We have been seeing lots of programming languages these days, but nothing can beat the popularity of JAVA. Since 25years, it's been the most leading programming language. The Java Framework is a platform that is used to create and develop web applications. There are numerous Java frameworks available in the market. In this article, we are going to check the list of Top 14 Java Frameworks. But, before that, What is a Java Framework? Let's get into the details.
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let’s take look at the topics that are discussed in this article:
- What is a Java Framework?
- Top 14 Java Frameworks
What is a Java Framework?
Java Framework is a platform of pre-written codes that are used by Java developers to create Java web applications. It acts as a template in which a developer is able to use for creating the software application and Java program.
The Framework helps developers to generate a program for the application without the manual to refer every line of code from scratch. It includes pre-defined functions and classes that are used to input, manage, and process the hardware devices, and communicate with system software. This process depends on the type of framework, a program to generate output, and preferences.
Top 14 Java Frameworks
Let’s check out the Top14 Java frameworks further in detail.
#1. Apache Spark
First in the list is Apache Spark, which is a unified analytics engine used for large-scale data processing. It achieves high performance for both streaming and batch data using a physical execution engine, DAG scheduler, and a query optimizer. It provides around 80 high-level operators that are used to build parallel apps quickly.
Spark is used for a wide range of organizations to process large datasets. It runs on Kubernetes, Hadoop, Apache Mesos, or in the cloud. It can access various data sources such as Apache Hive, Apache Cassandra, Apache HBase, HDFS, Alluxio, and many more.
Apache Spark Features:
- Sparks helps to run the application in a Hadoop cluster that gives 10times faster in executing on disk and 100times faster in memory.
- It stores the processing data in memory.
- It reduces the management burden of maintaining separate tools.
- It provides in-built APIs in Java, Python, and Scala
- It supports Graph algorithms, Streaming data, SQL queries, Machine learning (ML), and Streaming data.
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#2. Apache Struts
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Second in the list is Apache Struts, which is an open-source MVC framework used to create elegant, modern Java web applications. It supports extensible plugin architecture, convention over configuration, and ships with plugins to support AJAX, JSON, and REST. This framework is designed to organize the entire development process from building to deploying and maintaining applications.
Apache Struts provides easy integration with other frameworks such as Spring, SiteMesh, and Tiles. It offers integrated profiling to debug and profile the application. Also, the debugging tools provided by struts are used for integrated debugging. It has excellent support for multiple view options such as XSLT, Freemarker, JSP, and Velocity.
Apache Struts Features:
- Struts are easy to use and are based on the MVC design pattern.
- It integrates with other Java technologies through plugins.
- It supports working with JSON, AJAX, and REST.
- It reduces the development time and makes the process of development much easier.
- It uses the Java Servlet API to help developers to adopt MVC architecture.
The blade is an MVC framework and is based on the principles of elegance and simplicity. It contains a collection of libraries from Captcha to JSON conversion from template to a simple database connection. The blade design is simple, easy to understand, and the support of the standard library. It also supports the REST style routing interface, that provides DSL grammar to write with no invasive interceptors.
- The blade is a lightweight framework that provides a clear structure and simple code.
- It supports a plug-in extension mechanism.
- It allows the user to choose the components for modular.
- It offers template engine support and jetty server.
- Excellent style routing interface.
Next in the list is Dropwizard, that is a Java framework used to develop ops-friendly, RESTful, and high-performance web services. It pulls the libraries from the Java ecosystem into a simple, lightweight package. The Dropwizard is best suited for creating Java microservices.
- Dropwizard supports various independent and open-source libraries.
- It creates high-performance RESTful web services.
- It performs rapid prototyping efficiently.
- It uses Hibernate Validator API for declarative validation.
- It has support for monitoring with the help of the metrics library. And it provides unparalleled insight into the production.
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#5. Google Web Toolkit (GWT)
Google Web Toolkit Features:
- GWT offers UI abstraction, cross-browser portability, bookmarking, internationalization, and history management.
- It is easy to create UIs with basic knowledge of scripting languages to focus on business logic and increase productivity.
- GWT offers compatible Junit, Maven, and Eclipse IDE.
- The GWT libraries enable users to write AJAX applications in Java.
- It contains powerful tools to create and optimize web applications.
Grails is a robust Groovy-based web application framework for the Java Virtual Machine(JVM). It is built on top of Spring Boot and runs with Groovy programming language. Grails can be used for the development of various applications and are compatible with Java EE containers, Spring, JDK, Quartz, and Hibernate.
- Grails main aim is to simplify complex programs. Its features contain the unified event model, RxJava is used to write reactive logic and the promises.
- Developers can access support at any time through IDEs and text editors such as Eclipse, Textmate, IDEA, Intellij, and Sublime.
- It transparently integrates with Java, existing Java EE containers, and the JVM.
- It allows developers to build their plugins and include IDE support for various platforms.
Next is Hibernate, which is another Java framework that simplifies the development of Java application to connect with the database. It is an open-source Object Relation Mapping(ORM) tool that implements the specifications of the Java Persistence API (JPA) for data persistence. It allows the user to convert information for various databases easily.
- Hibernate allows users to communicate with any database by making small code changes.
- It enables the user to develop persistent classes on object-oriented idiom.
- It removes a lot of repeated codes from the JDBC API.
- Hibernate is an advanced ORM framework that enables the user to perform the database operation using Java entities.
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#8. JavaServer Faces (JSF)
JavaServer Faces is a Java-based web application framework that is used to simplify the development integration of web-based user interfaces. It can be used to create native programs, web development, and enterprise applications. Developers can reuse the UI components, combining these components with an application data source, and write the client-generated event to the server-side event handler to develop web applications.
JavaServer Faces Features:
- JSF is an integral part of Java EE.
- It enables existing backend Java code to be extended with the web interface without changing the base application to introduce a new framework.
- It offers excellent libraries and tools.
- It helps in building native applications.
- It provides an API to represent and manage UI components and uses XML for view handling.
Second last in the list is the JHipster, which is one of the latest Java frameworks that is used to generate, deploy, and develop modern microservices architectures and web applications. It allows the user to create applications based on the Spring. This framework enables the user to choose two different types of architectures, such as Microservices and Monolithic.
- JHipster generates a full-stack microservices and applications, with various options.
- It provides high-performance and robust server-side stack with excellent test coverage.
- It offers a powerful workflow to build the application with Webpack and Gradle or Maven.
- Deployment support exists for Cloud Foundry, OpenShift, Google Cloud Platform, Azure, Heroku, and AWS.
Last Java framework is MyBatis, which is a mapping framework that automates the mapping between the objects and SQL databases in Java, Ruby on Rails, and .NET. It simplifies the process of linking the Java application with an SQL database by acting as a middleware. MyBatis offers a simple API to connect with the database. It also provides support for a standard for custom SQL, advanced mapping, and stored procedures.
- MyBatis provides independent database interfaces and APIs that help the rest of the application remain independent of any persistence-related resources.
- It is widely regarded as one of the simplest persistence frameworks available in the market.
- It supports programming languages such as Ruby, C# for Microsoft .NET, and Java.
- It offers features for developing SQL queries depending on parameters.
Play is a High-velocity Web framework that allows the user to build web applications with Scala and Java. It was designed to develop modern web and mobile applications based on web-friendly, stateless, and lightweight architecture. Play is built on Akka that provides predictable and minimal resource consumption for highly scalable applications.
- Play is a flexible, configurable, pluggable, and customizable tool.
- It can handle errors in dev mode to compile errors and runtime.
- It improves efficiency due to code reloading.
- It provides excellent support for various microservices patterns.
- The main features include high speed, good scalability, and excellent quality.
Quarkus is a Kubernetes-native Java framework used for Java virtual machines (JVMs) that enables an effective platform for Kubernetes, serverless, and cloud environments. It is designed to work with popular frameworks, libraries like Eclipse MicroProfile, Java standards, Spring, and many more. Quarks is an effective solution for running Java in a serverless architecture, containers, function-as-a-service (FaaS), microservices, and cloud.
- Quarkus aims to bring Java into the cloud-native development era.
- It provides the imperative programming model and libraries that are used by the community such as Hibernate, MicroProfile, and Vert.x.
- It is designed to work with GraalVM and allows developers to build native binaries.
- Quarkus is a Kubernetes native Java framework that offers low memory consumption and quick startup time.
Spring is the most popular, open-source Java framework. It provides a comprehensive programming and configuration model for model Java-based enterprise applications. This framework can be used for implementations of a real-time application. It includes Spring core, Spring ORM, Spring Security, Spring MVC, etc. are used in enterprise applications. Spring is a container of frameworks that enables the user to perform tasks of any complexity from working with the databases to test the procedures.
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- Spring supports JDBC that reduces errors and improves productivity in the application.
- It provides backward testability and compatibility of the code.
- It offers a lightweight container that can be triggered without using web server software.
- It supports both annotation and XML based configuration.
Last in the list is Vaadin, which is an open-source modern web framework that helps Java developers to build great user experience with minimal effort. This framework includes a library of UI components that are designed to work on both desktop and mobile. It allows the user to write UI in pure 100% Java without using HTML, CSS, and JS.
Vaadin provides access to the DOM directly from Java Virtual Machine(JVM). Its apps run on the server and maintain all the communications secured automatically. With the help of a robust Java ecosystem, Vaadin works with libraries, IDEs, and tools.
- Vaadin provides an opportunity to bind the data using MVP or MVC.
- It offers many layouts, components, and listeners compared to any conventional web technologies.
- It supports JVM languages such as scala and kotlin.
- It provides high developer productivity and rapid development.
On a final note, I would like to conclude with these Top 14 Java frameworks. Each framework has unique benefits to meet the requirements of a developer to build a user-friendly web or mobile application. Choosing the most suitable framework provides the most effective results. If you have any framework to add, I’d be happy to read it in the comments below.