# How to generate random numbers in python

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Random number generation is the process of generating a number that cannot be predicted better than by a random chance. Random numbers are used in cryptography, electronic noise simulation and gambling etc.

Most computer generate pseudo random numbers which are not true random numbers. They use algorithms to generate random numbers.

Python uses Mersenne Twister algorithm for random number generation. In python pseudo random numbers can be generated by using random module.

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## Python Random Number Generator:

Example

``````from random import *

print random()``````

output: It will generate a pseudo random floating point number between 0 and 1.

``````from random import *

print randint(10, 100)``````

output: It will generate a pseudo random integer in between 10 and 100

``````from random import *

print uniform(1, 10)``````

output: It will generate a pseudo random floating point number between 1 and 10.

``````import random

list = ['1','4','7','Hi']

print random.choice(list)``````

output: It will output any of the four objects in the list randomly.

``````import random

list = [1,2,3,"4", "l90", "hi"]

random.shuffle(list)

print (list)``````

output: It will shuffle the list and randomly and print the shuffled list.

``````import random

for i in xrange(5):

print random.randrange(0, 100, 2)``````

output: It will output 5 random numbers from range 0 to 100. 2 is the step need to be added into randomness.

The syntax is:

``random.randrange( start, stop, step )``
``````import random

str = "helloworld"

list = ['a','b','c','d','e','f','o','l']

print random.sample(str, 4)

print random.sample(list, 4)``````

output: It will output a list of 4 random characters from string and list.

The syntax is:

``random.sample (sequence, length)``

Sample output:

``````['o', 'h', 'l', 'w']

['f', 'b', 'c', 'a']``````

### Generate Random Number Using Seed

A seed is a number that is used to initialize a pseudo random number generator. Seed guarantees that if you start from same seed you will get the same sequence of random numbers.

``````import random

random.seed(5)

print(random.random())

print(random.random())

print(random.random())``````

output:

``````0.62290169489

0.741786989261

0.795193565566``````

[Related Page: Introduction To Python Programming

### List of Functions in Python Random Module:

 seed(a=None, version=2) Initialize the random number generator getstate() Returns an object capturing the current internal state of the generator setstate(state) Restores the internal state of the generator getrandbits(k) Returns a Python integer with k random bits randrange(start, stop[, step]) Returns a random integer from the range randint(a, b) Returns a random integer between a and b inclusive choice(seq) Return a random element from the non-empty sequence shuffle(seq) Shuffle the sequence sample(population, k) Return a k length list of unique elements chosen from the population sequence random() Return the next random floating point number in the range [0.0, 1.0) uniform(a, b) Return a random floating point number between a and b inclusive triangular(low, high, mode) Return a random floating point number between low and high, with the specified mode between those bounds betavariate(alpha, beta) Beta distribution expovariate(lambd) Exponential distribution gammavariate(alpha, beta) Gamma distribution gauss(mu, sigma) Gaussian distribution lognormvariate(mu, sigma) Log normal distribution normalvariate(mu, sigma) Normal distribution vonmisesvariate(mu, kappa) Vonmises distribution paretovariate(alpha) Pareto distribution weibullvariate(alpha, beta) Weibull distribution

### Python Secret:

Python 3.x.x added a new secret module for generating secure random. It has three functions. Let’s see the example below.

Example

``````import secrets

import string

letters = string.ascii_letters + string.digits

password = ''.join(secrets.choice(letters) for i in range(10))

output: it will print a 10-digit alphanumeric string with combination of uppercase and lower case letters.

``````import secrets

num = secrets.randbelow(10)

print(num)

output: randomly prints a number below given range

import secrets num = secrets.randbits(3) print(num)

output: This will print a random number of given bit``````

Tokens

To generate a more complex random string use token_hex(bytes)

``````import secrets

token = secrets.token_hex(16)

print(token)

More secure string generation with os.urandom

import os

os.urandom(8)

output: It will give an 8-byte system random number. [sample: 'xcfx8bPWxa7xdfx01' ]

import os, binascii

output = os.urandom(8)

hex = binascii.hexlify(output)

print (hex)``````

output: It will give the hex value. [sample: 25d6f3739e32cbf7]

secret module generates more secure random and it is available in python 3.x.

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Last updated: 03 Apr 2023