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Java Collections Interview Questions

Are you preparing for the Java collections interview? Are you sure you have covered all the basic and advanced-level questions? If not, then our guide on Java collections interview questions will help you crack the interview. In this blog, we have listed Java collections interview questions and answers prepared by industry experts so that you can ace your interview.

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Java's Collection framework offers an architecture for storing and managing a collection of objects. All data operations, including searching, sorting, implantation, manipulation, and deletion, are possible with Java Collections. A collection in Java is a group of related objects. The Java Collection Framework offers numerous classes and interfaces like Set, List, Queue, and Deque or ArrayList, Vector, LinkedList, PriorityQueue, HashSet, LinkedHashSet, TreeSet.

The following are the benefits of the debt levels because the lack of one led to the aforementioned set of drawbacks.

  • Consistent API: The API has a fundamental set of interfaces, such as Collection, Set, List, or Map. All classes that implement these interfaces (such as ArrayList, LinkedList, Vector, etc.) share a common set of methods.
  • Lessons programming effort: A programmer can concentrate on using the Collection's best features in his programme rather than worrying about the Collection's design. As a result, abstraction—the fundamental idea behind object-oriented programming—has been successfully implemented.
  • Enhances programme speed and quality: by offering high-performance implementations of practical data structures and algorithms; in this way, the programmer is spared from having to consider how to implement a given data structure optimally. He only needs to make the best implementation for his algorithm or programme to perform significantly better.

The above points clearly state the demand for Java collections professionals. We are certain that our java collections interview questions can assist you in cracking the interview and bagging your dream job.

 We have classified Java collections Interview Questions into two stages they are:

  1. For Freshers
  2. For Experienced
  3. FAQs

Frequently Asked Java Collections Interview Questions

  1. What are Generics' advantages in the Collections Framework?
  2. What does Java's Collection Framework mean to you?
  3. What does "Iterator" in the Java Collection Framework mean to you?
  4. How are Java's Collection objects sorted?
  5. What does Java's ArrayList mean?
  6. What does a Java vector mean?
  7. What is BlockingQueue?
  8. Describe the advantages of generic collections.
  9. Describe how linked lists in Java work.
  10. How should Collection objects be sorted in Java?

Top Java Collection Interview Questions for Freshers

1. What features of Java 8 are related to collections?

Significant changes have been made to the Collection API in Java 8. Among the modifications are:

  • Java Stream API supports both sequential and parallel processing in collection classes.
  • We can interpolate over a collection by using the forEach() default technique which is an extension of the Iterable interface. Because its assertion Consumer is a function interface, it is very useful when used with lambda expressions.
  • The Iterator interface's forEachRemaining(Consumer action) method, as well as the Map replaceAll(), compute(), and merge() methods, have all been improved.

2. What are Generics' advantages in the Collections Framework?

All collection interactions and implementations heavily rely on Generics, which was included in Java 1.5. If you try to add any elements of a different type, a compile-time error is generated. Generics allow us to specify the type of Object that an accumulation can contain. This prevents ClassCastException at Runtime since the error occurs during compilation. Generics also clean up the code because the casting and the instanceof operator are not required.

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3. What does Java's Collection Framework mean to you?

The Java Collection framework offers a structure for managing and storing a collection of objects. It enables programmers to use prepackaged data structures and data manipulation algorithms. The following is part of the collection framework:

  • Interfaces
  • Classes
  • Algorithm

Data manipulation is incredibly simple and quick thanks to the support provided by all of these classes and interfaces for various operations like searching, sorting, inserting, manipulating, and deleting.

4. Give an explanation of Java's collection hierarchy.

Java collection hierarchy

5. Why are the Cloneable and Serializable interactions not extended by Collection?

Java's Collection interface describes a collection of objects referred to as elements. The concrete implementations offered by each member of the Collection are wholly responsible for the maintainability and ordering of the elements. Therefore, extending the Implemented by taking and Serializable interfaces is pointless.

6. List the Generic Collection's main advantages.

The following are the primary benefits of using Java's generic collection:

  • Provides more thorough type checks during compilation
  • Enables the use of generic algorithms, which makes the code customizable, type-safe, and easier to read. 
  • Eliminates the need for typecasting

7. What is the Properties file's main advantage?

The main benefit of using a properties file in Java is that any changes to those values are automatically reflected in the Java class without the need to recompile it. As a result, it primarily serves to store information that is subject to change, like usernames and passwords. This facilitates simple and effective application management.

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8. What does "Iterator" in the Java Collection Framework mean to you?

The Collection framework's Iterator interface in the Java language is part of the java.util package. It is a Java Cursor that is used to loop through a group of objects. A few more important features offered by the Iterator interface are listed below:

  • Visit each element of a collection of objects individually.
  • As it applies to all classes in the Collection framework and supports READ and REMOVE Operations, it is known as the Universal Java Cursor.
  • The names of iterator methods are simple to use.

9. Why is Java's equals() method overriding necessary?

The equals method's initial implementation aids in determining as to if two objects are identical or not. You must override this method if you want to make comparisons of the items based on the property.

10. How are Java's Collection objects sorted?

Java Collections implement sorting using Comparable and Comparator interactions. The natural order stipulated in the compareTo() method is used to sort the elements when the Collections.sort() method is used. On the other hand, the compare() method of the Switch interface is used to sort the objects when the Collections. sort(Comparator) method is used.

Top Java Collection Interview Questions For Experienced

1. What purpose does the List interface serve?

In Java, a list interface represents an ordered group of components. It permits the storage of duplicate values and preserves the insertion order. This interface includes a number of methods that allow for easy element manipulation based on element index. LinkedList, ArrayList,  Stack, and Vector are the principal Collection framework classes that implement the List interface.

2. What does Java's ArrayList mean?

The implementation of the List Interface that allows for dynamic addition and deletion of elements is called an ArrayList. The Collection framework's ArrayList offers positional access and element insertion. The collection is ordered and allows for duplicate values. If there are more elements than the initial size, the size of an ArrayList could be dynamically increased.

3. Why is Java's equals() method overriding necessary?

The equals method's initial implementation aids in determining as to if two objects are identical or not. You must override this method if you want to make comparisons of the objects based on the property.

Related Article: Java Tutorial

4. How do you change an array from an array list to an array and vice versa?

Using the asList() method offered by the Array class, an Array can be transformed into an ArrayList. It takes List objects as a variable and is a static method.

5. What does a Java vector mean?

Similar to arrays, a vector object's elements can be accessed by using an index into the vector. A dynamic array is implemented by vector. Additionally, the vector is not constrained to a particular size; as needed, it can automatically grow or shrink. It and ArrayList are comparable, but there are two differences:

  • The vector is coordinated.
  • There are numerous legacy methods in Vector that are not included in the collections framework.

6. What does BlockingQueue mean to you?

A component of the java.util.the concurrent package is the BlockingQueue interface. By enabling blocking when a thread attempts to enqueue or dequeue an already full queue, this interface improves flow control. You must keep in mind that the Java BlockingQueue interface does not recognise a null value when using it. If you attempt to do that, a NullPointerException is immediately thrown. The Java BlockingQueue interface is illustrated in the figure below in operation.

7. What does a Java priority queue mean?

In Java, a priority queue is an abstract data type that resembles a standard queue or stack database schema but differs in that each element has a unique property called priority. In this queue, regardless of the order of insertion, a high-priority component is served before such a low-priority element. The priority heap is the foundation of the PriorityQueue. Depending on the function Object() { [native code] } used, the elements of the priority are either sorted according to their natural ordering or by a Comparator that is made available at queue construction time.

8. What is the Java Stack class, and what are the different methods it offers?

The crucial Java Stack class, which is based on the fundamental idea of last-in-first-out ordering, is a component of the Java Collection framework. In other words, both new and removed components are added to the back end. Push and pop are the terms used to describe the actions of adding and removing elements from stacks, respectively. The various methods this class offers are listed below:

Methods Description
empty() Checks if the stack is empty
push() Post an item to the top of the stack
pop() Remove the object from the stack
peek() Looks at the object of a stack without removing it
search() Searches items in the stack to get their index

9. What is Set in the Java Collections framework, and what are the different ways it is implemented?

A collection that excludes duplication is referred to as a set. It is primarily used to design the abstraction of the mathematical set. The three general-purpose Set deployments offered by the Java platform are:

  • HashSet
  • TreeSet
  • LinkedHashSet

10. Can a TreeSet or HashSet contain a null element?

One null component can be added to a HashSet, but not to a TreeSet because the latter uses NavigableMap to store its elements. This is due to the NavigableMap's inability to accept null keys as a subtype of SortedMap. Therefore, if you attempt to add null components to a TreeSet, a NullPointerException will be raised.

11. What does the emptySet() Collections framework method do?

The collection() With the null elements removed, emptySet() returns the empty immutable Set. This method returns a serializable set. The method declaration for empty set is shown below ().

Syntax:

public static final <T> Set<T> emptySet()

12. What does the Java Collections Framework's LinkedHashSet mean?

The java.util. A subtype of the HashSet class, LinkedHashSet enforces the Set interface. It is an ordered variant of the HashSet that keeps a doubly-linked List across all of its elements. It maintains insertion order and only includes singular elements, just like its parent class.

Syntax:

LinkedHashSet<String> hs = new LinkedHashSet<String>();

 

13. Can you list the various Collection views that the Map functionality in the Java Collection framework offers?

The Map interface offers the following three key-value pair views:

  • Key set view
  • Value set view
  • Entry set view

Utilizing the iterators, it is simple to navigate between all of these views.

14. What is Java's ConcurrentHashMap, and do you use it?

A Java class called ConcurrentHashMap implements the interfaces ConcurrentMap and Serializable. HashMap is a class that has been improved because it struggles in a multithreaded environment. In comparison to HashMap, its performance rate is higher.

15. Any class may be used as a Map key.

Any class may be used as a map key if the following criteria are met:

  • The hashCode() method must be overridden by the class that overrides the equals() method.
  • The class must abide by the equals() and hashCode() rules for every instance.
  • The hashCode() method shouldn't use the class field either since it's not used in the equals() method.
  • Making a user-defined key class immutable is the best way to use it. It aids in the hashCode() value's coaching for improved performance. Additionally, if the class is made immutable, it will prevent future changes to the hashCode() and equals() functions.

16. What is BlockingQueue?

The Java language uses the BlockingQueue interface to extend the Queue. It allows concurrent use of different queue operations, including insertion, deletion, and retrieval. When retrieving any elements, the Queue waits until it is no longer empty. Null elements shouldn't be present in a blocking queue. This Queue's implementation is thread-safe. BlockingQueue's syntax is:

public interface BlockingQueue<E> extends Queue <E>

17. Describe the advantages of generic collections.

Using the cliched collection has the following advantages:

  • Typecasting is not needed if the programmers are using generic classes.
  • It can be tested during compilation and is type-safe.
  • By finding bugs during compilation, it ensures the stability of the code.

18. Describe the fundamental Java collections framework interfaces.

The root of the gathering hierarchy is the Java collection framework. Its elements are a collection of things. Such an interface is not directly implemented in the Java programming language.

  • Set: A set is a set with unique elements only. It stores the elements in a hashtable.
  • List: A list is a decided to order a group of elements that contain duplicates. Developers can access any components from its inbox thanks to it. The list has a dynamic length and is similar to an array.
  • Map: An object called a MAP maps keys to values. It cannot have duplicate keys inside. At least one value can be mapped to each key.

19. What qualities does the Java hashmap have?

Features of the Java Hashmap include:

  • A key-value pair can be used to store the values in a map. The key can be used to retrieve the value by having to pass it to the right method.
  • A "NoSuchElementException" will be thrown if there is no element in the Map.
  • Only object references are kept in a hash map. Primitive data types like double and int cannot be used because of this. Instead, use a wrapper class (such as Integer or Double).

Java Hashmap

20. Define Stack

In a special part of the computer's memory called a stack, functions' temporary variables are kept. Variables in a stack are created, saved, and initialized while the programme is running.

Java Collections FAQs

1. A linked list is what?

A data structure that can hold a number of items is a linked list. Linked lists can therefore be used to store multiple objects of the same type. A node is any component or element in a list. Each node in a linked list contains its own data as well as the address of the node after it. Like a chain, it. Graphs and trees are made with Linked Lists.

2. Describe how linked lists in Java work.

The following two linked list types are supported by Java:

  • Singly Linked list: A particular kind of data structure. Each node in a singly linked list stores its contents as well as a reference or pointer to the node after it in the list. It doesn't keep a reference or a pointer to the node before it.
  • Doubly linked lists are a particular kind of linked list in which traversal of the data elements can be accomplished in both directions. Every node contains two links, one of which connects to the node after it and the other of which links to the node before it.

3. Mention the Stack class's available methods.

Important functions offered by the Stack class include:

Push() inserts an object into a stack.

Empty (): This method determines whether or not the stack is empty.

Pop (): Removes the item from the stack using the Java collection framework.

Search (): This technique looks through the stack of items.

Peek (): Without removing the stack object, this Java method examines it.

4. Define emptyset()

When programmers attempt to remove null elements, the Java collections framework method emptySet() returns the empty unchanging set. The emptySet() function returns a serializable set. This method's syntax is as follows:

public static final <T> Set<T> emptySet()

5. How does the Java Collection framework define LinkedHashSet?

LinkedHashSet enforces the set interface and is a subclass of the HashSet class. It retains a doubly-linked List across all of its elements and is a well-ordered variant of the hash set.

6. What advantages does Java's Collection Framework offer?

Java's Collection Framework has the following advantages:

  • The highly efficient data structures provided by the Java collection framework increase the program's precision and speed.
  • The Java collection framework makes it simple to maintain a programme.
  • A developer can combine courses with other types to make their code more reusable.
  • The primitive collection types can be altered however the programmer pleases thanks to the Java collection framework.
Related Article: Java Frameworks - Top 14 Java Frameworks

7. How should Collection objects be sorted in Java?

Using the Comparable and Comparator interactions is a useful method for sorting Java collection objects. Collections can be used by developers. The elements are straightened using the compareTo order when using the sort() function (). When a developer uses the Collections, sort (Comparator) method, the compare() method of the Comparator interface is used to sort the objects.

8. Define EnumSet

Utilizable with enum types, EnumSet is a Set implementation. One explicit or implied enum type must be used to create an enum set with all of its elements. The use of null keys is prohibited, and it is not synchronized. Among the methods offered by EnumSet are copyOf, complementOf(EnumSet s), and enumset of(E first, E... rest) (Collection c).

9. What are the two methods for eliminating duplicates from an array list?

There are two ways to eliminate duplicates from an ArrayList:

  • HashSet: To eliminate the copy element from the ArrayList, developers can use HashSet. The limitation is that the insertion order cannot be preserved.
  • LinkedHashSet: Instead of using HashSet, developers can maintain the order of implantation by using LinkedHashSet.

10. What are the techniques for thread-safe collection?

These steps can be taken to ensure collection thread safety:

  • Collections.synchronizedList(list);
  • Collections.synchronizedMap(map);
  • Collections.synchronizedSet(set);

11. Describe the design pattern that Iterator uses.

The iterator adheres to the iterator design pattern's details. It allows developers to browse through object collections using a standard interface without being aware of how it is implemented.

12. What exactly is a CopyOnWriteArrayList?

A copy of the array is made in order to implement operations like add and set in the CopyOnWriteArrayList variant of the ArrayList. Because it is thread-safe, ConcurrentModificationException is not thrown. This ArrayLists allows any element, even null.

13. What are the methods available in the Java Queue interface?

  • boolean add(object)
  • boolean offer(object)
  • object remove()
  • object poll()
  • object element()
  • object peek()

14. Diamond operator, please

The compiler can gather the type statements of generic classes thanks to the diamond operator. Developers using Java SE can use the diamond operator (>) to replace the parameterized function Object() { [native code] } with an empty parameter set.

15. Explain Class linked lists

Java's LinkedList class uses an all the more linked list to implement Deque and List. The structure of a doubly-linked list is provided by a private class node. Additionally, it has an item variable for storing the reference and value for the Node class. This can be used to link the previous and next nodes.

Advantages of Java Collections:

1. Consistent API:

The API has a fundamental set of interfaces, such as Collection, Set, List, or Map. All classes that implement these interfaces (such as ArrayList, LinkedList, Vector, etc.) share a common set of methods.

2. Reduces programming effort:

A programmer can concentrate on using the Collection's best features in his programme rather than worrying about the Collection's design. As a result, abstraction—the fundamental idea behind object-oriented programming—has been successfully implemented.

3. Enhances programme speed:

Enhances programme speed and quality by offering high-performance implementations of practical data structures and algorithms; in this way, the programmer is spared from having to consider how to implement a given data structure optimally. He only needs to make the best implementation for his algorithm or programme to perform significantly better.

Key upshots:

An interface called an iterable interface is part of the collection framework and allows an iterator to cycle through all the collections. The primary collection interface, which serves as the foundation for the collection framework, extends this interface. All collections extend this collection interface, which also extends the iterator's properties and this interface's methods.

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About Author
Madhuri Yerukala

Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .

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