As more organizations adopt cloud-native technologies and containerization, the demand for Kubernetes experts is on the rise. In this Kubernetes Interview Questions blog, we have researched and compiled a list of the most often-asked interview questions that are asked by companies while recruiting Kubernetes professionals. Check out the following list of questions to perform well in your job interview.
Are you preparing for the Kubernetes interview? If Yes, then this blog is for you! This blog helps you get to know the Top Kubernetes Interview Questions that are possibly asked in interviews.
We have designed this blog with the latest Kubernetes Interview Questions and Answers for freshers and experienced professionals. By going through these interview questions, you will be able to crack the interview easily.
Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration system for deploying, scaling and managing automated applications. It offers an excellent community and works with all cloud providers. Hence, it is a multi-container management solution.
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Containers are a technology for collecting the compiled code for an application when it is required at run-time. Each container allows you to run repeatable, standard dependencies and the same behavior whenever the container runs. It divides the application from the underlying host infrastructure to make the deployment much easier in cloud or OS platforms.
A node is a worker machine or VM depending on the cluster. Each node contains services to run the pods and the pods are managed by the master components.
The services that include in a node are as follows:
The Container run-time is responsible to start and manage the containers. The kubelet is responsible for running the state of each node and receives commands from the master to work on it and it is also responsible for the metric collection of pods. The Kube proxy is a component that manages the subnets and makes services available for all other components.
A master node is a node that controls and manages the set of worker nodes and resembles a cluster in Kubernetes.
|Related Article: What is Kubernetes|
The main components of the master node that help to manage worker nodes are as follows:
A pod is a group of containers that are deployed together on the same host. It is the basic execution unit of the Kubernetes application that can create or deploy the Kubernetes unit of object models.
Kubernetes pods can be used in two ways. they are as follows:
There are three different types of multi-container pods. They are as follows:
A namespace is used to work with multiple teams or projects spread across. It is used to divide the cluster resources for multiple users.
The namespaces are of three kinds. They are:
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Docker provides the lifecycle management of a container and the docker image builds the run-time of a container. The containers run on multiple hosts through a link and are orchestrated using Kubernetes. Dockers build these containers and help to communicate with multiple hosts through Kubernetes
|Installation and cluster configuration||The installation process is very complicated but once it has been done, the Cluster is robust.||The installation is very simple, but it does not have a robust cluster.|
|Auto-scaling||It can do Auto-scaling||It cannot do Auto-scaling|
|Data volumes||It can store data only with other containers on the same pod||It can store data on any other containers|
|Logging and monitoring||It is an in-built tool for logging and monitoring||It is a third-party tool, uses ELA stack for logging and monitoring|
Container orchestration is used to communicate with several micro-services that are placed inside a single container of an application to perform various tasks.
The use of container orchestration is as follows:
There are many Container orchestration tools that provide a framework for managing microservices and containers at scale. The popular tools for container orchestration are as follows:
The major operations that the Kubelet do as follows:
The following is the list of objects used to define the workloads.
Pods are the collection of containers used as the unit of replication in Kubernetes. Containers are the set of codes to compile in a pod of the application. Containers can communicate with other containers in the same pod.
Ans: Stateful set is a workload API object used to manage the stateful application. It is used to manage deployments and scale the sets of pods. The state information and other resilient data of stateful pods were stored and maintained in the disk storage that connects with the stateful set.
To determine the status of the deployment, use the command below:
kubectl rollout status
If the output runs, then the deployment is successfully completed.
Replication controllers act as supervisors for all long-running pods. It ensures that the specified number of pods are running at the run-time and also ensures that a pod or a set of pods are homogeneous in nature. It maintains the desired number of pods if the number of pods it will terminate the extra pod. And if there is a failed pod, the controller will automatically replace the failed pod.
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The features of Kubernetes are as follows:
Kubectl is the command-line tool used to control the Kubernetes clusters. It provides the CLI to run the command against clusters to create and manage the Kubernetes components.
The Google Container Engine (GKE) is the open-source management for the Docker containers and the clusters. This Kubernetes-based container engine supports only the clusters that run within the Google public cloud service.
The different types of services that support Kubernetes are as follows:
The various container monitoring tools are as follows:
Heapster is a performance monitoring and metric collection system. It provides cluster-wide data aggregation by running with a kubelet on each node. It allows for the collection of metrics, pods, workloads, containers, and other signals that are generated by the clusters.
A daemon set ensures that all the eligible nodes run a copy of the pod runs only once in a host. It was created and scheduled by the daemon controller. It is a process that runs in the background and does not produce any visible output.
The uses of Daemon sets are as follows:
A Replica set is used to maintain a stable set of replica pods. It is used to specify the available number of identical pods. It was also considered as a replacement for the replication controller sometimes.
ETCD is the distributed key-value store. It stores and replicates the configuring data of the Kubernetes cluster.
An ingress controller is a pod that acts as an inbound traffic handler. It is responsible for reading the ingress resource information and processing the data accordingly.
The Replication controller uses the Equity-Based selector that allows filtering by labels key and values. It only looks for the pods which have the same values as that of the label.
The load balancer is a way of distributing the loads, which is easy to implement at the dispatch level. Each load balancer sits between the client devices and the backend servers. It receives and distributes the incoming requests to all available servers.
The two different load balancers are one is an internal load balancer that balances the load and allocates the pods automatically with the required configuration. And the other is the External load balancer that directs the traffic from external loads to the backend pods.
Minikube is a type of tool that helps to run Kubernetes locally. It runs on a single-node Kubernetes cluster inside a Virtual machine (VM).
The uses of Google Kubernetes Engine are as follows:
Prometheus is an open-source toolkit that is used for metric-based monitoring and alerting the application. It provides a data model and a query language and can provide details and actions of metrics. It supports the instrumental application of language for many languages. The Prometheus operator provides easy monitoring for deployments and k8s services, besides Alertmanager and Grafana.
Kubernetes allows the required state management by cluster services of a specified configuration. These cluster services run the configurations in the infrastructure. The following are steps that are involved in this process as follows:
The cluster Ip is a default Kubernetes service that provides a link between the pods or map container port and the host ports. It provides the services within the cluster and gives access to other apps which are inside the same cluster.
The Different types of controller managers that can run on the master node are as follows:
The Kubernetes architecture provides a flexible, coupled mechanism for the service. It consists of one master node and multiple containers. The master node is responsible for managing the clusters, API, and scheduling the pods. Each node runs on the container runtime such as Docker, rkt along with the node that communicates with the master.
The two main components of the Kubernetes architecture are as follows:
Each node contains the individual components in it
The Kube-API is the front end of the master node that exposes all the components in the API server. It provides communication between the Kubernetes nodes and the master components.
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The advantages of Kubernetes are as follows:
The disadvantages of Kubernetes are as follows:
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Ravindra Savaram is a Technical Lead at Mindmajix.com. His passion lies in writing articles on the most popular IT platforms including Machine learning, DevOps, Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, RPA, Deep Learning, and so on. You can stay up to date on all these technologies by following him on LinkedIn and Twitter.
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