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A network node is nothing but a device or in fact, a computer that is connected to a network and is responsible for performing one or more than one task. For example, a computer that is responsible for data storage can be considered a node. A server can also be a node.
Failure of a network node can cause interruption to the whole network. However, it actually depends on some important factors such as the way nodes are connected with each other and what exactly the task a node is performing on a network. In case it is a server itself, of course, the network blockage will be there.
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Well, there are three types of networks and they are Local Area Networks, Metropolitan Area Networks, and Wide Area Networks. The size of a network depends on the overall number of PC or nodes that need to be connected with each other. LAN is the smallest network. An example is a network in an organization. The largest network is the Wide Area Network. An example is the internet.
Well, every task has some rules and regulations that need to be focused on a post or prior to performing it. Networking also has some fixed and variables rules that depend on a lot of factors and it's necessary to follow them. These rules are generally regarded as protocols. Without following the network protocols, it is not possible to assure the working of a network.
IP stands for Internet Protocol. It is actually the physical address of a computer or a device on a network. For security and other reasons, the IP for every device is different. However, sometimes two or more devices reflect similar IP address, es and this causes interruption on a network. Such a scenario is considered an IP conflict.
Topology is a way that describes how devices are connected with each other on a network. On a network devices can be connected with each other through various methods. The direct connection of every device with another is regarded as Mesh topology.
The biggest advantage of this approach is data can be sent faster and the failure of one node doesn’t affect the other. However, the biggest disadvantage is cost. Also, it is not possible in the case of larger networks.
It is basically an approach of connecting various computers or devices with each other to share software, hardware, and data through a medium between them. The medium can be wired or wireless. Ina network, basically there is no strict upper limit on the distance between two computers. Even those who are placed at different corners of the globe can communicate with each other.
The elements of a network are Sender, Receiver, communication medium (also known as a channel), Operating systems, Protocols, and other networking devices.
In server-based networks, there are a number of devices connected and all are centrally controlled and governed by a powerful server. The disadvantage of this approach is the failure of a server can result in the failure of the entire network.
However, the chances for this are less if the server is properly maintained. On the other side, in peer to peer approach, every device or computer acts as a server for others. Failure of one computer doesn’t affect the working of the other.
The bit rate is nothing but the speed at which the data transfer takes place between the devices connected to a network. The Physical Layer is responsible for controlling the same.
One of the prime reasons for creating a network is nothing but sharing the data. When the same is required, the transfer of data is done in a manner that no loss of data occurs as it can lead to risks on the network’s security. Thus, information is divided into frames before it is sent on a network.
The process of converting information into smaller groups is known as framing. It has several benefits such as in case of failure of reception, the network doesn’t need to send the entire data again. Only the lost packet can be sent again and this avoids load on a network.
Networks generally have a very large number of devices as their parts. It is not always possible to create a direct link between the Pc which is sending data and the one which is receiving such as we download a file on a computer from another through World Wide Web.
Switching is a technique that creates temporary paths between the computers to make the data transfer more secure. The connection remains active during the time of transmission and gets terminated once data is sent.
These are specialized networking devices that decide the route or the path for the data that needs to be sent from one node to another on a network. In the case of a complex or a large network, a computer itself can act as a router. There are some routing protocols that the network layer decides and ensure reliable movement of information in a network. The UNICAST routing algorithms are:
There are three main networks computing models and they are:
It is called a socket address.
It is basically a situation when the network is too busy or operates too slowly due to a large number of requests on the servers by the clients. Such a situation also becomes the reason for the slower performance of websites and software. It can be compared to a situation when a small road contains too many cars. There are two important principles and they are:
It maintains a hypothetical window on the buffer exactly where the application stores the bytes before sending and on a buffer before receiving the application. The sliding of both these windows is responsible for controlling and managing the traffic from both a sender and a receiver. The size of the window at the sender must not be larger than the size of the window at the receiver's end.
This process is generally carried by the transport layer on a networking model. It uses a socket address to perform its task and it defines a particular application on the host with more than one application.
A network is a combination of a very large number of computers and each is having its own IP address in either binary or number form which is in its. Of course, it is not possible to remember the name of all of them.
With a domain name system, a very reliable and easier method of defining these addresses can be assured. It generally defines the user-friendly addresses which are easier to convert to actual IP very simply.
These are basically the devices that play a vital role in making data transmission on a network very easy. Modulators convert the data or information into digital form from analog so that it can easily be transported on a network. The demodulator performs the reverse task and i.e. it converts the digital information back to the analog. Modulators are used in senders while demodulators are a part of the receiver.
Admission control, Load Shedding, Traffic shaping, and Choke packet are some of the algorithms for congestion control.
It stands for File Transfer Protocol and is designed for a client-server model for transferring files between different computers. Over the World Wide Web, there are lots of FTP servers which are having huge information in the form of files. Users who want to access them need to connect their PC with such servers and can begin downloading.
It is basically an approach that divides a network into several other sub-networks in such a way that each of these subnets has its own address. On the other hand, supernetting is totally opposite to subnetting which is considered in the case of Class A and Class B addresses while supernetting is considered in the case of class C addresses.
It means Internet Protocol Version 6. It is basically 128 bits long and is capable to provide 296 more unique addresses.
It is basically a series of server routines that are designed to satisfy the requests coming from various applications. NCP server include printer access, file access, accounting security, synchronization,
IDSN is basically a new set of protocols that is making networking more superior. It is trusted, as well as a secure approach to consider. It has faster data transfer rates. As compared to other similar approaches, its overall cost is very less. Also, it offers symmetrical transfer rates and is governed by an excellent set of standards.
A hub is basically a concentrating point for a computer network. It offers a central data point for network cabling. Most of the Local Area Networks in the present scenario are dependent on hubs for interconnecting devices with each other. Hubs are generally of three types and are Active, Passive, and Intelligent hubs.
Network administration is basically an approach that that consists of a lot of tasks. A network administrator is responsible for:
IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers. It is basically an organization having a team of Engineers and experts who are responsible for managing the standards for all the devices that are tagged as electrical and in the electronics category.
Attenuation is a situation when the overall strength of the signal becomes too weak and networks often fail to perform their task. It is possible to avoid this problem with networking devices such as signal repeaters as they regenerate the same and prevent them from being lost when it needs to be sent over a long distance.
Ravindra Savaram is a Content Lead at Mindmajix.com. His passion lies in writing articles on the most popular IT platforms including Machine learning, DevOps, Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, RPA, Deep Learning, and so on. You can stay up to date on all these technologies by following him on LinkedIn and Twitter.