Microsoft SQL Server is a highly scalable Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). It is possible to run the software from a single laptop to a network of cloud servers with high performance. It would work with absolutely anything. A few hardware and software requirements need to be solved, which are quite modest compared to the capabilities of the SQL Server. The SQL Server ranks among the most popular databases according to every survey. This SQL Server tutorial can help to understand the usage and the importance of the RDBMS software.
In this SQL Server tutorial, we will start from the basics of SQL Server and learn all the major SQL Server concepts. Now, let’s have a look at the following concepts of this tutorial.
The SQL Server would act like a client-server database system, unlike most other desktop systems. These systems run on a central server or multiple central servers. This allows multiple users to access the data simultaneously from the network. The users can access the database through an application. The data is stored using the database and it is made available. There are some useful features in SQL Server that assist the CRM applications to offer its functionalities. The employees can be in different countries and access and update the data through the browser.
There have been about 19 different versions of SQL Server. However, there have surely been some noticeable ones. They are stated below.
The SQL Server Architecture is based on the client/server architecture model where the data in the server is shared and accessed by the users through the client applications. The best approach to study technology is to understand internal build or architecture.
The modern versions of SQL Server are released every 18 months. Major enhancements often do not make the marketing headlines but still offer productivity and performance enhancements. Microsoft started to include feature releases in the cumulative updates.
The keys act as a combination of single or multiple fields in the database tables. They are used to retrieve the records or information from the rows in a table according to the requirements. These keys can also be used to dictate the relationship between tables. The types of keys include:
The SQL Server instance actually refers to an instance of the Database Engine. It is a copy of the sqlservr.exe and can run on the operating system. Each of these instances would be able to manage several system databases. This means multiple instances of the Database Engine can be run on a computer independently of the other instances.
These instances can be installed at any time and even after the SQL Server has been running on the system for some time. The instances apply primarily to the database engine and the supporting components. They do not apply to client tools.
When it comes to multiple instances, the sky is the limit. The reasons could vary across different organizations. Some of the uses are as follows:
These are some of the advantages of SQL Server Instances.
The client-server applications are those programs that allow the user to access data stored in the server. The computer system does not matter. Both of these could be workstations and could be running on the same type of operating system. The servers would hold databases and the users would be able to access the database from the workstations. A client/server database application can be created by using any other database application.
Several database management tasks are involved in the process. They are as follows:
The SQL Server is available in a lot of editions. Various editions with their features are listed below:
Enterprise: It is the best edition and includes all the different features available with the SQL Server. It is meant for large organizations and business administrators.
Standard: The features available in this edition is less than that of Enterprise. It finds use when there is no requirement for advanced features. Companies that do not need the advanced features can use these.
Workgroup: This edition finds employment in the remote offices of large companies.
Web: This edition is used particularly for web applications.
Express: This edition is entry-level. Only 1 CPU can be used along with 1 GB of memory and the maximum size of the database is 10 GB.
Developer: Similar to the Enterprise edition, it is licensed to just a single user for testing, demo, and development. The Developer edition can be upgraded to the Enterprise edition without any need for reinstallation.
Datacenter: The Datacenter Edition is the new major upgrade in the new SQL Server 2008 R2. It has no limitations in terms of memory. It would even offer support for more than 25 instances.
Compact: This edition is free and is available for mobile application development. 4 GB is the maximum allocated size of the database.
Enterprise Evaluation: The Evaluation Edition offers a fully functional and free instance of the SQL Server. It is best for learning and developing solutions and would expire automatically after 6 months.
Business Intelligence: All the features in the Standard edition are included. Some advanced features include PowerPivot and Power View. However, many advanced online operations are available.
You need to follow the underlying steps if you would want to find out the version of your SQL.
The latest SQL Server version available today is the SQL Server 2017. Please check out the below two sections to know more about this version.
The release of the SQL Server 2017 as the first one for Linux had been a big milestone. The SQL Server 2017 was released simultaneously for both Windows and Linux. The porting effect would be based on a compatibility layer called the SQLPAL, where PAL stands for Platform Abstraction Layer. The subset of Windows libraries used by the SQL Server to run on Linux is enabled. The SQL Server would perform the thread and memory management through the SOS or the SQL Operating System. SOS becomes a part of the SQL PAL in the SQL Server 2017.
The performance of the edition has remained the same over the years. Replication is not supported in this edition if the context of high availability is not considered. File Table would not work on Linux, which exposes the SQL Server table as part of the file system. Most of the features that haven't yet been made available to Linux would soon be made available.
Let us look at the new features that have been made available in SQL Server 2017.
To use SQL Server, it needs to be installed first. There are two types of installations:
Step 1: You need to download the Evaluation Edition from the official website of Microsoft. You will find some files depending on the bit-version selected:
ENUx86SQLFULL_x64_ENU_Core.box ENUx86SQLFULL_x64_ENU_Install.exe ENUx86SQLFULL_x64_ENU_Lang.box
ENUx86SQLFULL_x86_ENU_Core.box ENUx86SQLFULL_x86_ENU_Install.exe ENUx86SQLFULL_x86_ENU_Lang.box
Step 2: You should select the "Install.exe", which would extract the necessary files from the downloaded folders.
Step 3: You should then double-click on the 'SETUP' application.
Step 4: Click on Installation on the left side of the SQL Server Installation Center screen.
Step 5: You should click on the first option that you can find on the right-hand tab.
Step 6: You should click on "OK" on the following screen.
Step 7: Click on "Next".
Step 8: You would need to check the product key select and click on Next.
Step 9: The checkbox to accept the license option needs to be selected and then click on Next.
Step 10: The SQL Server feature installation option needs to be selected, and then Next.
Step 11: You should select the Database engine services checkbox and then click on Next.
Step 12: You should enter the named Instance, offer a suitable name, and click on Next.
Step 13: Simply click on Next on the following screen.
Step 14: You should select the service account names and the start-up types for the listed services and then move to the Collation tab.
Step 15: Ensure to select the correct collation type and then click on Next.
Step 16: You need to make sure that the authentication mode selection and administrators are checked and then click on Data Directories.
Step 17: You need to select the above directory locations and then click on Next.
Step 19: Simply click on "Next".
Step 20: Select the above installations and then click on Install.
This is how you would be able to start using SQL Server.
The cost would depend on the MS SQL Server editions being used. For instance, the Enterprise edition would cost $14,256 per core, while the Standard costs $3,737. The Standard - server + CAL costs $931. The developer edition is free, while charges for the web edition would depend on the hosting partner. The Express edition is free.
To create a new database in SQL server, the following steps need to be followed:
Step 1: You would need to open the Microsoft SQL Management Studio.
Step 2: You should connect to the database engine and use the database administrator credentials.
Step 3: You should expand the server node.
Step 4: You should right-click on the Databases and then select the new Database option.
Step 5: You should enter a name and then click on OK.
To learn SQL Server, you first need to have the Microsoft SQL Server and the SQL Server Management Studio installed on your system. You should even look at the sample databases for queries. Proper training is required to get a good grasp on the internal build and architecture. Mindmajix provides comprehensive training on SQL Server which covers all the key concepts and enables you to acquire expertise in this field. You should also follow the user community and seek proper answers.
The career paths include SQL Server Database Administrator and Database Developer, Data Scientist, Business intelligence Developer, and other engineering prospects. Database testers, ETL developers, application interface developers, cloud database experts are some of the roles the SQL Server developers can take on in the future. They are described below.
The salaries of SQL professionals vary from $40,000 a year to $200,000, and payments might be hourly for the contractors. The SQL skills should be great to negotiate the salary figures.
SQL Server is among the most popular databases in the world and can be used for various applications. Other than maintaining databases and maintaining backups, it can be used for replication, maintaining users, roles, and optimization tasks. Since the virtual world, today is based on data, which is properly organized with the help of databases, learning SQL Server can offer lucrative jobs in the leading MNCs and secure a great future ahead.
Arogyalokesh is a Technical Content Writer and manages content creation on various IT platforms at Mindmajix. He is dedicated to creating useful and engaging content on Salesforce, Blockchain, Docker, SQL Server, Tangle, Jira, and few other technologies. Get in touch with him on LinkedIn and Twitter.