Are you looking for a career in development and operations roles in the IT industry? Well, then the future is yours. Currently, DevOps has huge popularity worldwide and more than 50% of the organizations are implementing DevOps as per Forrester research. The career opportunities for DevOps professionals are booming with high payouts in the industry. The average annual salary of DevOps professionals ranges around $136,300.
However, cracking the DevOps interview is not easy and requires a lot of preparation. To help you out, we have collected the Top DevOps Interview Questions and Answers which are crafted by industry experts, and they will surely help you progress forward in DevOps development.
|Types of DevOps Interview Questions|
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DevOps can be defined as a combination of software development practices and tools used for increasing organizations' ability while delivering applications, services, and more in close alignment with business objectives.
|For more information: DevOps Tutorial|
DevOps is more about a set of processes that correlate to bring development teams and processes to support software development. The important reason behind the DevOps popularity is that it helps enterprises to build and enhance products at a quicker pace than traditional software development methods.
The major reasons to adopt DevOps are listed below:
The major differences between Agile and DevOps are listed below:
|Definition||It's an iterative approach that focuses on development.||It's a practice of both development and operations.|
|Purpose||Manages complex projects.||Manages end-to-end engineering processes.|
|Target areas||Software development.||End-to-end business solutions and faster deliveries.|
|Tools||Kanboard, JIRA, and Bugzilla are popular Agile tools.||AWS, Puppet, Chef are some popular DevOps tools.|
|Release cycles||Supports Agile release Cycles||Shorter release cycles and also supports defect detection.|
|Feedback source||Self-feedback||Feedback from customers.|
The core operations of DevOps for application development and infrastructure are listed below:
Application development consists of the following core operations:
Infrastructure consists of the following core operations:
The most popular DevOps tools are listed below:
|Related Article: DevOps Configuration Tools|
The following are the DevOps key performance indicators (KPIs):
The following are the key components of DevOps:
A stack of tools combine to form a DevOps toolchain, it automates the tasks like developing and deploying your application. DevOps can be performed manually with simple steps, but the need for automation quickly increases with the increase in its complexity, and toolchain automation is essential for continuous delivery. GitHub a Version Control Repository is the core component of a DevOps toolchain. More tools may contain backlog tracking, delivery pipelines, etc.
|Related Article: DevOps Toolset|
AWS facilitates essential services that help you implement DevOps at your company and that are built to use in collaboration with AWS. These services automate manual actions, help teams manage complex environments at scale, and keep engineers stable of the high velocity generated by DevOps.
“Nagios Remote Plugin executor” popularly known as NERP enables us to execute the Nagios plugins remotely. With the help of this mechanism, we can check the performance parameters of the remote Machine.
Nagios runs on a server either as a background process or as a service. Nagios will run the plugins regularly with the help of the hosts or servers present in your Network. We can check the status information by using the web interface. It will execute the scripts based on a schedule.
Version control systems are a kind of software tool which reports the changes in the code and integrates these changes with the existing code. As the developer makes changes in the code frequently, these types of tools are helpful in integrating the new code smoothly without disturbing the work of other team members. Along with integration, it will test the new code so that we can avoid the code leading to bugs)
Primarily there are three types of Version control systems they are:
The primary benefits you can expect from a version control system are the following:
Branching is a technique employed for code isolation. In simple terms, it makes a copy of the source code to create two versions that are developed separately. There are various types of branching available. Therefore, the DevOps team must make a choice depending on application requirements. This choice is called a branching strategy.
Git is a distributed version control system particularly used for recording the changes in the source code during software development. It manages a set of files or a project that change over time. It stores the information in a data structure called the repository.
Let's understand the importance of Git through its benefits to organizations:
|Related Article: Git Tutorial Online|
Continuous integration is a development practice of automating the integration of code changes from several contributors to a single software project. By regularly integrating, you can detect errors quickly and locate them easily. The source code version control is the crux of the CI process.
The major benefits of Continuous Integration are listed below:
A Trunk-Based development is a source control branching model for software development where developers associate on code in a single branch called trunk and employ documented techniques to create long-lived development branches. This process is called Trunk-Based development. It is a key enabler of continuous integration and by extension continuous delivery.
The following steps will help you understand how to create a backup and copy files in Jenkins:
There are multiple ways to copy or move Jenkins from one server to another:
The following steps will help you understand how to create a Jenkins job:
There are many useful plugins in Jenkins. Here, I have listed a few of the top plugins used in Jenkins.
|Related Article: What is Jenkins|
Yes. we can build multiple jobs or projects at a time using a Jenkins plugin. After the parent job is implemented, other jobs are implemented automatically. A pipeline multibranch plugin is used for creating a job automatically.
Continuous Testing is defined as a process of executing automated tests as part of the software delivery lifecycle to obtain feedback on business risks associated with the software release. The objective of continuous testing is to test early and test often to prevent the problems from progressing to the next stage of the SDLC.
The benefits of Continuous Testing are listed below:
Automation Testing or Test Automation is a software testing technique. It is used to automate the testing tasks and repetitive tasks that are difficult to perform manually. It involves the use of separate testing tools which lets you create test scripts to test and compare the actual and expected outcomes.
The major benefits of automation testing are listed below:
The following are the best Continuous Testing tools:
Selenium supports functional testing and regression testing.
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();
Continuous Delivery: It is a process in which continuous integration, automated testing, and automated deployment capabilities develop, build, test, and release high-quality software rapidly and reliably with minimal manual overhead.
Continuous Deployment: It is a process in which qualified changes in the architecture or software code are deployed automatically to production as soon as they are ready and without human intervention.
By following the below-mentioned steps we can implement continuous testing in DevOps:
The continuous testing process is done in DevOps to avoid testing the entire code at a time. In traditional SDLC, we will test the code after the whole code is developed but in DevOps, we will test instantly every change made in the code. This kind of testing avoids delays in the product release, and it will also help to achieve better quality in the product.
The best Configuration Management tools are mentioned below:
You can also mention any other tools if you have real-time experience in your previous job and explain how it improves the software development process.
Configuration management and provisioning infrastructure, both are important for the DevOps toolchain. While configuration management is best when it comes to employing desired configurations for target machines or groups of machines, provisioning helps you to create, modify, delete, and track infrastructure using APIs or code.
Puppet is an open-source configuration management tool used for deploying, configuring, and managing servers. It follows a client-server architecture, in which the client is an agent, and the server is known as the master.
Puppet agent and master communicate through a secure encrypted channel with the help of SSL.
Puppet Manifest is a base component for the Puppet configuration management policy. In Puppet Master, each Puppet node or Puppet Agent has its configuration details written in the native Puppet language. The details that are written in a language that puppets can understand and describe how resources should be configured are termed as Puppet manifests.
Puppet Manifests declares resources that define a state to be enforced on a node. They are considered to be building blocks for complex Puppet modules.
Puppet Module is a bundle of manifests and data. They have a specific directory structure that allows Puppet to automatically load classes, facts, custom types, defined types, and tasks. Modules must have a valid name and are installed in Puppet’s module path.
Puppet Manifests are nothing but Puppet programs that are composed of Puppet code. It uses.PP extension.
Puppet Codedir is the main directory for Puppet code and data and is mostly used by Puppet master and Puppetapply. It consists of a global modules directory, Hiera data, and environments (which consists of your manifests and modules).
The Codedir will be located in one of the following locations:
/etc/puppetlabs/code Unix non-root users: ~/.puppetlabs/etc/code
You can configure systems with Puppet in two ways:
The factor is Puppet’s cross-platform system profiling library. Puppet uses factors to gather information during the Puppet run.
Factor discovers and reports basic information of Puppet Agent including network settings, IP addresses, hardware details, etc., and makes available in Puppet manifests as variables.
Ansible is an open-source automation tool. It operates by connecting to your nodes and pushing out small programs called Ansible modules to them. It executes these modules through SSH by default and removes them when finished.
It handles many nodes from a single system over an SSH connection by using Ansible playbooks. These Playbooks are capable to execute multiple tasks and represented in YAML format.
Ansible stores facts about machines under management by default and these can be accessed in playbooks and templates. To get a list of all the facts that are available about a machine, run a setup module as an ad-hoc action:
Ansible -m setup hostname
This will present all the facts that are available under that particular host.
Handlers are exactly like regular tasks inside an Ansible playbook but run only when the task contains notify directive and also additional information if it changes something.
Eg: When a config file was changed, the task referencing that config file notifies the service restart handler.
Start your answer by defining Chef. It is an automation platform that is particularly used for transforming infrastructure into code. It uses pure-Ruby domain-specific language to write system configurations.
Now you can explain the architecture of Chef and how it works.
Chef architecture consists of three core components:
Chef Workstation, Chef Node, and Chef Servers.
First, begin with the definition of a Chef Resource. A Chef Resource describes a piece of an operating system at its desired state. It is a configuration policy statement that is used for representing the desired state of a node to which you want to take the current configuration for using the resource providers.
The functions of a Chef Resource are listed below:
In case, if you don't specify a resource’s action, then Chef applies the default action.
For example, in resource 1, the action is not specified, still, it will take a default action.
file 'C:UsersAdministratorchef-reposettings.ini' do content 'greeting=hello world' end
In resource 2, when you define the action with create command, it is also used to create the default action.
file 'C:UsersAdministratorchef-reposettings.ini' do action :create content 'greeting=hello world' end
By using Weblogic.Deployer you can define a component and target a server through the following syntax:
java weblogic.Deployer -adminurl http://admin:7001 -name appname -targets server1,server2 -deploy jsps/*.jsp
The auto-deployment feature is used for determining whether there are any new applications or changes in existing applications and dynamically deploy them.
It is enabled for servers that run in development mode.
To turn off the auto-deployment feature, follow one of the methods to place servers in production mode:
Continuous Monitoring helps to detect and measure the security implications for planned and unexpected changes and assesses the vulnerabilities in a threat space.
It delivers information on the application’s performance and usage patterns.
The following are the best Continuous Monitoring tools:
|Related Article: DevOps Monitoring Tools|
Containerization is defined as a process of binding the application and its required environment. Binding makes the application run in any computational environment. DevOps main goal is to bridge the gap between the development team and the operations team. To bridge the gap between them, it should make both sides work on an identical environment. Containerization helps in setting an identical environment quickly, and it will provide easy access to operating system resources. Docker tool is widely used for implementing containerization in DevOps.
They are a streamlined way to create, test, deploy, and redeploy applications in multiple environments.
Benefits of Containers are listed below:
Docker Containers can be created with the Docker image using the following command:
docker run -t -i <image name> <command name>
This will create and start the container.
If you want to check the list of all running containers with status on the host, use the following command:
docker ps -a
If you have any additional DevOps questions and unable to find the answers, please do mention them in the comment section below. We’ll get back to you at the earliest.
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|List of DevOps Courses|
|Build and Release Engineer||Jenkins|
|Chef DevOps||Octopus Deploy|
|Continuous Integration||Git & GitHub|
Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .