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Power BI Interview Questions

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by Prasanthi
Last modified: October 21st 2021

Power BI is one of the fast-growing business analytics services from Microsoft. This self-service business intelligence tool is a new flash in the data-driven industry. It simplified the workaround of getting data from multiple sources and collating them into one tool for proper management.

Many top organizations today rely on Power BI to get better business insights. Also, Microsoft Power BI has made its place in Gartner’s Magic Quadrant as a leading analytics and business intelligence platform for the fourteenth consecutive year. As far as the scope is concerned, Power BI will continue to be a top player in the coming years. If you like to work with data, visualizations, discovering insights, etc., then getting a Power BI certification can help you to stand out in the job market. In order to gain practical experience in Power BI, check out our Microsoft Power BI Certification Training.

And if you’ve started to prepare for PowerBI roles in the IT industry, make sure you go through these frequently asked Power BI Interview Questions and Answers. These are compiled by our trainers from basic to advanced levels to help you get started with Power BI easily. If you want to enhance your Power BI basics, you can take a look at this Power BI Tutorial blog.

As an alternative to reading the entire blog, you may go through this video of Power BI Interview Questions and Answers where our trainer has explained the topics in a detailed manner with examples to help you understand better

                                                                             

So, here are the top Power BI Questions that you might face in a Power BI job interview:

Types of Power BI Interview Questions

Top Power BI Interview Questions

Power BI Interview Questions - Beginner Level

Let's start with some commonly asked Power BI interview questions and answers for beginners.

1. What is Power BI? And why is it used for?

Power BI is a Business Analytics solution by Microsoft used to visualize business data from hundreds of data sources and share insights across your organization. It is a cloud-based Self-Service BI tool that collects applications, connectors, and software services used to organize raw data into informative content.

The most prominent uses of Power BI are:

  • Allows real-time dashboard updates.
  • Prebuilt dashboards and reports for Saas solutions
  • Provides a secure and reliable connection to your data in the cloud or on-premises
  • Offers hybrid configuration, quick deployment, and a secure environment.
  • Explore data using natural language queries.

2. What are the main differences between self-service BI and Managed Enterprise BI?

Managed Enterprise BI Self-Service BI
Here, data flows from many sources, and there is no order for companies to ingest and manage data sources. Enables companies to ingest data seamlessly from any data source.
There are time constraints and a lack of proper information when it comes to analyzing data. Analyzing data is easy. 
Complex programming skills are required to generate reports. Users could generate actionable and intuitive dashboards almost instantaneously without executing complex programming codes.
Companies are unable to run business operations effectively, as they cannot report and analyze data and collaborate valuable insights from it. With data ingestion falling into order, companies can process data and conduct business operations with ease.

3. How does Power BI work?

The primary purpose of Power BI is to scale business growth by putting information together in a more efficient way. It brings your company data forward in a seamless, comprehensive interface. Employees and team members come forward in a streamlined fashion with access to identical information that has been translated into simplified reports, charts, diagrams, and more. Power BI Works more efficiently by improving your operational efficiency.

4. In what formats does Power BI available?

  • Power BI Desktop: for desktop computers.
  • Power BI service: an online SaaS (Software as a Service)
  • Mobile Power BI apps: for iOS and Android devices

5. Describe the building blocks of Power BI

The building blocks of Power BI are:

  • Visualizations - A visual representation of data like a chart or map.

power-bi-visualizations

  • Data Sets - A collection of data that Power BI uses to create visualizations.

power-bi-data-sets

  • Reports - A collection of visualizations that appear together on one or more pages.

powerbi-reports

  • Dashboard - A Power BI dashboard collects visuals from a single page that you can share with others. Often, it’s a selected group of visuals that provide quick insight into the data or story that you’re trying to present.

power-bi-dashboard

  • Tiles - It’s a single visualization on a report or a dashboard. It’s a rectangular box that holds an individual visual.

power-bi-tiles

6. What are the major components of Power BI? And what do they do?

These are various Power BI components.

components-of-power-bi

  • Power Query - Data mash-up and transformation tool.
  • Power Pivot - In-memory tabular data-modeling tool.
  • Power View - Data visualization tool.
  • Power Map - 3D Geo-Spatial data visualization tool.
  • Power BI Q&A - Natural Language Question and Answering Engine
  • Power BI Desktop - A powerful companion development tool for Power BI.

7. Name some of the popular types of filters available in Power BI?

powerbi-filters

 


MindMajix Youtube Channel

 

8. What is the use of the “Get Data” icon in Power BI?

When users in Power BI click on the icon “Get Data”, a drop-down menu displays all data sources from which data can be ingested. Data can directly get ingests from sources such as Excel, XML, PDF, JSON, CSV, and SharePoint folder databases and formats such as SQL, SQL Server Analysis Services, IBM, Access, Oracle, MySQL, and much more.

get-data-in-power-bi-desktop

 

9. How to create and manage relationships in Power BI Desktop?

As the name suggests, relationships in Power BI are used to define connections or the relation between two or more tables. To perform analysis on multiple tables, relationships are used.

create-relationship-in-power-bi

To create and manage relationships in Power BI Desktop:

  • On the Home tab, select Manage Relationships > New.
  • In the Create relationship dialog box, in the first table drop-down list, select a table. Select the column you want to use in the relationship.
  • In the second table drop-down list, select the other table you want in the relationship. Select the other column you want to use, and then choose OK.

10. Differentiate Power BI vs Excel

Parameter Power BI Excel
Tabular reports Power BI is not so handy for tabular style reports Excel is better at handling tabular-style reports.
Duplicate Table Cannot display duplicated tables  Allows to display duplicated tables
Reports Offers beautiful, personalized, and interactive reports  Doesn’t offer advanced cross-filtering between charts.
Cross filtering  Offers advanced features in cross-filtering between charts. Doesn’t offer advanced cross-filtering between charts.
Analytics Offers simple analytics Offers high-level analytics
Applications  Ideal for dashboards, KPIs, alerts, and visualizations, including analysing your data visually. Excel does have some new charts now, and they can’t connect to the data model.

11. Are Power View and Power Query the same?

Power View can be used to download data to Excel as well as make nice transformations.

Example: Filter, merge multiple sources, calculate, etc.

Power View enables you to present the data in reports

power-bi-power-view-query

12. Can you tell me what the difference between Power BI personal Gateway and Data Management Gateway is?

Power BI Personal Gateway is used for reports that are deployed in Powerbi.com. On the other hand, data management is an app that installs the gateway on source data machines to deploy reports on Sharepoint and schedule to refresh automatically.

powerbi-gateway

 

13. Explain DAX

DAX stands for Data Analysis Expressions. It is a collection of operators, functions, and constants used to calculate formulas and return values. In other words, it helps you create new info from data you already have.

14. SUM() vs SUMX(): What is the difference between the two DAX functions?

The sum function (Sum()) takes the data columns and aggregates them totally but the SumX function (SumX()) lets you filter the data which you are adding.
SUMX(Table, Expression), where the table contains the rows for calculation. Expression is a calculation that will be evaluated on each row of the table.

15. List the benefits of using variables in DAX.

  • Improve performance
  • Improve readability
  • Reduce complexity
  • Simplify debugging

16. What is the Power Map?

Power BI is a business intelligence and Analytics tool for non-technical and technical users to manage, analyze, visualize and share data with others. One of its key features is visualization - that is, presenting data and insights using appealing visuals. Among the visuals available in power BI  are maps. 

17. How to create and use Maps in Power BI?

There are 4 types of core or built-in map visuals:

  • Map (Basic)
  • Filled Map
  • Shape Map
  • ArcGIS Maps

18. Explain the filled map in Power BI?

Power BI utilizes two built-in map charts map and a filled map. A filled map shows data points with geospatial areas rather than points on a map. Areas can be continent, country, state, city. Working with a filled map, however, is not as easy and convenient as the map chart is 

19. What data sources can you connect to Power BI?

The Power BI data sources are extensive, which are divided as follows:

Files: Data can be imported from Power BI Desktop files (.pbix), Excel (.xlsx, xlxm), and Comma Separated Value (.csv).

Content Packs: It refers to the collection of related files or documents that are stored as a group. There are two types of content packs in Power BI: those from service providers including Google Analytics, Salesforce, or Marketo, and those created and shared by other users in the organization.

Connectors: To connect databases and other datasets, including Database, Azure SQL, and SQL Server Analysis Services tabular data, etc.

20. Explain about Power BI Desktop

Power BI Desktop is a free desktop application that can be installed on your computer. It cohesively works with the Power BI service by providing advanced data modeling, shaping, exploration, and creating reports with highly interactive visualizations. It enables users to save the work to a file or publish their reports and data right to your Power BI site to share with others.

Below are the distinct Excel BI add-ons.

  • Power Query to find, edit and load external data
  • Power View for designing interactive and visual reports
  • PowerPivot to analyze data modeling
  • Power Map for displaying insights in 3D Map

21. Is Power BI free to use?

Power BI is available in two versions: Power BI Free and Power BI Pro.

Users can use Power BI for free. However, the Power BI Pro subscription avails more from Microsoft Store. The subscription offers an enhanced version of various features available with the free Power BI account. Most business users use the subscribed account as it provides more data refreshers per day and other features than the free version.

22. How to perform query tasks in Power BI Desktop?

Power Query is available in Power BI Desktop through the power query editor. To open the power query editor, select Edit Queries from the Power BI Desktop home tab.
The ribbon in Power Query Editor consists of five tabs - home, transform, add column, view, and help. 

23. Can we store data in Power BI? If so, where does it get stored?

Power BI stores data in a few different locations. All the data stays secure through measures such as encryption and password protection. It mainly depends on the channel that you used to import the data. Data is stored in a few places, but it all boils down to one of the main two locations: the cloud and your desktop.

24. How do you create a group in Power BI?

To perform grouping in power bi, please select the fields you want to group, and right-click on it will open the context menu. Please select the Group option from the menu.

Once you click on the group option, Power BI will automatically group those items, as shown below. That's it; we did the grouping. If you observe closely, the legend section is replaced by group, and colour is placed in the details section.

25. What is the current version of Power BI?

Power BI Desktop is supported on Windows 8 or newer versions of Windows. Download the Power BI Desktop version that matches the architecture (x86 or x64) of your Windows OS.

26. Explain what M language is in Power BI?

M is a query formula language used in Power BI Query Editor to prepare data before loading in the Power BI model. 
Power Query works with Excel, Analysis Services, and Power BI workbooks. Its core functionality is to filter and combine, i.e., to mash up data from one or more rich collections of supported data sources. Any such data mashup is expressed using Power Query M Formula Language.

27. Can you explain a few ways of how a Power Query can transform the data?

Power Query is available through getting & Transform in Excel 2016 or Power Pivot. 

28. Which data sets can be used to create dashboards with streaming data tiles?

  • Streaming datasets
  • Hybrid Datasets

29. What are the different views that Power BI Desktop contains?

  • Report View
  • Data View
  • Relationship View

30. What do you know about Row Level Security? And how do you implement it?

Row-level security restricts the data that users view and access based on filters. To configure row-level security, users can define rules and roles within Power BI Desktop and publish them to Power BI Service. Also, the username() function can restrict data in the table to the current user.
However, to enable row-level security, a Power BI Pro subscription account is essential, and Excel sheets can be used when converted to the .pbix file format.

Following are the ways to implement Row Level Security in Power BI:

  • Define roles and rules in Power BI Desktop
  • Validate the roles within Power BI Desktop
  • Manage security on your model
  • Validating the role within the Power BI service

31. Explain about Bidirectional Cross-Filtering in Power BI?

One of the most important features of Power BI is  Bidirectional cross-filtering. This feature allows you to apply filters on both sides of a table relationship, using right-to-left and left-to-right options for their calculations. Through this, modelers can know how exactly particular relationships can work in multiple contexts.

32. Name some top features of Power BI

  • Quick Insights
  • Acquiring data
  • Real-time information
  • Natural language questions
  • Content the way you want
  • Quick decisions
  • View reports on the Go
  • Freedom for Integration
  • Sharing

33. Explain Power BI Query Editor

Power BI Query Editor is used to transform or edit data files before they are loaded. The Query Editor plays the role of an intermediate data container where you can transform data by selecting rows and columns, splitting rows and columns, pivoting and unpivoting columns, etc.
The modifications done by the Query Editor are not reflected in the actual datasheet.

34. Describe Power BI Designer

Power BI is a stand-alone application to make Power BI reports and upload them to Powerbi.com; it does not require excel. It is the combination of Power Pivot, Power View, and Power Query.

35. What are the different types of gateways available in Power BI? Why would you use them?

The Gateway acts as an extension between azure cloud administration and on-premise data sources. There are three major types of Gateways listed as follows:

On-premises data gateway

Allows multiple users to connect to various on-premises data sources. You can use an on-premises data gateway with all supported services with a single gateway installation. For complex scenarios, this gateway is best suited.

On-premises data gateway (personal mode)

This data gateway allows one user to connect to sources and can’t be shared with others. This gateway is best suited to scenarios in which you only create reports and don’t need to share any data sources with others.

The virtual network data gateway

This data gateway allows multiple users to connect various data sources that are secured by virtual networks. For complex scenarios in which multiple people access multiple data sources, this data gateway is highly preferred.

36. Can we create geographic maps using Power BI?

Yes, Power BI can display geographical visualizations. That’s why some kind of location data is needed.

For example, state, country, or latitude and longitude.

37.  Explain z-order in Power BI?

Z-order is a design strategy used to arrange visuals over shapes. It can also be defined as a method applied to implement when reports consist of multiple elements. Moreover, this can also be used to refresh the display when items in a report are changed.

38. What is the primary requirement for a table to be used in Power BI?

In Power BI, the primary requirement for the table is that it contains unique rows. It must also contain location data, which can be in a Latitude/Longitude pair.

You can use address fields instead, such as street, city, etc., which Bing can geolocate.

39. What is the difference between Power BI, Power Query, and Power Pivot?

Power BI Power Query Power Pivot
Business Intelligence tool Import and shape data Data modeling and calculations
M and DAX languages supported M language supported DAX language supported
Incredible visualization options Easy to use interface Handles millions of rows of data.
Simple built-in interactive options Powerful tools to import and clean data Modeling tools for efficient data storage and analysis
Powerful DAX calculations All Excel users can benefit from this tool Powerful DAX calculations going beyond standard Excel

40. Name some important tools of Power BI

  • Power BI Desktop  
  • Power BI Service
  • Power BI Data Gateway
  • Power BI Report Server
  • Power BI Mobile Apps

41. Is there any process for refreshing Power BI reports uploaded to the cloud?

Of course, Power Bi reports can be refreshed with Data Management Gateway and Power BI Personal Gateway.

42. What are content packs in Power BI? And why would you use one?

In Power BI, content packs are used to share objects, such as reports, dashboards, or datasets with individuals within your organization. The sharing takes place over the Power BI website and can be shared with multiple users. No one can change the original content in the content pack. Also, users have “read-only” access to the Power BI content shared with them.

43. How is data security implemented in Power BI?

  • Power BI applies models with Row Level Security.
  • Dynamix security involves using USERNAME functions in definitions.
  • A DAX expression can be applied to tables filtering their rows at query time.
  • A table is typically created in the model that relates to specific dimensions and roles.

44. What do you know about many-to-many relationships in Power BI?

Many-to-many relationships involve a bridge or junction table that reflects the combinations of two dimensions. Either all possible combinations or those combinations that have occurred.

A relationship with many-to-many cardinality in Power BI is composed of three features:

  • Composite models: Allows a report to have two or more data connections, including DirectQuery connections or Import. With composite models, you can establish relationships with a many-many cardinality between tables.
  • Relationships with a many-many cardinality: This approach removes unique values in tables.
  • Storage mode: You can specify which visuals require a query to back-end data sources. This feature improves performance and reduces back-end load.

45. What are the key differences between a Power BI dataset, a report, and a dashboard?

Dataset  Report Dashboard
A series of Power Query queries that have been shaped in a DAX model. A series of visualizations, filters, and static elements on a canvas. A way of pulling visualizations together from several reports.
A Power BI dataset can have many data sources. Each report can have multiple sheets. A Power BI dashboard is a single page, often called a canvas, that uses visualizations to tell a story.
A data set can have one report, and a report can have one data set. The data set and your report are going to have a one-to-one relationship.  A dashboard is a tool for pinning visuals from different reports and other sources of data.

46. List some Edit interactions options in Power BI.

  • Filter: It thoroughly filters the visual/tile based on the filter selection of another variable.
  • Highlight: Highlights only the related elements on the visual
  • None: Ignores the filter selection from another tile/visual.

47. How can you convert SSRS to Power BI?

Following are the ways to integrate SSRS with Power BI:

  • SSRS report items such as charts can be pinned to Power BI dashboards.
  • By clicking the tile option in Power BI dashboards will bring users to SSRS reports
  • To keep the dashboard tile refreshed, a subscription is created.
  • Power BI reports will be published to the SSRS portal.

48. What is the Time Intelligence function?

It is a function that allows manipulating data using periods.

49. How do I prepare for Power BI certification?

Mindmajix instructor-led training completely prepares you for the certification. We provide two industry-specific projects in the course, which helps you have hands-on experience on all possible scenarios that are part of certification.

50. Is Power BI a good career?

Five major reasons why Power BI will create a good career path for you:

  • Gartner’s framework for the Analytics and BI Magic Quadrant 2021.
  • There is a big market for Microsoft Power BI Consultants in almost every industry.
  • In perspective, Qlik and Tableau (both high in Gartner ranking) have a market cap close to 1% of Microsoft.
  • Top companies offering lucrative Power BI career opportunities.

Variety of job roles available:

  • Power BI Analyst/Developer
  • Data Analyst
  • Business Analyst
  • Business Intelligence Analyst
  • Business Intelligence Developer
  • Business Intelligence Manager

Power BI Interview Questions - Intermediate Level

51. What are the Parts of Microsoft's Self-Service Business Intelligence Solutions?

Microsoft Self-Service BI has two parts:

  • Excel BI Toolkit: Allows users to create reports interactively through data importing from distinct data sources as well as model data according to the requirement.
  • Power BI: It is an online solution that empowers users for sharing interactive reports and queries that you have created with Excel BI Toolkit.

52. What is the Differentiate between Power BI and Power BI Pro?

Power BI offers distinct kinds of features to help you get started in searching for data in a completely new way.  Power BI Pro, on the other hand, caters to some additional features like scheduling data, live data sources, storage capacity, complete interactivity, and much more.

53. Define Excel BI Toolkit?

Excel BI Toolkit allows users for creating an interactive report by importing data from a distinct range of sources and model data according to requirements.

54. What is the Cost of Power BI?

Both Power BI Desktop and Power BI are free of cost. For Power BI Pro, users have to pay $9.99 per month after a 60-day free trial.

55. What are the basics needed for using Power BI?

To use Power BI, you need to have a  web browser and a work email address. 
work email addresses finishing in .mil and .gov are not supported currently.

56. What is the need for signing up with a work email?

Power BI does not have email addresses provided by telecommunications providers and consumer email services, thus there is a need of signing up with work email.

57. Name the work email addresses that are currently supported?

Work email addresses that are finishing with .org and .edu are currently supported.

58. Is there any support by Power BI available for mobile devices?

Yes, Power BI supports mobile devices. It consists of apps for iOS devices, Windows 10 devices, and Android smartphones. You can install Power BI apps from the below app stores:

  • Google Play
  • Apple Store
  • Windows Store

59. What is Visualization?

Visualization is a process to represent data in pictorial form like tables, graphs, or charts based on the specific requirement.

60. What is a Report?

The report is a Power BI feature that is a result of visualized data from a single data set. A report can have multiple pages of visualization.

61. What is Power Pivot and what is the filter written in Power BI?

Power Pivot is an in-memory component that enables storing compressed data. It is used to build data models, relationships, create formulas, calculate columns from different resources.

Filters are applicable in:

  • Visualization level
  • Report Level
  • Page-Level

62. What data sources can Power BI connect to?

The following data sources that support DirectQuery in Power BI are as follows:

  • Amazon Redshift
  • Azure Data Explorer
  • AtScale (Beta)
  • Azure SQL Database
  • Azure HDInsight Spark
  • Google BigQuery
  • Azure SQL Data Warehouse
  • HDInsight Interactive Query

63. Why do we need BI?

You can take data and create reports at the click of a button. You can take data and create reports with a button click. It helps in attracting new customers to service and monitor existing customers. You can keep track of information and set your goals accordingly. In general, building an ETL solution (Extraction, Transformation, and Loading) ultimately helps to make better decisions. The ROI is very high Helps to make unwanted data into progressive information.

64. Does Power BI store data?

Datasets are the data sources that are uploaded or connected to databases. These sources include Excel workbooks and Power BI Desktop files. The following are also included in your data capacity. Reporting Services on-premises visualizations are pinned to a Power BI dashboard.

65. What must be installed to use Power BI?

To use the Power BI service for free, you need a work email and a web browser. With this, you can explore data as well as create reports in Power BI Desktop. The mobile app can be downloaded from the following stores:
Google Play, App Store, and Windows Store.

66. How one can get started with Power BI?

There are some resources to get assistance and get started with Power BI. They are as follows:

  • Webinars
  • Power BI Blog
  • You can get started with an article on Power BI
  • You can get started with a video on YouTube
  • Last but not least, joining a related community and getting answered

67. What is SSBI?

SSBI stands for Self-Service Business Intelligence. It can also be termed as accessing data analytics to empower business users to divide, clean, and interpret data. SSBI has made it easy for end-users to access their data and create various kinds of visuals to acquire useful business insights. Anyone who has basic data knowledge can build reports for creating spontaneous and shareable dashboards.

68. What is a Dashboard?

The dashboard is used to visualize the strategic data of one or multiple reports at a glance.

69. What is the CORR function and when is it used?

CORR is a correlation function that provides a correlation between two distinct variables ranging from -1 to 1.

70. What are the advantages of Power BI?

Here are the main advantages of Power BI

  • Power BI integrates well with the existing application
  • It contains rich and personalized Dashboards.
  • publishing reports in a secure way
  • Quick accessibility to data means there is no speed and memory issue

71. What are the data destinations for Power Queries?

There are two destinations for output we get from power query:

  • Load to a table in a worksheet
  • Load to the Excel Data Model

72. What are the different connectivity modes in Power BI?

  • Import
  • Direct Query

73. What is the data source filter?

A data source filter is a parameter of data filtering before loading into machines.

74. What are the Different Products in the PowerBI family?

Below are different Power BI services/products:

  • Power BI Desktop
  • Power BI Services
  • Power BI Mobile
  • Power BI Gateway
  • Power BI Premium
  • Power BI Report Server
  • Power BI Embedded

75. What is Power View?

Power View is a data visualization technology, which lets you create interactive graphs, charts, maps, and other visuals to bring life to your data. It is available in Excel, SQL Server, SharePoint, and Power BI.

76. Which language is used in Power Query?

A new programming language is used in a power query called M-Code. It is easy to use and similar to other languages. M-code is a case-sensitive language.

77. How to import the data on the Power BI desktop?

Go to getting data Sources and click on your required sources (Excel, SQL, CSV) then Load it. Click on the Data view to view that data.
To choose the table click on the fields and you can pick a visualization to generate a report.

78. Which datasets are used to create a dashboard with streaming data tiles?

Streaming datasets (we need to have data that is cached in memory before we use streaming data sets)
Hybrid Datasets

79. How Dynamic filtering in Power BI is performed?

Dynamic Filtering in Power BI is done by the following steps:

  • Once all the data are set up publish the detailed report to Power BI
  • Publish it to Group Work Space
  • Create Filter Link
  • Create a DAX calculated Column
  • Public Overview Report

80. What is the procedure to buy Power BI Pro?

Power BI license can be purchased at powerbi.com. However, you can also get assistance from Microsoft partners to aid using Power BI implementation.

81. Is the Power BI service accessible on-premises?\

The user cannot avail of the service as an internal or private cloud service. However, with Power BI and Power BI Desktop, the user can connect to their on-premise data sources securely.

82. Which is the language used to calculate column/calculated field in Power Pivot?

Data Analysis Expression (DAX) is used to calculate column fields in Power Pivot.

83. What are the column values that DAX supports?

  • It is not capable of inserting or modifying data
  • It cannot be used to calculate rows, though you can calculate measures and calculated columns

84. Explain the Power Pivot Data Model?

It is a model that is made up of data types, tables, columns, and table relations. The data tables are generally constructed to hold data for a business entity.

85. Define Power Query?

Power Query is an ETL tool to clean, shape, and transform data without any code using intuitive interfaces. With this:

  • You can import data from various sources like databases from files
  • Append and join data from a wide range of sources
  • You can shape data as needed by adding and removing it

86. Name the language that is used in the power query?

M-code which is a new programming language is used in Power Query. This language is easy to use and is quite similar to other languages. Also, it is case-sensitive.

90. Name the data destinations for Power Query?

Two destinations are there for the output we receive from the power query. They are:

  • Load to Excel Data Model
  • Load to a table in a worksheet

91. Explain the Power BI Designer?

Power BI Designer, a standalone app that is used to create reports in Power BI and to upload them to Powerbi.com. It is a combination of Power View, Power Pivot, and Power Query.

92. What is the use of the split function?

The split function is used for splitting the string database on the given delimiter.

93. Name all the platforms for which the Power BI app is available?

Power BI app is available for:

  • Android
  • iPhone and iPad
  • Windows tablets and Windows Desktops
  • Coming for Windows phone soon

94. What is the difference between older and newer Power BI?

There is a new design tool that is used in the new Power BI called Power BI Desktop. It is a standalone designer, including Power Pivot, Power View, and Power Query in the back end. Whereas, Older Power BI consists of excel add-ins. In the newer Power BI version,  there are several graphs available including treemap, line area chart, waterfall, combo chart, etc.

95. Is it possible in the power pivot data model to have more than one active relationship between two tables?

No, it is not possible. There cannot be more than one active relationship in the power pivot data model between two tables. It is possible to have only one active and many inactive relationships.

96. What are the general data shaping techniques?

The common data shaping techniques are:

  • Removing Columns and Rows
  • Adding Indexes
  • Applying for a Sort Order

97. What are the KPIs in Power BI?

KPIs are Key Performance Indicators, which evaluate the organization’s performance in distinct areas by evaluating measurable goals and values. A KPI has a measure or base value that is evaluated against target values. It includes a comparison of the performance with the target. The KPI also helps you evaluate the analysis performances with their graphical representation. Thus, KPIs will show whether your goals have been met or not.

98. What could be the difference between Distinct() and Values() in DAX?

We can use both Distinct() and Values() functions to return the values into a column or cell on the worksheet. The difference between them is that the Values() function returns blank values along with unique values, whereas the Distinct() function returns only unique values.

99. State the advantages of the Direct query method?

The advantages of the Direct query method are listed as follows:
Users can build huge data sets of data visualizations using the Direct Query Method, but the Power BI desktop supports data visualizations on smaller sets alone. There is no limit to the dataset for the direct query method and a 1GB dataset limit is not applicable in this method.

100. What is the parameter in power bi?

If you want to put a scenario and based on that if you want to see the visuals, the best is the What-if parameter. It helps you to forecast data and perform advanced analytics. For example, if you have set up the product discount from the what-if parameter from 1 to 10. And users can change the values and see the changes in profit, sales, revenue, margin, etc. that help in detailed analysis.

Power BI Interview Questions for Experienced Professionals

101. What is the incremental refresh?

Incremental refresh is used to refresh the newly added data to avoid truncating and loading data.

102. What are the three main tabs in the Reports development Window?

The major tabs in the Reports development Window are as follows:

  • Relationship tab
  • Data Modeling Tab
  • Report Tab

103. How many types of default Graphs (Visualizations) are available in Power BI?

Around 26 Views

104. What are Slicers in Power BI?

  • Slicers are the visual filters, which are present in the report page of Power BI. It helps us to sort and filter information on a packed report
  • Slicers unlike filters present as a report visual and you can select values on it while analyzing the report data

105. What is the major difference between a Filter and a Slicer?

Using Normal filters users were not allowed to interact with dashboards or reports, but using slicers we can interact with dashboards and reports.

106. What is a parameter in Power BI?

A Parameter in Power BI is a dynamic filter that is used in the calculation fields. It is based on the parameter value result that can vary.

107. Difference Between New Measure and New column?

A new column is an area in Power Bi where the physical data is stored when logic is applied, whereas, the measure is where the calculations are performed on the fly based on dimensions. Measure, unlike Column, won't store any physical data.

108. What are the different joins in Power BI?

  • Horizontal Joins to append data from multiple tables
  • Vertical Joins to merge the data from multiple tables

109. What is the Embed Code?

There is an option in the Power BI service, which publishes to the web to generate a link address for the Power BI report and can be shared across clients.

110. How do you Hide and Unhide a Specific Report in Power BI?

In the menu bar, choose the Selection pane and hide/unhide the report and the action to pass to the bookmark.

111. How do you compare Target and Actual Values from a Power BI report?

A gauge chart is used to compare two different measures where the Target and Actuals are inferred.

112. What are Power Query's major Data Destinations?

There are two destinations for output we get from power query:

  • Load to a table in a worksheet
  • Load to the Excel Data Model

113. Can we Refresh Data Reports that are uploaded to the Cloud?

Yes, you can refresh the data reports which are uploaded to the cloud. Power BI personal gateway and Data management gateway helps you acquire the same.

114. How are a Power BI Dashboard and Report different from each other?

To understand the difference between Power BI Dashboard and Report, let’s run through some quick points.

Capability Report Dashboard
Pages Can be of one or more pages. Consists of one page only
Data sources It has a single dataset per report. Can have data tiles from one or more datasets or reports.
Filtering Can perform slicing, filtering, and highlighting. Cannot filter or slice reports.
Set alerts No option for setting alerts. Enable setting email alerts
Featured reports No option for creating a featured dashboard. Enables to set only one dashboard as a featured dashboard.
Accessing tables and fields in datasets Provides options to view dataset tables, values, and fields. Cannot view or access underlying datasets tables and fields.

115. How to Toggle Between Two Option and Make it Interact with the rest of the Visualizations in a Report?

Toggling is an action that is achieved in Power BI reports when there exist two or more dimensions. With “Enlighten Slicer”, you can show this in Power BI and can be imported from Marketplace.

116. What does rank() do?

Rank() calculates regular competition rank thus returning identical values. You can ask for ascending or descending values in the second argument accordingly.

117. How do I Prepare for a Power BI Interview?

The main aspect to learn before attending any PowerBi interview is “how the data representation and general business intelligence is going to work!”

118. Is Business Intelligence a Good Career?

One of the great reasons for choosing a career in BI is the on-demand outlook. According to a report from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for expert BI managers and analysts is expected to soar to 14% by 2026, with the overall need for data professionals to climb to 28% by 2020.

119. Is Power BI better than Tableau?

Both Tableau and Power BI allow the user to connect to distinct data sources. However, Tableau provides better support to connect to a different data warehouse, and Power BI is heavily integrated with Microsoft’s portfolio like the Azure cloud platform.

120.  Is Power BI hard to Learn?

Any data analyst can quickly connect with any data source, summarizing the findings into simple reports without any programming experience. With Power Pivot built into the Power BI, analytics measures were developed using DAX query language from Microsoft.

121. Is Power BI hard to use?

Power BI doesn’t require users to write SQL code like BI tools but requires MS Excel knowledge.

122. Is Data Analyst a Good Career?

Data is useless without proper analytics. Any professional with analytical skills can easily master the ocean of Big Data and become a crucial asset to the organization, boosting the business as well as career. There are several on-demand job opportunities in Big Data management and Analytics and are constantly growing.

123. What are the essential applications of the Power BI?

Power BI is mainly used by:

  • PMO - Project Management Office
  • Developer & Database Administrator
  • Business & Data Analyst
  • IT Team, IT Professional
  • Data Scientist
  • Consumer for End User Report

124. Is Power BI better than Excel?

Power BI is a more powerful tool compared to Microsoft Excel. Power BI is easy to use and is much more flexible while Microsoft Excel is not so handy to use. Power BI is mostly used for data visualization and dashboard sharing to a large number of users while Microsoft Excel is mostly used for in-depth driver analysis.

125. How do I export from power BI to excel?

In Power BI, a user can export any dashboard or visual. To export your data, choose the ellipses (3 dots) on the top-right side of any visualization and choose the icon: Export data. Your data is exported as an a.CSV file. You can even save and open the file in Excel.

126. How do you manage a role in Power BI?

Follow these steps to manage a role in Power BI

  • Step 1: Import data into the Power BI Desktop report
  • Step 2: connection
  • Step 3: Select the Modeling tab
  • Step 4: Select Manage Roles
  • Step 5: Select Create
  • Step 6: Provide a name for the role
  • Step 7: Select the table that you want to apply a DAX rule
  • Step 8: Enter the DAX expressions
  • Step 9: After creating a DAX expression, select the checkbox placed above the expression and validate the expression
  • Step 10: Select Save

127. How do you answer behavioral interview questions?

These can be answered in four simple steps as follows:

  • Step 1: Situation. Describe the situation or set the scene
  • Step 2: Task. Describe the issue or problem you were confronted with
  • Step 3: Action
  • Step 4: Results

128. What is the difference between Power BI vs Tableau?

Here are key differences between Power BI vs Tableau

Feature Power BI Tableau
Data visualization Focuses only on modeling and reporting Best tool
Cost Less expensive Very expensive since it uses data warehousing
Machine Learning It is associated with Microsoft Azure. It has python Machine learning.
User Interface Simple and easy to use Use a customized dashboard
Data handling It drags down slow when handling huge data Handles bulk data

TCS Power BI Interview Questions

129. What is the Power BI Service?

Power BI Service is a cloud-based analytics solution that helps you to create dashboards and publish, design reports, collaborate, and share the reports with internal and external stakeholders.

130. What is a summarize function in DAX?

Summarize is a DAX function that gives an aggregated result from a table.
This is how you can use summarize function:

  • Summarize(<table>,<grouping column>,[<name>,<expression>])
  • Table - a DAX expression that returns a table
  • grouping column - the column name you want to use for grouping
  • name - the name of the new aggregated column
  • expression - generates the aggregated column.

131. Can you export Power BI report data into any other format like SSRS?

Yes, you can export a Power BI report data to another file format, such as PowerPoint, PDF, Image, Microsoft Word, or Microsoft Excel, or export the report by generating an Atom service document, listing the Atom-compliant data feeds available from the report.

132. What is the difference between the measure and the calculated column?

The difference is the context of evaluation. A measure is evaluated in the context of the cell evaluated in a report or in a DAX query. While the calculated column is computed at the row level within the table it belongs to.

133. Have you faced any performance issues in your project?

This is one of the important Power BI questions. As a developer, while developing projects, you may face one or two performance issues based on the type of data you use. Explain how you overcome those issues.

Cognizant Power BI Interview Questions

134. Describe a time when Power BI limited or enhanced your success on a project?

There is a limitation to export data for large data sets in Power BI

135. What is your go-to DAX function for time intelligence?

DATEDADD is the most versatile function used for time intelligence. However, pretty much of the time intelligence can be recreated with DATEDADD.

136. How do you improve the performance of your data models?

Following the tidy data philosophy, column usage should be limited. Also utilizing the star schema to limit joins will also improve the model.

Disabling unused tables from loading also helps. Also using lookups can also improve overall functionality.

137.  How can You Change the Value Measure to Show Multiple Measures Dynamically?

You can dynamically change and switch functions to show multiple measures using harvesting measures.

138. How Important is Power BI?

Dashboards, datasets, and reports are the heart of Power BI, and they enable users to create personalized dashboards combining cloud-born and on-premises data in a single view. It allows monitoring the most important data enterprise-wide and from all their business apps.

Explore Power BI Sample Resumes Download & Edit, Get Noticed by Top Employers!

Power BI DAX Interview Questions

1. Why is DAX so important?

Importing data into Power BI Desktop is an easy task. You can even create reports that share valuable insights without using DAX formulas in it. But if you want to analyze the growth percentage of different date ranges and across product categories or calculate year growth compared to market trends? DAX formulas support this capability. DAX stands for Data Analysis Expression language. Knowing how to use DAX formulas helps you to get the most out of your data. DAX works on operators, functions, and constants to further extend your model.

2. How does Power BI DAX work?

The three fundamental concepts of Power BI DAX are Syntax, Context, and Functions.

Syntax:

It comprises various components that make up the formula. To understand the DAX formula, let’s break down each of the elements into a language.

Total Sales = SUM(Sales[SalesAmount])
  • Total Sales is the Measure name.
  • The equals sign (=) indicates the start of the DAX formula.
  • SUM is used to add the values of a given field.
  • The parenthesis () is used to enclose and define arguments in an expression
  • Sales are the table referenced
  • The referenced column [SalesAmount] is an argument with which the SUM function identifies the column on which it has to aggregate a SUM.

Context:

  • It is one of the essential concepts of DAX. There are two types of Contexts - Row Context and Filter Context.
  • The Row-Context is applied whenever a formula has a function that filters to identify a single row in a table.
  • Filter-Context is used when one or more filters are applied in a calculation. 

Functions:

Functions are structured, predefined, and ordered formulae. They complete calculations using arguments passed on to them.

3. Explain DAX function

A DAX function is a predefined formula that performs calculations on values provided to its arguments. The arguments in a function should be in a specific order and can be a column reference, text, numbers, constants, etc. Every function performs a particular operation on the values enclosed in an argument. There can be more than one argument in a DAX formula.
Some of the most commonly used DAX functions:

Date and Time Functions

These functions carry out calculations on the date and time values.

Ex: DATE, CALENDER, HOUR, MINUTE

Time Intelligence Functions

These functions are used to evaluate values over a fixed period.

Ex: DATESBETWEEN, ENDOFQUARTER, CLOSINGBALANCEMONTH

Information Functions

These functions provide particular information on the data values included in rows and columns. It checks the given condition in a function for the given value and returns TRUE or FALSE.

Ex: ISERROR, CUSTOMDATA, ISNONTEXT

Logical Functions

These functions are used to evaluate an argument or expression logically.

Ex: AND, FALSE, IFERROR, IF

Mathematical and Trigonometric Functions

These functions are used to perform all sorts of mathematical functions on the reference values.

Ex: DIVIDE, FACT, ACOS

Statistical Functions

These functions carry out statistical and aggregation functions on data values in a DAX expression.

Ex: AVERAGE, COUNT, GENERATE

Text Functions

These are similar to the string functions of Excel.

Ex: FIND, LEFT, FIXED, FORMAT

Parent-Child functions

These are used for data values that are a part of a parent-child hierarchy.

Ex: PATH, PATHITEM

Table functions

In DAX formulas, these functions are used to apply operations and conditions on entire tables.

Ex: FILTER, VALUES, DISTINCT

Other functions

There are a bunch of functions that do not fit in any particular category.

Ex: GROUPBY, EXCEPT, GENERATESERIES

4. Tell something about DAX Calculation Types.

DAX formulas can also be called DAX Calculations as they calculate an input value and return a resultant value. The calculations that you can perform using DAX in Power BI are  Calculated Measures and Calculated Columns.

Calculated Measures: They create a field having aggregated values such as a sum, percentages, ratios, averages, etc.

Calculated Columns: They create a new column in your existing table. The only thing is there should be at least one function in the calculated column. When you want to create a column with filtered or sorted information, calculated columns are used.

5. What’s the main purpose of using the Calculate function?

Calculate functions allow you to modify the filter context of tables or measures. You can perform the following:

  • Override filter context from queries
  • Remove present filter context from queries
  • Add to existing filter context of queries

Frequently Asked Power BI Interview Questions

1. What skills are needed for Power BI?

Required Skills for Power BI Developer:

  • First and foremost, a Power BI Developer should be familiar with business intelligence, data analytics, and data science.
  • Should have good knowledge of data visualization, charts, and graphs.
  • Knowledge of mathematical expressions
  • Comprehensive knowledge of data design, data modeling, and data management.
  • Ability to build dashboards

2. What language does Power BI use?

  • DAX and M are the two languages supported by Power BI to filter, handle and visualize data.
  • DAX is an analytical data calculation language used for analyzing data in the Data View phase.
  • n the flip side, M is a query formula language used in Power BI Query Editor to prepare data before loading in the Power BI model.

3. Is Power BI enough to get a job?

Power BI works with the advanced version of excel, so one needs to have an excellent knowledge of MS Excel and to build interactive dashboards to get hired. 

4. What is Q&A in Power BI?

Q&A in Power BI allows you to explore data using natural language capabilities and obtain answers in the form of graphs and charts. You'll find Q&A on dashboards in the Power BI service.

5. Which company Power BI Interview questions are listed?

In our Power BI interview questions and answers blog, we have gathered interview questions from various MNCs around the globe and curated the best and frequently asked questions with answers. Power BI Interview questions of Wipro, Deloitte, Mindtree, Microsoft, Cognizant, TCS, Amazon are covered in the blog.

About Author

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NamePrasanthi
Author Bio

Prasanthi is an expert writer in MongoDB, and has written for various reputable online and print publications. At present, she is working for Mindmajix, and writes content not only on MongoDB, but also on Sharepoint, Uipath, and AWS.