit history, you’ll probably want to look back to see what has happened.
First, let’s take a closer look at our latest commit with the git cat-file plumbing command.
git cat-file commit HEAD
The commit parameter tells Git that we want to see a commit object, and as we already know, HEAD refers to the most recent commit. This will output the following, although your IDs and user information is different.
tree 552acd444696ccb1c3afe68a55ae8b20ece2b0e6 parent 6a1d380780a83ef5f49523777c5e8d801b7b9ba2 author Ryan <firstname.lastname@example.org> 1326496982 -0600 committer Ryan <email@example.com> 1326496982 -0600 Add .gitignore file
This is the complete representation of a commit: a tree, a parent, user data, and a commit message. The user information and commit message are relatively straightforward, but we’ve never seen the tree or parent values before.
A tree object is Git’s representation of the “snapshots”, which we’ve been talking about since the beginning of this tutorial. They record the state of a directory at a given point, without any notion of time or author. To tie trees together into a coherent project history, Git wraps each one in a commit object and specifies a parent, which is just another commit. By following the parent of each commit, you can walk through the entire history of a project.
Notice that each commit refers to one and only one tree object. From the git cat-file output, we can also infer that trees use SHA-1 checksums for their ID’s. This will be the similar case for all of Git’s internal objects.
The next type we’ll look at is the tree, which solves the problem of storing the filename and also allows you to store a group of files together.
Let’s try to inspect a tree using the same git cat-file command. Make sure to change 552acd4 to the ID of your tree from the previous step.
git cat-file tree 552acd4
Unfortunately, trees contain binary data, which is quite ugly when displayed in its raw form. So, Git offers another useful plumbing command:
git ls-tree 552acd4
This will output the contents of the tree, which looks an awful lot like a directory listing:
100644 blob 99ed0d431c5a19f147da3c4cb8421b5566600449 .gitignore 040000 tree ab4947cb27ef8731f7a54660655afaedaf45444d about 100644 blob cefb5a651557e135666af4c07c7f2ab4b8124bd7 blue.html 100644 blob cb01ae23932fd9704fdc5e077bc3c1184e1af6b9 green.html 100644 blob e993e5fa85a436b2bb05b6a8018e81f8e8864a24 index.html 100644 blob 2a6deedee35cc59a83b1d978b0b8b7963e8298e9 news-1.html 100644 blob 0171687fc1b23aa56c24c54168cdebaefecf7d71 news-2.html ...
By examining the above output, we can presume that “blobs” represent files in our repository, whereas trees represent folders. Go ahead and examine about tree with another git ls-tree to see if this really is the case. You should see the contents of our about folder.
So, blob objects are how Git stores our file data, tree objects combine blobs and other trees into a directory listing, then commit objects tie trees into a project history. These are the only types of objects that Git needs to implement nearly all of the porcelain commands we’ve been using, and their relationship is summed up as follows:
A blob generally stores the contents of a file.
Let’s take a look at the blob associated with blue.html (be sure to change the following to the ID next to blue.html in your tree output).
git cat-file blob cefb5a6
This should display the entire contents of blue.html, confirming that blobs really are plain data files. Note that blobs are pure content: there is no mention of a filename in the above output. That is to say, the name blue.html is stored in the tree that contains the blob, not the blob itself.
You may recall from THE BASICS that an SHA-1 checksum ensures an object’s contents, are never corrupted without Git knowing about it. Checksums work by using the object’s contents to generate a unique character sequence. This not only functions as an identifier, it also guarantees that an object won’t be silently corrupted (the altered content would generate a different ID).
When it comes to blob objects, this has an additional benefit. Since two blobs with the same data will have the same ID, Git must share blobs across multiple trees. For example, our blue.html file hasn’t been changed since it was created, so our repository will only have a single associated blob, and all subsequent trees will refer to it. By not creating duplicate blobs for each tree object, Git vastly reduces the size of a repository. With this in mind, we can revise our Git object diagram to the following.
However, as soon as you change a single line in a file, Git must create a new blob object because its contents have changed, resulting in a new SHA-1 checksum.
The fourth and final type of Git object is the tag object. Like most VCSs, Git has the ability to tag specific points in history as being important.
We can use the same git cat-file command to show the details of a tag.
git cat-file tag v2.0
This will output the commit ID associated with v2.0, along with the tag’s name, author, creation date, and message. The straightforward relationship between tags and commits gives us our finalized Git object diagram:
We now have the tools to fully explore Git’s branch representation. Using the -t flag, we can determine what kind of object Git uses for branches.
git cat-file -t master
That’s right, a branch is just a reference to a commit object, which means we can view it with a normal git cat-file.
git cat-file commit master
This will output the exact same information as our original git cat-file commit HEAD. It seems that both the master branch and HEAD are simply references to a commit object.
Using a text editor, open up the .git/refs/heads/master file. You should find the commit checksum of the most recent commit, which you can view with git log -n 1. This single file is all that a Git needs to maintain the master branch—all other information is extrapolated through the commit object relationships discussed above.
The HEAD reference, on the other hand, is recorded in .git/HEAD. Unlike the branch tips, HEAD is not a direct link to a commit. Instead, it refers to a branch, which Git uses to figure out which commit is currently checked out. Remember that a detached HEAD state occurred when HEAD did not coincide with the tip of any branch. Internally, all this means to Git is that .git/HEAD doesn’t contain a local branch. Try checking out an old commit:
git checkout HEAD~1
Now, .git/HEAD should contain a commit ID instead of a branch. This tells Git that we’re in a detached HEAD state. Regardless of what state you’re in, the git checkout command will always record the checked-out reference in .git/HEAD.
Let’s get back to our master branch before moving on further:
git checkout master
While we have a basic understanding of Git’s object interaction, we have yet to explore where Git keeps all of these objects. In your my-git-repo repository, open the folder .git/objects. This is Git’s object database.
Each object, regardless of type, is stored as a file, using its SHA-1 checksum as the filename (sort of). But, instead of storing all the objects in a single folder, they are split up by using the first two characters of their ID as a directory name, resulting in an object database that looks something like the following.
00 10 28 33 3e 51 5c 6e 77 85 95 f7 01 11 29 34 3f 52 5e 6f 79 86 96 f8 02 16 2a 35 41 53 63 70 7a 87 98 f9 03 1c 2b 36 42 54 64 71 7c 88 99 fa 0c 26 30 3c 4e 5a 6a 75 83 91 a0 info 0e 27 31 3d 50 5b 6b 76 84 93 a2 pack
For example, an object with the following ID:
Is stored in a folder called 7a, using the remaining characters (52bb8…) as a filename. This gives us an object ID, but before we can inspect items in the object database, we need to know what type of object it is. Again, we can use the -t flag:
git cat-file -t 7a52bb8
Of course, change the object ID to an object from your database (don’t forget to combine the folder name with the filename to get the full ID). This will output the type of commit, which we can then pass to a normal call to git cat-file.
git cat-file blob 7a52bb8
My object was a blob, but yours may be different. If it’s a tree, remember to use git ls-tree to turn that ugly binary data into a pretty directory listing.
As your repository grows, Git may automatically transfer your object files into a more compact form know as a “pack” file. You can force this compression with the garbage collection command, but beware: this command is undo-able. If you want to continue exploring the contents of the .git/objects folder, you should do so before running the following command. While running it, normal Git functionality will not be affected.
This compresses individual object files into a faster, smaller pack file and removes dangling commits (e.g., from a deleted, unmerged branch).
Of course, all of the same object ID’s will still work with git cat-file, and all of the porcelain commands will remain unaffected. The git gc command only changes Git’s storage mechanism—not the contents of a repository. Running git gc every now and then is usually a good idea, as it keeps your repository optimized.
Thus far, we’ve been discussing Git’s low-level representation of committed snapshots. The rest of this module will shift gears and use more “plumbing” commands to manually prepare and commit a new snapshot. This will give us an idea of how Git manages the working directory and the staging area.
This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command is run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit, then you must run git add again to add the new content to the index.
Create a new file called news-4.html in my-git-repo and add the following HTML.
<!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en"> <head> <title>Indigo Invasion</title> <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" /> <meta charset="utf-8" /> </head> <body> <h1 style="color: #A0C">Indigo Invasion</h1> <p>Last week, a coalition of Asian designers, artists, and advertisers announced the official color of Asia: <span style="color: #A0C">Indigo</span>.</p> <p><a href="index.html">Return to home page</a></p> </body> </html>
Then, update the index.html “News” section to match the following.
<h2 style="color: #C00">News</h2> <ul> <li><a href="news-1.html">Blue Is The New Hue</a></li> <li><a href="rainbow.html">Our New Rainbow</a></li> <li><a href="news-2.html">A Red Rebellion</a></li> <li><a href="news-3.html">Middle East's Silent Beast</a></li> <li><a href="news-4.html">Indigo Invasion</a></li> </ul>
Instead of git add, we’ll use the low-level git update-index command to add files to the staging area. The index is Git’s term for the staged snapshot.
git status git update-index index.html git update-index news-4.html
The last command will throw an error—Git won’t let you add a new file to the index without explicitly stating that it’s a new file:
git update-index --add news-4.html git status
We’ve just moved the working directory into the index, which means we have a snapshot prepared for committal. However, the process won’t be quite as simple as a mere git commit.
Remember that all commits refer to a tree object, which represents the snapshot for that commit. So, before creating a commit object, we need to add our index (the staged tree) to Git’s object database. We can do this with the following command.
This command creates a tree object from the index and stores it in .git/objects. It will output the ID of the resulting tree (yours may be different):
You can now examine your new snapshot with git ls-tree. Keep in mind that the only new blobs created for this commit were index.html and news-4.html. The rest of the tree contains references to existing blobs.
git ls-tree 5f44809
So, we have our tree object, but we have been adding it to the project history is still left.
The git commit-tree command creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and emits the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read from the standard input, unless -m or -F options are given.
A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes the commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root) commits have no parents.
To commit the new tree object, we need to manually figure out the ID of the parent commit.
git log --oneline -n 1
This will output the following line, though your commit ID will be different. We’ll use this ID to specify the parent of our new commit object.
3329762 Add .gitignore file
The git commit-tree command creates a commit object from a tree and a parent ID, while the author information is taken from an environment variable set by Git. Make sure to change 5f44809 to your tree ID, and 3329762 to your most recent commit ID.
git commit-tree 5f44809 -p 3329762
This command will wait for more input: the commit message. Type Add 4th news item and press Enter to create the commit message, then Ctrl-Z and Enter for Windows or Ctrl-D for Unix to specify an “End-of-file” character to end the input. Like the git write-tree command, this will output the ID of the resulting commit object.
You’ll now be able to find this commit in .git/objects, but neither HEAD nor the branches have been updated to include this commit. It’s a dangling commit at this point. Fortunately for us, we know where Git stores its branch information.
Since we’re not in a detached HEAD state, HEAD is a reference to a branch. So, all we need to do is to update HEAD, move the master branch forward to our new commit object. Using a text editor, replace the contents of .git/refs/heads/master with the output from git commit-tree in the previous step.
If this file seems to have disappeared, don’t fret! This just means that the git gc command packed up all of our branch references into a single file. Instead of .git/refs/heads/master, open up .git/packed-refs, find the line with refs/heads/master, and change the ID to the left of it.
Now that our master branch points to the new commit, we should be able to see the news-4.html file in the project history.
git log -n 2
The last four sections explained everything that happens behind the scenes when we execute git commit -a -m “Some Message”. Aren’t you glad you won’t have to use Git’s plumbing ever again?
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