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T-SQL Tutorial

This T-SQL tutorial helps you learn the fundamentals of Transact-SQL. This tutorial employs Microsoft's implementation of the SQL standard Transact-SQL. We also provide the most important concepts of T-SQL, including its various functions, advantages, disadvantages, functions, commands, and types.  This Server tutorial will help you understand the usage and importance of T-SQL in greater detail.

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Microsoft gets most of the credit for Transact-SQL and SQL Server, both were developed in collaboration with Sybase beginning in 1987. Clients worldwide keep developing and updating their infrastructure in light of the latest technological trends. Aspiring data scientists will benefit more from T-SQL.

Important things to know about T-SQL:

  • T-SQL has a sizable market for big data. It depends entirely on the individual's goal, and the factors influencing T-future SQLs are subjective.
  • T-SQL syntax is distinct from that of other languages. However, it has the same functionality as other database languages and produces the same results. In 2014, the American National Standards Institute established the SQL server T-SQL.
  • T-SQL developers will be more interested in data science if they are given opportunities to expand their knowledge beyond the basics of T-SQL.

Transact SQL is another name for SQL. SQL is a query language unique to Microsoft SQL and Sybase that adds new features to SQL (Structured Query Language), such as row processing, transaction control, variable declaration, and exception handling. T-SQL supports data processing as well as string processing.

T-SQL Tutorial - Table of Contents

What is T-SQL?

T-SQL is a database query language that uses string processing, local variables, mathematical operators, and data processing. It is Microsoft's version of the international Structural Query Language (SQL) developed by IBM.

Transact-SQL (Transact Structured Query Language) is an extension of Standard SQL that allows more complex data manipulation beyond simple row retrieval.

T-SQL is most commonly used to create an application in which each application transmits a transaction query over the SQL server and to write an entire program consisting of block function procedures that define how things ought to be finished. There is no interaction with the database. T-SQL is also used for creating an application in which each application sends a transaction query over an SQL server. It works by executing the entire block as one operation using an extension of the SQL language.


If you want to enrich your career and become a professional in T-SQL, then enroll in "SQL Server Training". This course will help you to achieve excellence in this domain.

What is the Use of T-SQL?

The Transact-SQL language is used for data management and data organization across a wide variety of system types, each of which may have different data relationships with the others.

T-SQL is primarily used to build applications and include user-defined functions in those applications. Users prefer the T-SQL language because it allows executing multiple commands in a single program step. Using this language, the user can integrate T-SQL with various business tools, such as Tableau and Power BI.

What are the Types of Functions in T-SQL?

You can choose from the following four different kinds of T-SQL types: They are

  1. Aggregate functions: It can be used on any set of values but only gives back one value.
  2. Ranking function: After partitioning the data, it provides a ranking value for each row.
  3. Rowset functions: Within the SQL statement, it serves the purpose of a table reference.
  4. Scalar functions: It gives back the only value and operates on just that one. SQL Server supports the analytics function in T-SQL, which is used to depict analytical tasks.

[ Check out SQL Server Tutorial ]

What is the Working Process of T-SQL?

The Transact-SQL language is a conventional language used in relational databases to retrieve data from the database and process the essential information that has been retrieved from the database.

Working with T-SQL is easy because it uses commands similar to SQL. These commands include SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT, and many others. Data administrators use these commands to route data into and out of the database.

The T-SQL language allows users to define their functions and customize them based on the use case. Analytical functions, scalar functions, row set functions, and ranking functions are some of the different built-in functions made available by the programming language. These functions can be used directly by the user.

The Transact-SQL (TSQL) language is a powerful tool that is used for data analysis as well as for the performance of business operations. The BULK INSERT statement, part of the T-SQL procedural language, allows the user to import a large file into the database and view the data in a user-defined format. This functionality is provided to the user by the language.

Learn Query Optimization Techniques

Learning query optimization is another important step in developing expert T-SQL programming abilities. Let's pretend we've written a query that successfully retrieves the correct data from the database, albeit at a painfully slow pace. To judge this inquiry as highly effective here would be inappropriate. Learning query optimization is the most important factor in improving advanced T-SQL programming skills.

We can look at the following subjects to learn about query optimization:

  • SQL Server index structures are broken down into their most fundamental components, including clustered, non-clustered, and column stores.
  • Sargable expressions.
  • SQL Server requires that you interpret the execution plans.
  • Acquire an understanding of the operator of the execution plan.
  • A good understanding of the query processing phase of the query optimizer is essential.

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What are Basic T-SQL Commands?

T-SQL comes with many SQL commands, particularly those that can be used to perform basic data manipulation operations like retrieval, insertion, deletion, and truncation. 

Below are examples of some of the most fundamental commands:

1. Alter Table: Used to alter the definition of one existing table column, add one new column, or remove one that has already been added. If you want to rename the table, you can use the alter table column option.

2. Create Table: Create table can be used to create some new tables with default tablespace, but if you want to use some defined tablespace when creating a new table, you must define it with the create statement.

3. Create View: This allows us to create a single view. Assume that a particular query took a long time to execute. In that case, we can define that particular query as a temporary table and create a new view using the data from the temporary table. Calling the view directly will produce a result much faster than usual, except for this query execution. The create a view command aids in its creation.

4. Delete: Deletes a table, a specific table row, a specific column, or the entire data within a table. In T-SQL commands, there are usually three types of delete available: delete by using some cursor commands and deleting some specific key column data by mentioning in the cursor. Delete by some dynamic command, where someone can delete some key data with a specific dynamic condition, and it can delete one or more rows based on the provided condition. Delete by using some language command, and here again, some specific language condition that helps to remove one or multiple rows at a time.

5. Insert: One or more rows can be added to a table using the insert command. In this case, there are two different types of critical inserts available. Rows are added using some dynamic condition to a table or view. Here, someone can insert data into the table based on a dynamic condition stated in the query. And based on a language command, another one is added to the table or view. In this situation, an insert could be performed based on a language requirement specified in the command.

6. Update: The update command is typically used to modify one or more preexisting rows in a database table. T-SQL supports three distinct types of updates: dynamic updates performed in response to a specified query, positional updates performed with a cursor, and language-specific updates performed with a language-specific command.

[ Check out T-SQL and Normalization in SQL Server ]

What are T-SQL Functions?

T-SQL comes with a wide variety of in-built functions for dealing with both numerical and string data. Several of SQL's more useful inbuilt functions are as follows: -

  • COUNT Function in SQL Server: The number of rows in the database table is counted using the COUNT aggregation function in SQL Server.
  • Max Function SQL Server: Using the SQL Max Aggregate function, we can select the value greater than all the others in the column.
  • SQL Server Min Function: The Min Aggregate function in SQL enables us to select the column value that is lower than any other value in the table.
  • SQL Server SUM Function: The SUM aggregate function in SQL Server can calculate the total for the selected column.
  • AVG Function T-SQL: The average value in a column can be retrieved using the SQL Server AVG function.
  • T-SQL SQRT Functions: The SQRT FUNCTION is the method of choice when calculating the square root of a number.
  • CONCAT functions in SQL: It can remove many parameters with just one setting.
  • RAND Function in SQL Server: The random number is generated using the RAND function in SQL Server, accessed through the SQL command.
  • Numerical Functions in T-SQL: To manipulate numbers in MS SQL, you will need to use the Numerical Function in SQL.
  • String Functions in SQL: To manipulate the strings, one needs to know every SQL function.

How is T- SQL Different From Other Programming Languages?

T-SQL is a programming language that stands out from other languages since it is designed solely to interact with databases.

Here are some key factors in determining why T- SQL is different from other programming languages:

  • To begin, T-SQL was created to be simple to read and comprehend. It uses common English words, making it much easier to learn and put into practice compared to other languages.
  • Second, T-SQL was explicitly designed to facilitate processing of large amounts of data. In terms of its performance and the amount of memory it uses, it is very efficient.
  • Last but not least, T-SQL comes with many pre-defined functions and procedures that simplify data manipulations within a database.

SQL vs T-SQL - Which is better to learn?

Since T-SQL is an extension of SQL, you will need to become familiar with SQL's fundamentals before starting with T-SQL. If you start by learning T-SQL, you will eventually be able to pick up knowledge of standard SQL regardless.

Regarding almost everything, what you want to accomplish should heavily influence the subjects, skills, and knowledge you choose to study. It is highly recommended that you educate yourself on T-SQL if you work with a Microsoft SQL server soon. Learning SQL should be your first step if you're starting with database management and want to get up and running quickly.


Advantages of T-SQL

TSQL has several advantages that make it popular and simple to use. T SQL is a dependable and efficient language that aids in the establishment of communication with relational databases. 

Some of the most common advantages of T-SQL are:

  • Processing of Query is Fast: T-SQL allows the data administrator to quickly retrieve data from the database and process large amounts of data. You can quickly and easily perform any data-related operation, including deleting, inserting, and modifying the data.
  • Interactive in Nature: The T-SQL programming language can be used to write intricate business rules, which can then be used to retrieve data from a database. It gives the language an interactive quality. The T-SQL programming language is simple, both to use and to comprehend.
  • Less Effort: The T-SQL programming language allows writing a program in which all commands can be sent to the server in a single operation, which can result in significant time savings.
  • No Extra Knowledge: The T-SQL programming language is simple, and the data administrator does not need to exert additional effort to retrieve data from the database using this language. The T-SQL programming language supports all essential database operations, including INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE, and many more.
  • User-Defined Function: T-SQL provides functionality to define user-defined functions, which helps to form the structure for transactions. This structure can then be used in different platforms, such as an e-commerce platform, which helps to fetch the data efficiently. It is one of the T-SQL programming language's most important benefits.
  • Secure Transaction: Accessing the data stored in the database is a secure and consistent process. Encapsulated forms of the company's policies and rules for conducting business are provided.

Disadvantages of T-SQL

The database user has access to many benefits when using T-SQL; however, there are also some drawbacks to be considered before using the T-SQL programming language. 

List of some of the disadvantages associated with using T-SQL:

  • Limited Access: The database user has little control over the T-SQL language. The database contains many intricate business rules, and as a result, the user has only a limited amount of control over the database. The option to embed in the SQL language is not available in T-SQL.
  • Costly in Nature: The T-SQL programming language makes it expensive, which drives up the overall cost of operations and creates additional overhead for database users. A variety of T-SQL features are inaccessible to the user, and to gain access to those additional features, the user must pay an additional fee.
Learn Top T-SQL Interview Questions and Answers that help you grab high-paying jobs

Most Common T-SQL FAQs

1. What is T-SQL, and where is it used?

Transact-SQL, or T-SQL, is Microsoft's proprietary query language for SQL Server. It's useful for tasks such as reading a single row, adding, and reading a batch of rows. SQL Server utilizes this language, which is a procedural one.

2. What is the difference between T-SQL and SQL?

The primary difference lies in the purposes that each was intended to serve: SQL is a query language utilized to modify data saved in a database. T-SQL, or Transact-SQL, is another query language, but it's an extension of SQL used primarily in Microsoft SQL Server databases and related software. T-SQL is widely used for these purposes.

3. What is meant by T-SQL?

Sybase and Microsoft's T-SQL (Transact-SQL) are a set of programming extensions to the Structured Query Language (SQL) that add many features, such as row processing, exception and error handling, transaction control, and declared variables.

4. Is T-SQL the same as MySQL?

T-SQL is functional in Microsoft SQL Server and Sybase. It will not work in MySQL because that relational database management system uses a different SQL dialect. If your instructions say, "create a database using T-SQL," you must use either Microsoft SQL Server or Sybase as your database management system.

5. How do I run a T-SQL script?

To Run the T-SQL script file: 

  • Launch a window for the command prompt.
  • In the window that says "Command Prompt," type the following: sqlcmd -S myServerinstanceName -i C:myScript.sql.
  • Hit the enter button.

6) What is the difference between T-SQL and PL SQL?

The most fundamental difference between T-SQL and PL-SQL is that the former is a product developed by Microsoft, whereas Oracle develops the latter. Transact-SQL is the complete form of the acronym T-SQL, whereas Procedural Language SQL is the form of PL-SQL.

7) Is T-SQL difficult to learn?

SQL is a simple language to pick up for the most part. SQL can be learned in weeks if you are familiar with programming and have some experience with other languages. It could take longer if you're starting and have never written any code.


Your project specifications should guide your T-SQL database selection. There is a wide range of practical uses for SQL, from learning how to properly organize your database to writing effective SQL statements and clauses to manage your SQL database to ensure its scalability. As T-SQL allows for the simultaneous execution of multiple commands, it speeds up processing times. Thanks to its powerful yet intuitive features, T-SQL has quickly gained popularity.

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Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .

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