Microsoft Interview Questions

In this Microsoft Interview Questions blog, you will learn the questions that you can face in a Microsoft interview.  You will also master different object-oriented questions and basic programming questions that can help you in your interview preparation and stand out in the competition.

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In 1975, Microsoft was established in Mexico and migrated to Washington in 1979, where it has experienced tremendous growth and developed as a global corporation. During the last decades, It has made fantastic innovations. As per a survey, Microsoft’s employment rate has risen extremely after 2020. Every year, Microsoft offers many internships and full-time jobs to help you build your career.

But to get a job at Microsoft, you have to crack many interview rounds. Thus, we have designed these most frequently asked Microsoft interview questions to boost your interview preparation. Go through these Microsoft interview questions and answers to ace the Microsoft interview

Top 10 Frequently Asked Microsoft Interview Questions

  1. What is a Programming Language?
  2. Differentiate Arrays and Linked Lists?
  3. What is the use of different Microsoft Certifications?
  4. Differentiate HashMap and HashTable in Java?
  5. Explain the Binary Search Tree.
  6. Name two methods that can override the objects in the HashMap.
  7. What are Palindrome Substrings?
  8. What is Inheritance in Java?
  9. How can we reverse the linked list of Size n?
  10. What is an integer array in Java?

Microsoft Basic Interview Questions

1. What are the classes and objects in C++?

A class is a data type that has member functions and data members. Data members will act as data variables, and the member function is a function we can utilize to perform operations on the data variables. An object is defined as a class instance. As the class is the user-defined type, thus the object is defined as the data variable of that data type.

Class MindMajix
{
int x
public void text()
{
}
};

2. What are Microsoft security patches?

Microsoft security patches are performed to address some security ambiguities and problems while upgrading the existing security features. Microsoft Security patches will give better protection by minimizing security vulnerabilities

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3. Differentiate class modules and standard modules?

A class module includes events and properties, and it is accessible only by the objects created as the instance of the class. Standard modules include procedures, functions, and variables that can be used anywhere in the project.

4. What is OOP?

OOP refers to object-oriented programming. It is a programming model that focuses on creating classes and objects. Contrary to structural programming, OOP allows you to write concise codes by reusing the codes and creating the instance of the objects.

5. What is a Programming Language?

A programming language is the computer language that software developers utilize to interact with computers. It is a collection of instructions that are written in a particular language(Java, C, Python, C++) to perform a particular task. Programming language is largely used in developing web applications, mobile applications, and desktop applications.

6. Describe the Registry?

A registry is an essential element of the Windows Operating System. It saves critical information like configuration and setup, user settings, and installation settings.

7. Which Microsoft certification is considered the most famous?

The most Microsoft certification is MCSE(Microsoft Certified System Engineer). This certification handles the skills associated with applying solutions to enterprise productivity using the Microsoft Server operating system.

Related Article: Microsoft Certification Exams list

8. What is the use of a Service Pack?

A Service Pack merges updates and hotfixes into a single installer module. They are primarily used for upgrading the available software version without uninstalling and reinstalling the complete software package.

9. Explain Operator Overloading?

Operator Overloading is critical in carrying out the operations on the user-defined data types. Using Operator Overloading, we can change the default meaning to operators like -, *, +, <=, /, etc.

Example:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class Cal1{
public
static int add(int a, int b){
return a+b;
}
static int add(int a, int b, int c)
{
return a+b+c;
}
};
int main(void) {
Cal1 D;
cout<<D.add(30,40)<<endl;
cout<<D.add(25,28,29);
return 0;
}

Output:

70
82

10. Differentiate Arrays and Linked Lists?

Arrays can store the data in the fixed allotted space. Utilizing linked lists allows more resilience because space is dynamically allocated as required.

11. What is the use of creating partitions for the Windows operating system?

Partition creation is helpful in several ways. The primary use is that a separate partition can be utilized for storing the data such that when we have to reinstall the operating system, the main partition can be formatted without losing the data stored in other partitions.

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12. What does “XP” refers to in “WindowsXP”?

The term “XP” refers to eXPerience. It was built as an improvement to Windows 2000, with a customized user interface.

13. Describe APM?

Microsoft and Intel developed APM as the API. It is mainly utilized for managing power problems and is helpful for people who are using the Windows operating system.

14. What is the importance of code optimization?

Optimized code will run faster and utilizes the system’s resources efficiently. Optimized codes are less vulnerable to errors and take lower file size and memory space.

15. Define Hotfix?

Hotfix is the file that is distributed by Microsoft Customer Service. These are designed to handle the issues like errors and bugs within the existing software.

16. Explain Ribbon?

The ribbon is used as a substitute for the toolbars and menu bar in the earlier versions of Microsoft Office. In the Ribbon, toolbar buttons and file menu items were grouped as per the functionality. It made these functions easily accessible on the main interface, with most primarily utilized buttons being displayed instantly.

17. What is the use of different Microsoft Certifications?

The primary use of Microsoft certification is to test the applicant's qualification for specific skills. Skills include not only the software aspects but in engineering and design also. Microsoft certifications include a wide range of technology and are acknowledged worldwide.

18. Which programming language was removed from the visual studio when VB.net was released?

Visual Foxpro was a component of Visual Studio 6.0. It was excluded from the .Net version and was published as an independent programming language.

Microsoft Intermediate Interview Questions

19. How does Microsoft Categorize the security threats to its software?

Microsoft categorizes security threats into four indicators, which are low, important, moderate, and critical. These indicators act as the reference in the Microsoft Bulletin.

20. Describe User Experience or UX?

The web or mobile application's branding, design, usability, and function are accompanied by user experience design. UX procedure or User Experience of the design is used for creating products that give valuable experience for the users. User Experience includes the complete design process where the product is integrated or acquired.

21. Write a function that returns if there is the triplet (x,y,z) that fulfills x2+y2 = z2 given array of members?

Class Main {
static boolean isTriplet(int arr[], int k)
{
for(int m=0; m<k; m++) {
for(int n = m+1; n<k; n++) (
for(int o = n+1; o<k; o++) {
int a = arr[m]*arr[m], b = arr[n]*arr[n], c = arr[o]*arr[o];
if(a == b + c || b == a+c || c == a+b)
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}
public static void main(string[] args)
{
int arr1[] = {12, 17, 19, 15, 16};
int arr_size = arr1.length;
if(isTriplet(arr1, arr_size) == true)
System.out.println(“yes”);
else
System.out.println(“No”);
}
}

22. In C++, how do we allocate and release the memory?

In C++, we use the “new” operator for allocating the memory, whereas the delete operator is used for deallocating the memory. Example:

int Value = val1;
delete Value;
int *ar = val1[10];
delete []ar;

23. When we have a variable declaration like (dim var1, var2 as integer), are they both of integer type?

No, only var2 is of integer type. Var1 is declared as of a different kind in this case.

24. Why can we not overload the scope resolution operator(::)?

The primary reason why the (::) will not be overloaded is that only the operators that take the values as the parameters can be overloaded. The scope resolution operator will not take values as the parameters.

25. How can we build an alarm clock for deaf people?

As deaf people cannot hear, the most appropriate alarm clock is the one that invokes their other senses. We must create an alarm clock that can vibrate the object beside deaf people, like a pillow.

26. Differentiate HashMap and HashTable in Java?

HashMapHashTable
HashMap can be Synchronized.HashTable cannot be Synchronized.
HashMap is not thread-safe.HashTable is thread-safe.
It includes multiple null values and a single key.It will not have any null values or keys.
It is very fast in comparison to HashTable.It is very slow in comparison to HashTable.
It will inherit the Directory class.It will inherit the AbstractMap class.

27. What is the use of volatile in Java?

In Java programming, volatile is a keyword that we use to handle variable visibility issues. It is a method of making the class thread-safe. If a class is thread-safe, multiple threads can utilize that class or that method instance without any issue.

28. Explain the Binary Search Tree?

In a binary search tree, the keys of the left subtree will be less than the key of the root node, and the keys of the right subtree will be greater than the root node key.      

29. Explain the perfect binary tree?

In a Perfect binary tree, all the internal nodes will have exactly two child nodes, and every leaf node will be at the same level.

30. Name two methods that can override the objects in the HashMap?

The “hashcode()” and “equals” are the two methods that can override the objects in the HashMap.

31. What are the scenarios in which we can use the transient variable in Java?

A transient variable is a special kind of variable that is used in the de-serialization with its default value. In Serialization, the transient variable value is not serialized. When we have to stop any object from being serialized, in that scenario transient variable is useful. Transient variables are created using the “transient” keyword.

32. Differentiate ArrayList and Linked List in Java?

ArrayListLinkedList
ArrayList uses dynamic arrays to store the elementsLinkedList utilizes a double-linked list to store the elements
In ArrayList Data Manipulation in ArrayList is slowIn LinkedList, Data Manipulation is rapid. 
It acts as a list.LinkedList is rapid in comparison to ArrayList.
It is helpful for storing and accessing data.It is ideal for data manipulation.

33. Can we override the private methods in Java?

No, we cannot override private methods, Method overriding is possible in child class only, 

34. What is a root node?

A root node can either be a top node or a bottom node of a tree. when we use the top-down representation, the root node will be at top and when we use button-up representation, the root node will be at bottom.

35. What are Palindrome Substrings?

A string can be called a "palindrome" when the reverse of that string is similar to the original string.

36. What is the difference between string and array in Java?

The main difference between a string and an array is that an array stores a group of elements having similar data types and a string is a sequence of characters.

Microsoft Advanced Interview Questions

37. What is Inheritance in Java?

In Java, Inheritance is a practice in which an object will get the behaviors and properties of the parent object. It plays a key role in Object Oriented Programming systems (OOPs).

38. Explain the Regular Expressions in Python?

 A Regular Expression in Python is the string that we have to search. It is more valuable to extract information from text like code, logs, files, spreadsheets, and documents. While using regular expressions in python, you must first identify that everything is a character; we are writing the patterns for matching a particular sequence of characters, also called strings.

39. Write the algorithm to develop a tree from the given preorder and Inorder traversals?

Step 1: First, take the element from the Preorder traversal and increment the index variable to pick the next element in the subsequent recursive cell.

Step 2: From the picked elements, create a new tree node, “M.”

Step 3: Next, get the index of the picked element from the given Inorder and save it in variable pos.

Step 4: We apply the constructTree() method to all the elements that exist before the pos and create the tree as the left subtree of Node “M.”

Step 5: Invoke constructTree() method for all the elements that exist after the pos and create the tree as the right subtree of Node “M.”

Step 6: Finally, we return Node “M.”

40. Differentiate subarray and contiguous subarray?

A subarray is specified by the subset of indices of the native array; the interval of indices, the first and last element, and everything between them specifies a contiguous subarray.

41. What is the frequency of the majority element in the array?

The majority element in the Array A[] of the size “m” appears more than m/2 times. 

  • Input: {2,2,7,3,7,7,3,7,7}
  • Output: 7
  • Description: The frequency of 7 is five, which is greater than half of the size of the array size.

42. Write the best and most effective program to print the “m” largest elements in the given array. Elements in the array can be in any order?

For example, if the given array is [15, 19, 25, 55, 5, 85, 95] and you are asked for the largest 3 elements, i.e., m = 3, then your program must print 55, 85, and 95.

Program:

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
void mLargest(int arr[], int i, int m)
{
sort(arr, arr + i, greater<int>());
for(int n=0; n<m; n++)
cout << arr[n] << “ ”;
}
int main()
{
int arr[] = {12, 19, 29, 70, 56, 75, 60};
int i = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
int m = 3;
largest(arr, i, m);
}

43. Write a program to remove all the duplicates in the given string?

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
char *removeDuplicate(char str[], int m
{
int index = 0;
for(int j =0; j<m; j++)
{
int k;
for(k= 0; k<j; k++)
if(str[j] == str[k])
break;
if(k == 1)
    str[index++] = str[j];
}
return str;
}
int main()
char str[] = “Time After Time”;
int n = sizeof[str] / sizeof(str[0]);
cout << removeDuplicate(str, m);
remove 0;
}

Output:

Time After

44. How do we decide whether the given binary tree is height-balanced?

We can tell whether the given binary tree is height-balanced by executing the following program.

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
class Node {
public:
int data;
Node* leftc;
Node* rights;
Node(int f);
{
int data = f;
leftc = rightc = NULL;
)
};
nt height(Node* rnode)
{
    if (rnode == NULL)
        return 0;
    return 1 + max(height(rnode->left), height(rnode->right));
}
bool isBalanced(Node* root)
{
    int lhi;
    int rhi;
    if (root == NULL)
        return 1;
    lhi = height(root->left);
    rhi = height(root->right);
    if (abs(lhi - rhi) <= 1 && isBalanced(root->left)
        && isBalanced(root->right))
        return1;
    return 0;
}
int main()
{
    Node* root = new Node(1);
    root->leftc = new Node(2);
    root->rightc = new Node(3);
    root->leftc->leftc = new Node(4);
    root->leftc->rightc = new Node(5);
    root->leftc->leftc->leftc = new Node(8);
    if (isBalanced(root))
        cout << "Tree is balanced";
    else
        cout << "Tree is not balanced";
    return 0;
}

The following image will give you the graphical representation of the height-balanced binary tree.

Height Balanced Binary Tree

45. Give an example of an effective algorithm to solve the problems?

Some effective algorithms like the bubble sort, merge sort, quick sort, and insertion sort have already been released. We can also use Euclid’s algorithm to find GCM and the prim’s algorithms to find the graph’s shortest path.

46. How do we find an element in the sorted array of infinity size?

To find the element from the infinite sorted array, we fix the index position to 100. If the element we have to find is less than the index, do a binary search for the last 100 elements. Else fix the index position to 200. We can fix the index tom100 until the element is greater.

47. How can we check whether or not the given Binary tree is a Binary search tree?

To check whether the given Binary tree is a Binary search tree, check whether the left child is smaller than the root node. Also, check whether the right child node is greater than the root node. For a BST Binary tree, the left child must have a smaller value, and the right child must have a greater value from its root node.

48. How can we reverse the linked list of Size n?

Every linked list element contains the address of its following node or element. To reverse the linked list, we have to save the address of the previous node in every node of the linked list. We can reverse the linked list through recursion or iteration. We use the below steps to change the linked list:

Step 1: First, store head. next in a temporary point “ptr.”

Step 2: After that, invoke the “reverseLL(head.ext)” method.

Step 3: Store the pointer returned by the above method in the temporary variable “temp.”

Step 4: Set the next = head(ptr points to the last node of the reversed list in the temp)

Step 5: “temp” variable points to the first node of reversed linked list.

Related Article: Linked List Interview Questions

49. What is an integer array in Java?

Java integer array is the integer array in the java programming language. It can either be negative or positive integers. No other kinds of data are considered in this array. In the integer array applications, we can declare the Java int array, initialize the Java Int Array, and use the elements of the Java Int Array.

50. How do we calculate maximum profit in dynamic programming?

We can calculate this in the given list of integers using dynamic programming. Let profit[m][n] depict the maximum single cell profit utilizing at most “m” transactions up to day “n” Then, the relation will be:

profit[m][n] = max (profit[m][n-1], max(price[n] - price[i] + profit[m-1][I])) 

Microsoft FAQs

1. Why do you want to work at Microsoft?

I want to work at Microsoft because the Microsoft office suite and Windows Operating system are the main reason for the digital transformation of the modern world. I am amazed by Microsoft’s efforts to enhance the customer experience and simplify their challenges. Working at Microsoft will enable me to leverage my expertise as a software engineer and work on some first-class products that empower customers. Thus, I would like to work at Microsoft and be a part of your team. 

2. How do I prepare for the Microsoft Interview?

  • Start your Microsoft Interview Preparation by brushing up on the data structure concepts like linked lists, sorting algorithms, arrays, and strings.
  • Practice at least one to two coding problems every day. Enhancing problem-solving skills is critical in cracking Microsoft coding interviews. 
  • Start doing practice tests and timed assignments to become accustomed to the interview environment.
  • Spend time on the system design concepts like API Modeling, Network Protocols, Database Management, Sharing techniques, Server Maintenance, etc.
  • Build a good project portfolio to get a significant edge over your competitors.

3. What are the benefits of working at Microsoft?

At Microsoft, you will push boundaries, take risks, and grow more than you thought. Besides the world-class benefits intended to help you and your family, Microsoft will offer bonuses, stock awards, competitive pay based on your performance, and benefits to help you lead a healthy life and enjoy your journey at Microsoft.

4. What is Azure?

Azure is a public cloud platform - with solutions like Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS), Software as a Service(SaaS), and Platform as a Service(PaaS) that can be utilized for the services like virtual computing, networking, analytics, storage, etc.

5. What Should I expect at Microsoft Interview?

Microsoft is known for asking technical questions in data structures during its first interview round. The recruiter can also ask you the coding questions that can be answered using the shared editor. Along with the technical questions, they can also ask behavioral questions like “Tell me about yourself,” “Why do you want to work at Microsoft,” etc.

6. How many rounds are there in the Microsoft Interview?

Microsoft Interview process includes the following rounds:

Round 1: Recruiter Screening Call

Round 2: Technical Phone Interview

Round 3: Virtual On-Site Interview

Round 4: Final On-Site Interview

Round 5: HR Interview

Round 6: Offer or No Offer

7. How long is the Microsoft Interview Process?

Microsft Interview Process takes anywhere from two weeks to one month for most of the candidates.

Microsoft Interview Preparation Tips

Tip #1:

   Be familiarised with all the fundamentals and how fundamental functions like hashing or sorting work internally. You must know the implicit working of all the algorithms of every algorithm and data structure they utilize.

Tip #2:

  Read the interview experiences; they will make you understand what the company asks in the interviews. Doing so will give you an idea of which topic you have to revise.

Tip #3:

  Give as many practice tests and quizzes that give you an idea of how you will perform in a real-world environment.

Tip #4:

    Along with your subject concepts, you must know about the latest updates of Microsoft products and trending technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Data Science, etc.

Tip #5:

    You should be honest in the interview preparation required rather than pretending to know something you don’t. Since the interviewers are experienced, they know when you are acting and what you know.

Conclusion

Getting a job at Microsoft as an Intern or as a full-time employee relies on cracking through different stages of interview processes, mostly about problem-solving related to data structures and algorithms, database management, and OOPs concepts. It is only sometimes an individual with a computer science background who turns up. With good interview preparation and thrive on exploring new ideas, it would be easy to crack the job interviews.

So, these Microsoft Interview Questions, which cover all the concepts that can be asked in Microsoft interviews, will boost your interview preparation and confidence. I hope these Microsoft Interview questions and answers are sufficient to nail through the interview; if you have any queries, let us know by commenting below.

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About Author

 

Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .

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