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Q. According to you, what exactly is the role of a Cyber Security expert?
Cyber Security experts are required in both small a, as well as in large-scale enterprises. The role may vary depending on the position, nature of organizations. Some important roles are proper implementation of all security protocols to assure extreme protection to data, networks, & network nodes. Assuring the loss of service interruption and data loss due to security issues is also one of the top responsibilities of a Cyber Security expert. In addition to this, such an expert must keep himself up-to-date with all the latest intelligence strategies and the common approaches hackers use to hack systems and data.
Q. What do you know about 80/20 rule in the Cyber Security Protocols?
Well, it is one of the very important protocols which describe Internet Protocol networks and its nodes where 80 percent of the overall traffic remains local while the remaining 20 percent is routed to a remote network.
Q. In business, data is everything and as a security expert you know this, so how you will make sure data safety during your job?
First I begin with the basic things that are necessary to pay attention to. Installation of Cyber Security software is the first step to be implemented and I will do this. This basically includes installation of data encryption software, firewalls and so on. Next, I will pay attention to staff training which is a relevant step to ensure all the networks and widgets are secure. The training includes network security procedures and how they are considered. A back-up plan against network disaster is also something that would eliminate all the risks in case things go wrong.
Q. What do you mean by phishing?
It is basically an approach that simply deceit people from getting data from the users. The regular or genuine WebPages such as email-IDs ask users to enter their own password and ID.
Q. What exactly data leakage is according to you. What measures will you take to stop it?
Technically data leakage is nothing but the departure of IP from a pre-determined place. It can sometimes invite huge risks and therefore it is necessary to keep up the pace against it all the time. As one of the most common sayings is “Prevention is better than cure”, it’s better to pay attention to factors that can lead to same in advance. This includes technology mishaps, storing backup at an insecure location which these days is the most common reason of data leakage. The system configuration in an unreliable manner, Human errors, attack by hackers, inadequate security control for the files that are shared among departments, as well as the corrupt hardware can be the leading reasons for this.
Q. What are gateways?
When it comes to getting connectivity between two or more network segments, gateways are used. A gateway is basically a computer that runs the concerned software and offers services which are related to translation.
Q. Tell everything you know about the loss prevention controls?
Well, there are certain factors that are relevant as well as important in this matter. The very first thing that can be done to avoid them is creating the information risk profile, next is to develop the framework following all the security protocols. A workflow diagram would be helpful for this. Also, a response chart can contribute equally. Appendance of DLP controls all over the organization is something that is also helpful in this manner. All the outcomes for cutting down risk must be paid a closed attention. All the responsibilities must be properly assigned to the incident analyst, forensic investigators, local technical administrators, as well as to auditors for loss control prevention.
Q. What is the significance of a NIC?
It is basically a card that is attached to motherboard and is responsible for connecting a PC to a network
Q. We need to know about your personal traits which you should consider when it comes to protecting the server or network data.
The basic approach is installing strong anti-virus software and recommending all the security enhancements as well as purchases to the management. It is necessary that the system received automatic updates. Passwords must not be shared with any unauthorized staff. Any data could lead to damage or loss to the organization should be encrypted electronically. Old PC should not be disposed of as it is. It must be ensured that all the data have been deleted from them. In addition to this, an anti-spyware tool would be best to keep up the pace. Also, information backup after a specific time period is recommended.
Q. What do you know about a backbone network?
It is basically an approach that is considered when it comes to distributing the data to various networks. The bandwidth management and channel legalizations are also the tasks that it can handle. In true sense, it is the central infrastructure.
Q. What exactly do you know about WEP cracking? Can you also tell what its types are?
It is basically a methodology of manipulating the susceptibility in the wireless servers or networks to gain access in an unauthorized manner. Active and Passive cracking are the two types. Active cracking doesn’t create any effect on the traffic until WEP security is performing its task. On the other side, the aim of the passive attack is nothing but to simply enhance the load on the network to cut down the performance. It can easily be detected.
Q. Name some WEP cracking tools you are familiar with?
Kismet, WEP Crack, WebDecryp, as well as AirCrack are some of the common WEP cracking tools.
Q. What do you mean by the term network topology in a network management?
In a network, it is possible to connect nodes or devices in various methods depending upon their number, requirement, and tasks. The way they can be connected with each other is termed as topology in a network. Some common types of topologies are:
1. Start topology
2. Hybrid Topology
3. Mesh Topology
4. Ring topology
5. Tree Topology
Q. What are web server vulnerabilities that lead to an unsecure server?
There are several vulnerabilities that can result in same. Sometimes the users consider default settings and don’t customize them. This often creates vulnerabilities and imposes risk on the overall data present in the nodes. Many time the errors in the web servers and operating system also leads to this and creates a lot of security issues. Another vulnerability is improper configuration of network and servers.
Q. Tell the maximum length which is allowed for a UTP cable? Is it possible to overcome this limit? If so, how?
A UTP cable can easily perform its task up to 100 meters without degrading the efficiency. Yes, it is possible to exceed this limit. We need networking devices such as switches and repeaters for this.
Q. What are web server attacks? How can you prevent them?
These are basically the attacks by hackers directly on the server to gain accees over the same. Hacking of websites, software and nodes happens due to this. These attacks can be stopped up to great extent through some of the best possible ways. The first step is to installation and configuration of server software in a safe manner. The server firewall must always be enabled. One must pay close attention to the system vulnerability. Sometime there is a need to disable remote administration due to security protocols. All the accounts that are no longer in use should be removed or deleted from the server to avoid web server attacks.
Q. Name a few useful certifications for Cyber Security Experts?
Well, CSL (Certified Security Leadership), GSEC (General Security Essentials), CFA (Certified Forensic Analyst), as well as CFA (Certified Firewall analyst) are some of the best available options.
Q. Name the various methods that an organization can consider against SQL injection
Stored Procedures, Database connection user access rights, sanitizing the user commands, controlling error messages, as well as detecting harmful code and dumping it are some of the approaches that are helpful in this manner.
Q. Suggest one method to create a secure dial-up connection to a remote server
This can be done through VPN i.e. Virtual Private Network
Q. What does OSI stands for? Name the layers present in it?
OSI stands for open system interconnection. There are total seven layers which are present in this referencing model. These are:
1. Application Layer
2. Presentation Layer
3. Session Layer
4. Transport Layer
5. Network Layer
6. Data Link Layer
7. Physical Layer
The role of different layers is different and they are responsible for lots of tasks in a network management approach.
Q. Name one referencing model other than OSI?
TCP/IP. It stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It is not widely used in the present scenario as compared to the OSI.
Q. What is a node? How it is different from a link?
A node is nothing but a point where two or more devices join each other. In a few models, a node is also considered as a computer on a network. On the other side a link is nothing but the connectivity among two nodes or devices. It can be wired or a wireless link depending upon shape, size and other factors related to the network. A link is responsible for maintaining the connection among different nodes on a network.
Q. Suppose there is an organization with limited number of computers and devices in their office. What type of network should they use and why?
For limited computers and devices, LAN i.e. Local Area Networking is a good option due to several reasons. They are:
1. LAN assures faster bandwidth
2. The cost is not so high
3. Implementation is a not a complex task and in many cases, the network can be created in a short time span.
Q. What are the basic networking devices you are familiar with?
Modem, Router, Hub, Switch and Splitter
Q. Mention some steps that you will take against Phishing
The simplest approach is considering a guard against the spam as they are the trouble creators in many cases. In case a pop-up screen is there, personal information such as User ID and password must not be entered. Any kind of information related to finance should not be sent via personal e-mail. Downloading of files received from unknown e-mail should be avoided and web links present in them should not be clicked.
Q. What is subnet masking? Name one similarity between subnet mask and an IP address
Sometimes there is a need to combine host address with the networking address. This is exactly where this approach is considered. The extended network address can simply be identified with subnet masking. It is similar to IP address in terms of number of bits it is made up of. Both IP and subnet mast are of 32-bit size.
Q. What do you mean by the term data encapsulation?
Networks can face a lot of issues when it comes to sending large or bulky sizes. Thus the data is generally broken into the smaller parts which are called as packets or data packets. The approach is simple and i.e. the source and the destination address are attached through a temporary path that remains active till the transmission is going on.
Q. What do you know about Parity Check in data transmission over a network?
Party check is an important approach to know whether the data received is same as it was sent or not. As the data is sent in smaller units called as packets on a network and is in digital form, parity check assures that at receiver is same as it was sent. Parity checker assures such an issue wouldn’t declare its presence. It is possible to correct the errors when they are detected.
Q. What is data encapsulation?
Data encapsulation is the process of breaking down information into smaller manageable chunks before it is transmitted across the network. It is also in this process that the source and destination addresses are attached into the headers, along with parity checks
Q. What is private IP address?
They are considered when it comes to using Intranets. They are not routable to external public networks are generally used for internal networks only. Same IPs can be used for multiple intranets.
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