Are you one of the fighters fighting in this advanced world? Are you the one who will be getting interviewed on Java architecture? Are you a fresher or an experienced java architect looking for the best job opportunity? Then, we have something for you here. We have a series of FAQs and interview questions for freshers and professionals. We provide the best way to answer these Java Architect Interview Questions. The answers to these questions will have a great impact on the interviewer for sure.
A Java Technical Architect oversees creating, integrating, and updating a comprehensive architecture that supports Java applications to help a business reach its objectives. They must be able to recognize performance bottlenecks, eliminate them, and create scalable systems to succeed in this position. They must be well-versed in the principles of Java and have prior knowledge of distributed systems and microservices. Now keep reading to find out more about Java Architect Interview Questions!
Some basic facts about Java:
Now let's skim through the following Java Architect Interview Questions- 2022 (updated) for:
Java programmers use the Final Keyword to declare constants. Any element defined with the keyword Final cannot later have its values modified. When a method is final, its subclasses cannot override it. Additionally, because they are resolved at build time, the Final methods are quicker than the others.
I would create a queue to validate each request before sending it to the database to prevent the database from entering a cyclic wait stage. Using fewer cursors to prevent locking the tables is another approach to get around this problem. Another method to prevent a database deadlock is to use a short transaction.
Interface and Abstract Class are fundamentally different from one another in that the former only permits the definition of public static methods. It does not contain any application of the aforementioned approaches.
Contrarily, abstract classes are open to any access specifier, whether or not it has a class implementation. Another distinction is that a class that implements an interface must also implement all the interface's methods. On the other hand, this is not necessary for Abstract Class.
Hibernate and JDBC's respective architectural distinctions impact how they are utilized. One of the main differences is that JDBC lacks an object-relational mapping (ORM) mechanism, whereas Hibernation has one.
Regarding caching, the two also differ from one another. Hibernate features a caching system that stores data for later use, unlike JDBC, which does not. This method works in conjunction with its automatic object mapping functionality. As a result, JDBC starts up a little quicker than the Hibernate.
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By applying standardized message-oriented middleware to deliver messages from one module to another module, message-driven architecture aims to connect distributed systems.
No. Only the packages and not the sub-packages will be imported if we import packages. If necessary, the programmer must import the sub-packages independently.
The following methods are available in Spring MVC to configure exception handling in our program:
Controller-based: Here, we define techniques for handling exceptions. All that is required is to annotate these methods with @ExceptionHandler.
The @ControllerAdvice annotation is used as a global exception handler. The definition of the global exception handler can be done using any class.
Implementation of the HandlerExceptionResolver: To develop global exception handlers, Spring MVC offers HandlerExceptionResolver. This approach was chosen since the Spring framework also provides a few default classes that may be included in our spring bean configuration file to gain the advantages of exception handling.
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Nearly everything was object-oriented before Java 8. Java only has primitives; anything else is an object. Methods/Functions didn't just appear out of nowhere. All method/function calls must be made using references to objects or classes.
Functional programming was introduced in Java 8 and enabled this. The best object-oriented language is Java. All data types in Java other than rudimentary ones are in the form of objects. As a result, anonymous functions are a practical choice.
Even lists are objects made by classes. A function or method cannot be defined in Java and then remain in Java. In that case, there is no way to return the body of a method or pass a method as a parameter.
Sessions are states of communication between the client and the server. As a result, several responses and requests may be made throughout a single session. Due to the statelessness of the Web Server and HTTP, a session is only maintained when the client and server send the session ID (or another distinctive identifier about the session) in all requests and answers.
Among the techniques for managing servers are:
Domain-driven design is a technique and process prescription for creating complex systems that focuses on translating activities, processes, events, and data from a problem domain into the technical objects of a solution area. Making your program a realistic depiction of a system or process is key.
The given four layers are there in Hibernate Architecture:
The structure I employ is dictated by the overall objective the client hopes to accomplish with their application. Before applying for the position, I closely worked with clients to ascertain the objectives they had for their program. For instance, a large-chain shop requires a complex web application to manage client internet purchases. I met with the client to identify the most important application criteria, and I used these details to choose a web application that would better support the client's commercial success.
Follow these steps shown below to avoid the Lazyinitializationexception in Java:
A local variable is utilized within a method, block, or constructor– and is specific to that scope. A variable not local to its scope won't be known to other methods or blocks in the class.
On the other hand, an instance variable is linked to its object. These variables are declared outside of the procedure but inside of a class. The instance variable is accessible to all the class's methods and blocks in this manner.
The JDBC design uses two-tier and three-tier processing models to access a database. These are listed below:
Two-tiered structure: A Java program speaks with the data source directly. The JDBC driver makes communication possible for the application and data source. When a user submits a query to a data source, the data source responds with results that are provided back to the user.
The data source may be on a different computer connected to the user's network. In a client/server configuration, the system used by the user serves as the client while the machine running the data source serves as the server.
Three-tier model: The user's commands are transferred from middle-tier services back to the data source in this architecture. The middle tier receives the results and relays them to the user.
This sort of model is helpful to management information system directors.
For creating enterprise Java applications, Spring is a potent Java framework. Some major advantages of adopting the Spring framework include the following:
The LTS version's goal is to finish the preview features and make them reliable and presentable over the following three years:
The frequent use of static variables is one scenario that frequently leads to memory leaks. When using static variables, we must be careful. Collections and huge objects designated as static take up valuable memory that may be used elsewhere during the program's lifetime.
Reduce the use of static variables and, when using singletons, implement them so that the object is loaded slowly rather than quickly.
Java memory leaks can occur if you don't remove a reference to an object or fail to close a resource. Unclosed file/text buffers Improper equals() and hashCode() implementations.
It's common to overlook including appropriate overrides for the equals() and hashCode() methods while developing new classes.
These actions are performed by HashSet and HashMap using these methods, and if they are incorrectly overridden, memory leaks may result.
In this case, duplicate objects will accumulate and take up more memory if we don't override the equals() and hashCode() methods in the Employee class, which is why many instances will be produced in memory.
As a result, this Map would only contain one Employee object if we had overridden the equals() and hashCode() methods in the Employee class.
The objects of a class that have to finalise() function overridden are not instantly disposed of. Instead, they are placed in a queue for the GC to finalize later.
Additionally, our application will eventually run into an OutOfMemoryError if the finalise() method's logic is inefficient, and the finalizer queue cannot keep up with the Java garbage collector.
Some of the key advantages of using the lambda expression are:
In relational databases, the ACID is enforced. As a result, transaction-oriented schema-based data storage is possible. It is tried and true for 99 percent of applications in the real world. With relational databases, practically anything is possible.
There are performance and scalability restrictions regarding large, high-availability data warehouses. Terabytes of data, for instance, are kept in huge data centers like Google and Amazon. Because of the blocking, schema, and transactional characteristics of the RDBMS in these situations, querying and inserting are unsuccessful.
They have therefore introduced their databases to greatly improve performance and allow for scaling (actually, key-value stores).
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Two technologies that aid in managing, tracking, and deploying database schema changes are Liquibase and Flyway. They are both migration-based technologies that, by considering database code like app code and automating it, seek to close a gap in many teams' workflows.
To find performance bottlenecks, a variety of methods and technologies are available. Among the most well-liked are:
The following are the essential elements of Hibernate Architecture:
The session objects are kept in the session factory. It includes the secondary data cache ( optional). The org.hibernate is used. A factory method to retrieve the session object is provided by the SessionFactory interface.
The session object serves as a conduit between the database and the application. It offers the application an interface to access the database's stored data.
The JDBC connection is contained within the session object, which has a limited lifespan. It serves as a factory for the many session components, including query, transaction, and criterion. It houses the primary data cache (mandatory). The hibernate.org. The session interface offers ways to add, update, and remove the object. The factory methods for Transaction, Query, and Criteria are also included.
The atomic component of the tasks is contained in the transaction objects. It's a choice-based component. Methods for managing transactions are provided via the 'org.hibernate.Transaction' interface.
JDBC connections are provided via the 'ConnectionProvider'. It is a choice-based component. It removes the application's dependence on "DriverManager" or "DataSource."
The element TransactionFactory is optional. The transaction objects are kept there.
Java architects' top issue is scalability. I take the project's predicted expansion into account when creating a scalable architecture. You must create an architecture that can manage more data and traffic without stuttering or crashing. When creating a scalable architecture, the following factors must be considered:
A Spring Boot sub-project called Spring Boot Actuator gives your production-ready apps new monitoring and management features. It provides a variety of HTTP or JMX endpoints for communication.
The Spring Boot Actuator supports the Prometheus (a tool for monitoring) endpoint, which is frequently pulled for metric data and provides a graphic representation of data. Another option is to use Grafana, which has many graphical representations.
Below is a graph created using Grafana and data from Prometheus.
The guiding principles for all software development, regardless of platform or programming language, are known as design principles.
An asset collection is made up of various elements such as:
A computer system based on the internet called "cloud computing" enables storage and online access to digital data and applications.
The abbreviation SOLID stands for the initials of Robert C. Martin's first five object-oriented design (OOD) principles, which are:
Three distinct parts make up the JVM:
The JavaTM Runtime Environment includes the Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler, which boosts Java programs' runtime performance. Classes in Java applications contain platform-neutral bytecodes that a JVM may understand on various computer architectures.
JDK and JRE File Structure include:
Commands would be sent to a "middle tier" of services in the three-tier paradigm, which transmits the commands to the data source. The middle tier receives the results from the middle tier, which then provides them to the user when the data source has processed the commands. Because the middle tier allows for the maintenance of control over access and the kinds of adjustments that can be made to company data, MIS directors find the three-tier model particularly alluring. Another benefit is that it makes application deployment simpler. Finally, the three-tier architecture frequently offers performance benefits.
Until recently, the intermediate tier was frequently programmed in performance-oriented languages like C or C++. However, the Java platform is quickly replacing other platforms as the preferred one for middle-tier development thanks to the advent of optimizing compilers that convert Java bytecode into effective machine-specific code and technologies like Enterprise JavaBeansTM. This is a huge bonus because it enables using Java's multithreading, security, and robustness capabilities.
Microsoft developed the ODBC Application Programming Interface (API), which allows Windows software programs to connect to databases using SQL. Open Database Connectivity, as its name suggests, literally means that it is compatible with all languages, including C, C++, Java, and others. Sun Microsystems developed the JDBC SQL-based API to allow Java programs to use SQL for database access. It refers to a database connectivity feature that is solely available for Java.
These APIs enable connections between a client-side application and a server-side data source, whether those two locations are the same client computer or different server machines.
The region of memory used to hold objects created by JVM-based applications is the Java heap. As long as the program runs, heap memory is allocated when the JVM is started and any items can be shared between threads.
JVM, JRE, and JDK are the three primary parts of the Java language. Their full forms are Java Development Kit, Java Virtual Machine, and Java Runtime Environment, respectively.
JDK is largely used for code execution and contains essential development functionality. JRE, on the other hand, is mostly in charge of building the environment for code execution. On the other hand, JVM describes every implementation and oversees giving JRE these implementations.
Java programs automatically manage memory using garbage collection. Programs of Java can be executed on a Java Virtual Machine, or JVM, by compiling to bytecode. Objects are made on the heap, a part of memory allocated for the application when Java programs are launched on the JVM.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API specifies interfaces for accessing relational databases. JDBC facilitates connecting to a database, sending queries and updates therein, and retrieving and processing the database's results for queries.
The PYPL (Popularity of Programming Language Index) reported in February 2022 that Java is the second most famous language across the world. That's why a vast pool of opportunities is available for Java Architects. But Java is a very challenging yet demanding field. Going for Java Architect as a profession can be a tough but rewarding choice. Keep in mind that these questions are just some of the questions frequently asked questions. Sitting for a Java interview might be tricky. So, make sure you know the topics well by repeated revisions. And make sure to go through these Java Architect Interview Questions at least once before your interview. And then, nothing can stop you from crossing new milestones.
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