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by Anjaneyulu Naini

Last modified: January 29th 2021Random number generation is the process of generating a number that cannot be predicted better than by a random chance. Random numbers are used in cryptography, electronic noise simulation and gambling etc.

Most computer generate pseudo random numbers which are not true random numbers. They use algorithms to generate random numbers.

Python uses Mersenne Twister algorithm for random number generation. In python pseudo random numbers can be generated by using random module.

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**Example**

```
from random import *
print random()
```

output: It will generate a pseudo random floating point number between 0 and 1.

```
from random import *
print randint(10, 100)
```

output: It will generate a pseudo random integer in between 10 and 100

```
from random import *
print uniform(1, 10)
```

output: It will generate a pseudo random floating point number between 1 and 10.

```
import random
list = ['1','4','7','Hi']
print random.choice(list)
```

output: It will output any of the four objects in the list randomly.

```
import random
list = [1,2,3,"4", "l90", "hi"]
random.shuffle(list)
print (list)
```

output: It will shuffle the list and randomly and print the shuffled list.

```
import random
for i in xrange(5):
print random.randrange(0, 100, 2)
```

output: It will output 5 random numbers from range 0 to 100. 2 is the step need to be added into randomness.

The syntax is:

`random.randrange( start, stop, step )`

```
import random
str = "helloworld"
list = ['a','b','c','d','e','f','o','l']
print random.sample(str, 4)
print random.sample(list, 4)
```

output: It will output a list of 4 random characters from string and list.

The syntax is:

`random.sample (sequence, length)`

Sample output:

```
['o', 'h', 'l', 'w']
['f', 'b', 'c', 'a']
```

Frequently Asked Python Interview Questions & Answers

A seed is a number that is used to initialize a pseudo random number generator. Seed guarantees that if you start from same seed you will get the same sequence of random numbers.

```
import random
random.seed(5)
print(random.random())
print(random.random())
print(random.random())
```

output:

```
0.62290169489
0.741786989261
0.795193565566
```

**[Related Page: **Introduction To Python Programming

seed(a=None, version=2) | Initialize the random number generator |

getstate() | Returns an object capturing the current internal state of the generator |

setstate(state) | Restores the internal state of the generator |

getrandbits(k) | Returns a Python integer with k random bits |

randrange(start, stop[, step]) | Returns a random integer from the range |

randint(a, b) | Returns a random integer between a and b inclusive |

choice(seq) | Return a random element from the non-empty sequence |

shuffle(seq) | Shuffle the sequence |

sample(population, k) | Return a k length list of unique elements chosen from the population sequence |

random() | Return the next random floating point number in the range [0.0, 1.0) |

uniform(a, b) | Return a random floating point number between a and b inclusive |

triangular(low, high, mode) | Return a random floating point number between low and high, with the specified mode between those bounds |

betavariate(alpha, beta) | Beta distribution |

expovariate(lambd) | Exponential distribution |

gammavariate(alpha, beta) | Gamma distribution |

gauss(mu, sigma) | Gaussian distribution |

lognormvariate(mu, sigma) | Log normal distribution |

normalvariate(mu, sigma) | Normal distribution |

vonmisesvariate(mu, kappa) | Vonmises distribution |

paretovariate(alpha) | Pareto distribution |

weibullvariate(alpha, beta) | Weibull distribution |

Python 3.x.x added a new secret module for generating secure random. It has three functions. Let’s see the example below.

**Example**

```
import secrets
import string
letters = string.ascii_letters + string.digits
password = ''.join(secrets.choice(letters) for i in range(10))
print(password)
```

**output:** it will print a 10-digit alphanumeric string with combination of uppercase and lower case letters.

```
import secrets
num = secrets.randbelow(10)
print(num)
output: randomly prints a number below given range
import secrets num = secrets.randbits(3) print(num)
output: This will print a random number of given bit
```

**Tokens**

To generate a more complex random string use token_hex(bytes)

```
import secrets
token = secrets.token_hex(16)
print(token)
More secure string generation with os.urandom
import os
os.urandom(8)
output: It will give an 8-byte system random number. [sample: 'xcfx8bPWxa7xdfx01' ]
import os, binascii
output = os.urandom(8)
hex = binascii.hexlify(output)
print (hex)
```

**output:** It will give the hex value. [sample: 25d6f3739e32cbf7]

secret module generates more secure random and it is available in python 3.x.

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About Author

Name | Anjaneyulu Naini |
---|---|

Author Bio |
Anjaneyulu Naini is working as a Content contributor for Mindmajix. He has a great understanding of today’s technology and statistical analysis environment, which includes key aspects such as analysis of variance and software,. He is well aware of various technologies such as Python, Artificial Intelligence, Oracle, Business Intelligence, Altrex etc, Connect with him on LinkedIn and Twitter. |