Python vs Java

Are you facing a crucial decision between Python and Java? If so, this blog is designed to empower you. I have carefully compared Python and Java against various factors in this blog, including ease of use, portability, speed, use cases, and more. By the end of this blog, you'll have a comprehensive understanding of these languages. It will enable you to select the one that best suits your needs confidently.

We all know that Python and Java are the super-giant programming languages widely used in software development. Both languages have many libraries and tools, so enterprises and developers extensively choose the languages to build their mobile, web, and AI/ML applications.

Whether you're a beginner embarking on a new career or an experienced programmer looking to develop your application, the choice between Python and Java is truly significant. This blog delves deep into the strengths and weaknesses of both languages. I hope it will help you make the right choice and propel your career forward.

           Let’s compare!

Table of Contents

What is Python?

Python is a high-level, general-purpose, and interpreted programming language. A Dutch programmer, Guido Van Rossum, developed and released Python in 1991. Python is a robust language that you can quickly learn, code, and debug.

Python is a new and still evolving language. It is a go-to language for novice developers because of its elegant coding style. It also provides easy-to-use syntax, a rich set of libraries and tools, and more. Further, Python is famous for its high productivity, scalability, portability, etc. 

Related Article - Python Tutorial

What is Java?

Know that Sun Microsystems developed Java and released it in 1995. It is another high-level, general-purpose programming language supporting the development of OOP-based, secure Java applications. Since Java has its own runtime environment, known as JRE or Java Runtime Environment, it is indeed a platform.

Though Java has long been in software development, it still hasn’t lost the race. Developers keep adding new features to this language to make it more powerful, flexible, and fast. Java has the Java Virtual Machine, which simplifies cross-platform application development. It is highly portable, so it can run on various platforms such as MacOS, Windows, and multiple versions of the UNIX operating system. 

Related Article - Java Tutorial

Python vs Java – Which one is better?

While both Python and Java are robust languages with exceptional features, they do have their differences. In this section, I've conducted a detailed, side-by-side comparison of the two, leaving no stone unturned. This thorough analysis should give you the confidence to make an informed decision.

#1. Ease of use

Python has a simple syntax and uses indentation to separate code blocks. So you can write clean and readable codes. You don’t need to use semicolons to end executive statements in Python. You can write Python programs in a few lines, which is difficult in other languages. In short, Python is a beginner-friendly programming language.

On the other hand, Java is also an easy language to write, compile, and debug. But you need to use curly braces to separate code blocks in Java. You must make efforts to make the code readable. Java demands multiple lines of code, even for simple logic. Unlike Python, you need to use semicolons to end executive statements in Python.

Key Takeaway: Code readability and formatting are excellent in Python. So, Python wins the battle when it comes to ease and use.

#2. Performance

Python is a dynamically typed language. There is no need to declare variables in Python because Python is an interpreted language. Python allows developers to change variables as per their needs. Though dynamic typing makes Python codes highly readable, easy, and precise, the type is decided during the runtime. As a result, the program execution gets slower.

Unlike Python, Java is essentially a statically typed language. So, you can't change the type of variables. You must define variables with their data type before using them. As variables are already defined during the compiled time, program execution is much faster than in Python. Additionally, Java doesn’t use any interpreter, so less processor time and memory are required for program execution.

Key Takeaway: Java is much faster than Python. Hence, Java wins over Python when it comes to performance.

#3. Portability

Python can run on any operating system. Python libraries are also portable. You can reuse Python codes on any platform seamlessly. However, the platform must have a compiler to convert Python codes into native codes.

Conversely, the Java compiler first converts Java codes into bytecodes. Thanks to Java Virtual Machine, the need to use code converters is eliminated. If the platform has the JVM, then it can execute the bytecodes. So, Java applications can run on any operating system seamlessly.

Key Takeaway: Both programming languages are highly portable. However, Java has a little edge over Python because of the JVM.

#4. Security

As Python has a simple syntax and is easy to debug, it minimises the errors developers make while coding. Python also has many extensive libraries that improve the security of applications. However, Python is not a strictly typed system like Java. That’s why it is highly prone to errors and vulnerabilities.

On the flip side, Java is a strongly typed system and allows bytecode verification. Java has advanced authentication, automatic garbage collection, sandboxing, and access control features that make Java applications secure. When the Java compiler generates the bytecodes, class files are created along with the bytecodes. The JVM examines the class files for malware and viruses to improve the security of codes.

Key Takeaway: Though Python and Java are considered secure languages, Java overtakes Python in terms of security.

#5. Mobile App Development

Speed is vital when it comes to Mobile development. As Python is an interpreted language, it consumes much memory and works slowly at runtime. Python only depends on external frameworks such as Kivy and PyQT to build reliable and stable mobile applications. Thus, it is not a go-to tool for mobile developers.

On the other hand, Java excels in developing Android applications because Java is a fast and secure programming language. The Android SDK includes many standard Java libraries to build high-level mobile applications. Also, you can leverage Android Studio, a Java-based IDE, to write your codes and debug them efficiently.

Key Takeaway: As Java has the essential frameworks to develop mobile applications over Python, it comes to the top.

#6. Use Cases

Data scientists employ Python to develop AI/ML and Big Data applications due to its simplicity, rich set of libraries, and packages. For example, they use packages such as Scikit-learn, TensorFlow, and PyTorch to build the applications.

Java is an excellent language for fraud detection, cybersecurity, and network security. Java is also the desired language for developing gaming applications since it has high-performing frameworks.

You can equally use both Python and Java for web development. Flash and Django are two widely used frameworks in Python for web development. Java uses the Spring framework for the web development.

Key Takeaway: Python shines in AI/ML and web development, whereas Java tops in mobile app, gaming, and web development. So, both languages have equal strength when it comes to use cases.

#7. Salary Trends

Best companies like TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Accenture, CTS, etc., recruit massive numbers of Python and Java developers yearly for attractive salaries. Interestingly, fresh Python developers get higher salaries than fresh Java developers. On the contrary, experienced Java developers get higher salaries than experienced Python developers.

Key Takeaway: Both Python and Java developers are on the rewarding side regarding salary packages.

Nice! We hope you have gained valuable insights into Python and Java from this section. Moreover, this side-by-side comparison has helped you to determine the best choice for your needs.

If you want to enrich your career and become a professional in Python, then enroll in "Python Training". This course will help you to achieve excellence in this domain.

Python Vs Java - Summary of Differences

I have summarised the differences between Python and Java in this section.

Let’s take a glance.

FactorsPythonJava
Ease of useIt is easy to use since it uses simple syntax and indentationBit complex. You need to use curly braces to separate code blocks.
Code ReadabilityReadability is good. Python supports creating concise, clean,  and readable codes.It is a bit difficult to understand Java codes
PerformanceIt is a dynamically typed language. So, performance is not as good as that of JavaIt is a statically typed language. So performance is good.
PortabilityPython runs on all platformsJava also runs on all platforms, but it is slightly better than Python
SecurityPython has many robust libraries to secure applications.Java comes with exceptional security features. So, Java provides better security than Python.
Mobile App DevelopmentSpeed is not good in Python. So, it is not a good choice for developing mobile applications.As Java provides excellent frameworks, it is the best choice for developing mobile applications.
Use casesPython is the best for developing AI/ML and big data applicationsJava is the best for developing mobile and gaming applications

Future of Python and Java

Both languages are still evolving and improving day by day. They have advanced libraries and frameworks that align with modern technologies. So, Python and Java developers have a bright future, undoubtedly.

Java is a good choice for developing infrastructure software like Operating systems, cross-platform software, and security. On the other hand, Python is a great choice when creating new algorithms for data analytics, data science, and machine learning.

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Python and Java – Advantages and Disadvantages

Python

Like any language, Python has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Let’s take a look at them below.

Advantages

  • The learning curve is low. You can quickly learn and use Python.
  • Python’s high-level readability and simplicity boosts productivity
  • It offers vast libraries. So you can use Python for developing web and AI/ML applications
  • The user community is vast. You can get support from expert developers.
  • Python is embeddable, portable, and flexible.
  • Scalability is excellent. You can handle massive amounts of data quickly with Python.

Disadvantages

  • Speed is low as Python is an interpreted language
  • Python consumes more memory
  • It is not a suitable language for mobile development
  • It is not a good fit for concurrent processing

Java

Although Java provides multiple advantages to developers, it also has some disadvantages. Let's address them in the following.

Advantages

  • Java is a platform-independent language
  • It doesn’t use whitespace for logic
  • It is a secure language with strong typing and bytecode verification features.
  • It supports multithreading, which simplifies parallel task execution
  • It provides a broad set of APIs, which makes integration processes simple and quick.
  • It is an OOP-based language, allowing easy code reuse and maintenance.
  • It has a large and active developer community.

Disadvantages

  • Readability is not sound in Java
  • You need to pay for using some essential libraries and tools
  • Startup time in Java is a bit long
  • Virtual machines, Garbage collection, and thread deadlocks create impediments to performance.

Python vs Java FAQs

1. Is learning Python worth it?

Yes, learning Python is worthwhile. According to Glassdoor, the average salary of entry-level Python developers is around 6 LPA in India. According to Indeed, they can make an average base salary of over 126k USD in the USA. These figures show that pursuing a Python career is undeniably promising and rewarding.

2. Is Java hard to learn?

No, you can learn Java quickly. Though learning Java is a little tricky for beginners, it will be a cakewalk if they devote time and practice regularly. Apart from that, Java has a large community of developers, so you can get plenty of support from Java experts across the globe.

3. Which one should learn first – Java or Python?

The order of learning a programming language is not a problem. You can learn Java first and then Python. It only depends on the amount of time and energy that you invest. However, if you can learn Python first, then it will simplify learning Java. That’s because learning Python will boost your knowledge of programming fundamentals. While learning Python, you will get familiar with OOP concepts, simplifying learning Java syntax.

4. How long will it take to learn Python?

You can learn Python quickly. It depends on the time and energy you devote to learning the language. MindMajix offers 25 hours of Python training in two modes – live online and self-paced videos. If you choose the live online mode, you will learn Python within 15 days. Alternatively, if you select the self-paced video mode, you can learn Python within 13 days by watching the training videos two hours per day.

5. Why should I learn Java?

According to Glassdoor, Java developers in India get an average base pay of over 5 LPA. A survey by Indeed says Java developers in the USA make an average base salary of around USD 92k. So, it is clear that a career in Java is lucrative and unique. Apart from that, Java is a powerful and versatile language that you can learn quickly with hard work and dedication. Java has a large community of developers, so you can get support from Java professionals worldwide to enhance your programming expertise.

Related Article - Java Interview Questions

Conclusion

At a glance, Python shines in code readability, robust libraries, low learning curve, ease of use, and much more. On the other hand, Java outperforms in security, speed, mobile application development, portability, and many more. Overall, both of them have their own advantages and disadvantages.

So, choosing the better language depends on your needs. Before picking the right one, understand your needs, weigh the pluses and minuses of the languages, and select the one that precisely aligns with your demands.

However, if you acquire in-depth knowledge of Python and Java through professional training, it will be beneficial to you. MindMajix is a pioneer eLearning provider offering the best online Python and Java training. It will help you learn the intricacies of the languages and pick the one that best suits your needs.

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Last updated: 18 Jun 2024
About Author

Ravindra Savaram is a Technical Lead at Mindmajix.com. His passion lies in writing articles on the most popular IT platforms including Machine learning, DevOps, Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, RPA, Deep Learning, and so on. You can stay up to date on all these technologies by following him on LinkedIn and Twitter.

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