Python is a scripting, interpreted, and a high-level programming language. It is very easy to code in Python and it has a unique syntax which makes it different from other programming languages.
In order to build any Python application, you must need a framework or a platform to code. Python web frameworks play a major role in web application development. These frameworks provide a defined structure to developers while designing and writing a core logic so that they can concentrate on the logic rather than other elements in programming.
So, in this article, we’ll cast a look at different python frameworks that we could put into use. Actually, Python frameworks are segregated into three divisions and they are as follows:
List of Python Web Frameworks:
1. Full-Stack Frameworks
This type of framework acts as a one-stop solution for fulfilling all the developers’ necessary requirements. Form validation, form generators, and template layouts are the components that are commonly included in the full-stack frameworks.
- Pylons Framework
These frameworks are also called non-full stack frameworks. These are lightweight in nature because they do not offer more components as a full-stack framework. The developers who want to use this framework must put a lot of effort in coding and also in adding additional requirements manually.
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3. Asynchronous Framework
It is also a microframework that mainly allows us in handling a huge set of concurrent connections. This asynchronous framework is mainly built for Python and it also uses the asyncio library.
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Python Frameworks List:
Now, let’s get into each Python framework in detail!
CubicWeb is an open-source, semantic, and free Python web framework. This framework provides an effective way for developers in building web applications by reusing the components called cubes. This is considered one of the best solutions in building semantic web app development which promotes efficiency, reusability, and quality.
- Security workflows
- Reusability of components
- Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL) support.
- Simplifies data related queries with the help of Relational Query Language (RQL).
- Supports multiple databases.
Django is the most popular high-level web application development framework that encourages us to build Python applications very quickly. This framework uses a pragmatic design and follows the principle called Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY).
When compared to other frameworks, Python free-to-use framework offers a huge number of built-in features rather than individual libraries. In Django, mapping of objects to database tables is done using Object-Relational Mapping Layer (ORM). Moreover, It provides inherent support for various databases such as Oracle database, MySQL, and so on. Additionally, this framework can support other databases by using third-party drivers.
- URL routing
- Enhanced support for web servers.
- Authentication support
- Ridiculously fast framework
- A huge number of ready-to-use libraries.
- Extensively scalable
- Presence template engine
Giotto is a framework based on the model, view and controllers (MVC) concept. Some of the characteristics of Giotto include a free RESTful interface, automatic URL routing, and Jinja2 for HTML templates with an API. This framework promotes functionality while the code for model, view, and controller is separated from an existing association.
It also includes a controller module that provides a platform for users to create apps on top of the command line, web, and Internet Relay Chat (IRC).
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- Generic views and models
- The automatic and in-built URL routing
- Multiple pluggable controllers
- Persistence of the database can be achieved using SQLAlchemy
- Functional CRUD patterns
- Availability of RESTful interfaces
- Availability of Jinja2 for HTML templates.
4. Pylons Framework
It is an open-source web-based framework that mainly focuses on the rapid development of applications. This framework is mainly designed for incorporating some of the properties and best elements of popular languages such as Ruby, Perl, and Python.
- URL Dispatch
- Text-based templating
- URL mapping based on routes configuration via WebHelpers
- HTML form generation and validation.
5. Pyramid Framework
The pyramid is also one of the most leading Python frameworks. The main goal of this framework is to achieve and develop applications with less complexity. The most important aspect of this framework is its ability to work equally with both full and small-scale applications. Moreover, there is a multitude of resources available to extend its abilities as per the requirements.
- URL generation
- Single file applications
- Flexible authorization and authentication
- Asset specifications and templating
- Function decorators
It is also one of the full-stack web application frameworks that are mainly designed to overcome the drawbacks of various Python web application frameworks. TurboGears provides an effective platform for developers to quickly develop data-driven web applications. Moreover, this framework is used to build a multi-tenancy behemoth or single-file application.
- Multi-database transactions
- It supports SQLAlchemy and SQLObject.
- Uses Pylons as a web server
- Availability of command-line tools and PasteScript templates.
- Highly modular
- Built-in support for database sharing.
- MVC-style architecture
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It is the most used scalable and open-source python framework which allows users to develop web applications very efficiently and quickly. Web2Py supports all the popular operating systems. Furthermore, this framework provides an easy way to simplify the web application development process through a web-based interface, a web server, and an SQL database. This framework allows users to edit, build, manage, and deploy web applications through web browsers.
- One of the most important key highlights of Web2Py is its usage in the ticket-granting mechanism to mainly recollect its status and errors.
- Cross-platform - It runs on various operating systems such as Windows, MAC, Unix/Linux by using Python 2.7/3.5/3.6/pypy.
- Security - It prevents the most common types of vulnerabilities.
- Role-based access control
- Follows MVC pattern
- Enhanced backward compatibility
- High readability of multiple protocols
- A consistent API
- Availability of pure Python templating
It is one of the most used micro web frameworks by users to build various applications in Python. It does not include any dependencies; instead, it consists of only one Python standard library, and also, it is distributed as a single file module. One of the key aspects regarding this framework is that it allows developers to work closer to the hardware. Bottle framework is perfectly suitable for developing and building simplistic personal usage apps.
- It has an in-built HTTP server
- Plugin support for different databases.
- Extensive adapter support for third party HTTP/WSGI servers and template engines.
- Support for file uploads, headers, and cookies.
- No external dependencies
CherryPy is a well-known open-source and minimalist framework that mainly uses the object-oriented paradigm to develop web applications in a short period of time. The applications that are built using this framework are standalone in nature and has their own multi-threaded web server. These applications can be deployed anywhere in an ordinary Python app which is able to run.
- Runs on Android.
- Runs on multiple HTTP servers at once.
- A flexible built-in plugin system.
- Powerful configuration system.
This is the best open source microframework that is mainly used to develop and build analytical web-based applications. It is especially an ideal framework for data scientists who have no idea about the web development process. Applications of Dash are similar to web servers that communicate with JSON packets through HTTP requests and also used to run the Flask. This framework makes extensible use of Flask plugins to build its own capabilities. Dash applications are mobile-ready and cross-platform because they can be rendered in the web server and can also be deployed in the servers.
- Plugin support
- Effective error handling mechanism.
- URL routing
- LDAP integration
- Availability of the simple interface for tying UI controls.
- A high degree of customization
By using this framework users aim at rapidly building and developing web APIs. This framework requires the number of dependencies for developing HTTP APIs. Falcon framework allows developers to build clean design applications to improve and modify the existing HTTP and REST architecture styles.
- A highly optimized and extensible codebase.
- Accurate and efficient response for HTTP errors.
- Possibility of unit testing via mocks and WSGI helpers.
- Ease of control and access for bodies and headers through request and response classes.
- Processing of DRY requests through hooks and middleware components.
- Extra boosting of speed with the support of Cython.
This Python framework is available under the BSD license and it is the most suitable framework for building small projects compared to Django. Flask is mainly designed for Python which is based on Jinja2 and Werkzeug. Moreover, this framework is compatible with the Google app engine.
- Built-in debugger and development server
- Lightweight framework
- Full support for unit testing
- Enhanced REST support
- Jinja2 templating
- A minimal and pluggable architecture.
- Statistical file serving
- Handling HTTP requests
- Availability of flexible application structure to store files.
- Improved support for cookies in order to establish client-side sessions.
Hug microframework creates a modern and faster way for users to develop and build APIs. The benefit of using this framework is that it consumes resources when required and uses Cython for compilation. Hug microframework lets you complete application development very easily and quickly.
- Supports automatic documentation
- Follows the principle “once implemented, can use anywhere”.
- Built-in version management
MorePath is a model-driven and flexible Python WSGI framework and it is mainly designed for executing more number of use cases. Moreover, it takes responsibility for Answer Set Application Programming (ASAP) which include common python data structures induced into RESTful Web Services.
This framework has an ideal feature, i.e.., it can automatically turn/convert defined paths in framework into links for creating apps with the use of the cleanest URLs.
- Reusability of views in views
- Availability of flexible and simple access permissions.
- Makes the creation of generic user interfaces very simple.
- Availability of necessary tools to develop RESTful services.
Pycnic is a microframework designed mainly to build JSON-based apps. This framework contains minimal footprint as it creates web APIs; so, it is fast and accurate.
- Built-in error handling mechanisms.
- Enhanced support for cookies.
- Effective handling of routing.
- Capable enough in handling JSON-based requests.
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It is an asynchronous Python framework that mainly relies on Python 3.5+ features, i.e.., async & awaits. AIOHTTP acts as a client-side framework and makes use of asyncio library, therefore, it is called an asynchronous framework. One of the advantages of this is that it supports both Server WebSockets and Client WebSockets without using Callback Hell. Furthermore, it provides a router and a request object to alter the redirection of queries regarding functions that are developed to handle the related tasks.
- Supports HTTP servers.
- Web servers of pluggable routing and middlewares.
- The effective building of views.
Growler is similar to aiohttp which is also built on top of asyncio; it is based on connecting and express frameworks for Node.js, Object Relational Mapping (ORM), and Templating. The requests in Growler are not handled in the framework, but they are handled by passing them through middleware technology. It is one of the best choices amongst the available frameworks because it provides an easier way to implement complex applications.
- More use of decorators in order to write reusable and effective code.
- Availability of Ziapp model to zip the entire application into the single executable file.
- Support for a multitude of open-source packages.
It is considered as one of the lightning-fast Python web frameworks available amongst the rest of the frameworks and is really hard to ignore. Uvloop is considered as a drop-replacement for the asyncio event loop, and hence it can either be used in the asyncio-based application or to replace an asyncio in the existing application. It gets additional accolades for the usage of Python accelerator named Cython and alongside that, the most important code will be written in C. It is noteworthy as its makers claim uvloop to be twice as fast as Node.js, gevent, and also when compared with any other asynchronous Python frameworks.
Sanic is an open-source Python web framework which is built on the top of the uvloop. It has got the name asynchronous due to one of its key features, i.e.., it offers quick HTTP responses via asynchronous request handling. Moreover, it supports request handlers and compares them with Python 3.5 await/async functions. This compatibility results in offering non-blocking capabilities and improving speed.
- Plugin support
- Class-based views
- Able to write and read cookies.
- Allows various types of logging like error log and access log.
- Availability of handlers with easy to apply for decorator support.
We all know that a framework can be defined as a collection of programs that can be used to control the whole structure code and even it, in turn, can build a bigger system. With this, we can develop a simpler website using languages such as HTML, CSS, and Python. When bigger and complex projects are considered, it gets tougher and costlier to get things done within shorter deadlines – hence, a web framework like Tornado comes in handy. Web frameworks like Tornado basically provide some features which are essential to any kind of application that can be developed with it, such as Database support, URL handling, HTML templates, etc.
Tornado is one of the best web frameworks of the Python programming language. This framework enables a cleaner approach to web server programming and has a keen focus on non-blocking operations. This framework can also scale to an enormous number of open connections.
- Extensive support for localization and translation.
- Availability of web templating techniques.
- Real-time services
- Offers effective results.
- Allows the implementation of third party authorization and authentication schemes.
In this article, we have seen a brief introduction to Python as a programming language. We have focused on the detailed list of all the available Python frameworks and libraries that could be put into use to develop the most effective programs that meet your business requirements. In this article, we have covered almost all the major Python frameworks with as many details as possible. I hope you have got a clear idea of the Python frameworks and their key features.
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