Python is the buzzword that is making the rounds in the IT universe with the easy learning curve, application development being quicker and faster, added benefit of machine learning aided opportunities and what not. It is high time that the strength of Python is known to each and every IT engineer and what it is capable of doing. Having said that, Python in itself is a programming language that doesn’t require any separate introduction. If you are here, it is expected that you at least have the basic skills in this wonderful programming language and you are in the search for avenues to explore more over this language. There are wonderful frameworks and libraries in Python that could be used directly instead of re-inventing the wheel altogether. Having said that, let us take a look at all the available Python frameworks that could be put to use without any further delay.
A web framework or a library is one that helps make the developer’s life easy with the whole process of development. Most of these frameworks are nothing but the soar experiences that once few of the developers had to take in the process of development which has now put into the shape of a framework. Most of the developers with their eyes closed would like to choose Django as their first choice for application development with Python – because of its killer features as like the automatic database generation and etc. But the point is not just that but to learn and understand what the other frameworks have to offer and how would these come to rescue in any of our business application development.
With that context, let us go through the following Python frameworks and understand what they have to offer and why one should opt to work with these frameworks.
Django is a Python web framework (written purely in Python) which enables individuals in clean and rapid development. A web framework in general terms is said to be an amalgam of components that help developers develop websites quicker and easier. Having said that, it is a free and an open source framework. It can be termed as a framework which enables developers to take a concept to completion as quickly as possible. Django as a framework helps to mitigate some of the common security mistakes that can be overseen easily while developing applications. Scalability is yet another feature provided by this framework.
Next on our list of Python frameworks is Flask, which is a microframework for Python based on technologies like Werkzeug, Jinja 2. Flask basically is Python web framework that is built with a small core and further an easy to extend extension. Flask is more Python oriented than Django because of some obvious reasons. As there is very much little boilerplate code that a developer has to deal with, Flask is a web framework that developers might not have to dwell longer for their understanding. Many of the famous applications out there are written in Flask framework as like Pinterest, LinkedIn and the community webpage for Flask itself.
As discussed earlier, a framework can be put together as a collection of programs which can be used to control the whole structure code which in turn can build a bigger system. With this, we can develop a simpler website using the bare minimum like HTML, CSS, and Python etc. When bigger and complex projects are considered, it gets tougher and costlier to get things within shorter spans of deadlines – hence a web framework as like Tornado comes in handy. Web frameworks like Tornado basically provide some features which are essential to any kind of application that can be developed with it, such as Database support, URL handling, HTML templates etc.
Tornado is one of the best Web frameworks of the Python programming language. This framework enables a cleaner approach to Web server programming and has a keen focus on non-blocking operations, can scale to an enormous number of open connections.
Next, on our list of Python-based web frameworks, we have Falcon which is a WSGI library helps in building web APIs at a quicker speed. When you building HTTP APIs frameworks other than Falcon can heavily load lots of dependencies and not needed abstractions. Falcon, on the other hand, cuts down all such dependencies and provides a developer to develop a cleaner design enabling HTTP and REST architectural style. Falcon claims that it can handle more requests with the same hardware if it were being handled by other frameworks. The framework aims to have 100% code coverage, hence making it more reliable. Most of the above features are all possible because Falcon maintains just 2 third-party dependencies like six, mimeparse. As per Falcon’s Github page companies like RackSpace, OpenStack and LinkedIn use Falcon.
Hug, yet another Python-based web framework provides the developers with the flexibility of developing your API once and lets you and your client able to consume it however they want to. The API development has been simplified drastically over multiple interfaces. Let it be local development or over HTTP or even through command line interface (CLI), it is by far the fastest modern way of developing your APIs. The framework Hug has been built ground up with a sole focus on performance in mind. It is said to consume resources only when necessary and is further compiled using Cython to achieve these amazing figures on performance. With all these obvious reasons, Hug steals the crown as the fastest web framework for Python 3.
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Sanic is a Python web framework (suits for Python 3.5) built on top of uvloop and designed for quicker HTTP responses via asynchronous request handling. Because of its internal structure and its hard dependency on uvloop, it cannot be developed or deployed on Windows environment. As on date, Sanic is still under development stage and is considered an infant amongst the other web frameworks available for Python. By this, there is a good amount of code that has been written around Sanic itself for you to work along with it for a complex business requirement. Given that it is still under development, there are not many applications or extensions for Sanic as compared to Flask or Django. Given all that, this framework allows you to take advantage of the async / await syntax to define your own asynchronous functions. This gives the power of writing asynchronous applications as like as what can be achieved by using Node.js
Next, in the line of top 20 Python frameworks, aiohttp comes next which is an asynchronous web framework that heavily relies on and uses Python 3.5+ features as like async & awaits. The framework is not just a server web framework but also acts as a client framework as well, as it supports both WebSocket Server and the Client. It is a famous framework that has made use of popular asynchronous library – asyncio which was there since the initial days of the library. aiohttp just like Flask provides a request object and router to enable the redirection of queries to functions that are developed to handle them. As a microservice developer, you can just focus on building your views as you would do with Flask.
Next comes the framework that has been developed or built for the larger applications. Pyramid, the name itself suggests that it is flexible, unlike Django which boasts its “everything in the box” approach. Web applications built using Pyramid, starting from the single file module and then these projects evolve into bigger and ambitious projects within no time. The downside to this web framework is their own documentation, which is not very clear and can be confusing at times. Pyramid Chameleon is installed to make use of the Chameleon templates instead of the Jinja templates. It takes some time in developing a single file application with Pyramid though later on, these can be scaled faster as the initial setup is tougher and error-prone.
Next on the list is Growler, which is similar to aiohttp which is also built on top of aysncio, it is based on connecting and express frameworks for Node.js, Object Relational Mapping (ORM), and Templating etc. The requests in Growler are handled not in the framework but by passing through middleware technology. It is the best choice amongst the available frameworks which provides easier ways to implement complex applications.
Next on the list is the super-powered Python-based web framework that ensures the minimal setup footprint. It is specifically designed to get many of the typical use cases up and running as quickly as possible, as like the common Python data structures being induced into RESTful Web Services. One of the most unique features that are owned by MorePath is that it automatically turns paths defined in the framework to links in creating applications with the cleanest URLs. It is a very flexible model driven web framework that supports REST very well
One unique feature: It automatically turns paths defined in Morepath into links to create applications with elegant and clean URLs.
TurboGears2 is a Python based web framework that is based on the ObjectDispatch paradigm. It is specifically meant to make it possible to write small and concise applications in Minimal mode and the much more complex application in the Full Stack Mode. The Features of TurboGears2 are ORM with real multi-database support, and it also supports horizontal data partitioning, widget system to simplify the development of AJAX apps.
Next on the list of Python frameworks is Circuits, which has loads of features similar to those of CherryPy. Unlike the framework CherryPy, Circuits is much more accurate web framework for building stand-alone applications that are compliant to be running on multiple processes. It is an event-driven framework that provides utmost support towards concurrency, asynchronous IO components. It can be used totally in a next level.
Watson framework is a very easy to use a framework that is specifically designed to get developing your application instead of fidgeting with the framework itself. This framework follows the convention over configuration ideal and it also allows to override the convention if it is required. The Watson framework is designed for Python 3.3 and above. This framework shouldn’t be taken as an offering from IBM but an individual component based WSGI and an event-driven MVC web framework for Python to develop web-based applications.
Next up is Pycnic which is considered the fastest ever web frameworks for Python to come up with or develop JSON based APIs. This framework is object-oriented and is ensured to be optimized for JSON APIs. Since that it is small, standalone and also optimized for JSON based APIs – it holds its place against the other popular frameworks. This framework handles the routing, JSON based requests and responses provides its support towards cookies, and handles the error handling in the JSON format too. The framework only holds responsibility for creating just the Web APIs so that it leaves the minimal footprint.
Next on the list is WebCore, which is a lightweight full-stack framework that can be used to develop applications in just a single file or you could structure it as per our own wish. One of the simplest frameworks that even a novice in Python can use it for developing simple applications. It is a full stack, lightweight and efficient web development framework specifically used for Python. It utilizes popular WSGI components, ORMs etc without locking you in and alongside to that it also provides init.d based middleware configuration.
Reahl can be mentioned as one of the best web frameworks written in pure Python. Reahl uses concepts familiar from GUI programming as well – like the widgets and events. There are loads of widgets that can be used and customized based on the customer requirements and also at the same time composed using the normal Python code. These widgets are said to describe specific server side and client side behaviors.
Eve can be the framework that you would be interested to work with if you are looking for build web services and also to get an easier, quicker way to start with. Eve has been specifically designed with all of these constraints in mind. Even, in turn, it uses Flask as the web framework and it is easily pluggable into the databases like MongoDB, SQL Alchemy, Elasticsearch, Neo4js backend for seamless data access. The sentence from the framework’s development can’t be denied at all when they mention that ‘all we need to bring up our API online is just a database, a configuration file (settings.py) and just a launch script.’
ButterfylNet is the library or the framework that you would be interested to work with if you are looking for asynchronous compliant design and also secure at the same time. It is specifically built with these objectives in mind. This framework works only in conjunction with Python 3.5 and above versions only as it uses asyncio library for all the asynchronous operations. Setting up servers and passing it all the required certificates and stuff can be achieved within a dozen lines of code and a simple chat room application can be written well under 75 lines of code. This should explain much in detail about the framework in itself.
It is considered to be one of the lightning-fast Python web frameworks available amongst the rest of the frameworks and it is really hard to ignore. It is considered a drop-replacement for the asyncio event loop, and hence can either be used in the asyncio-based application or could be used to replace an asyncio in the existing application. It gets additional accolades for the usage of Python accelerator named Cython and alongside that the most important code will be written in C. It is noteworthy as its makers claim uvloop to be twice as faster as Node.js, gevent and also when compared with any other asynchronous Python frameworks. You can try this out all by yourself to check it out.
In this article, we have seen a brief introduction to Python as a programming language and also have taken a look at what can be achieved with Python in the technical skills of your project. We have also seen the detailed list of all the available Python frameworks and libraries that could be put to use for various other requirements and develop beautiful programs that meet your business requirements. At the point of this article writing, we have tried to cover almost all the possible frameworks with as many details as possible.
It is further suggested that you go through the official documentation on the official websites before making any license purchases. Hope you have got all the details that you were looking for here. Please do let us know if there are any suggestions that you want us to make in our upcoming articles and the like.