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ES6 Tutorial

Are you curious about learning ES6? Okay! This blog is for you. This tutorial will help you to learn ES6 concepts in-depth and use sample codes for quick practice. Know that ES6 is the JavaScript programming language that comes with plenty of vital features and capabilities. This tutorial covers the key features of ES6, such as block-scoped variables, iterators and generators, spread operators, arrow functions, etc., in detail. Well! Let’s have a read ahead!

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ES6 is the sixth edition scripting language of JavaScript. It offers many excellent features for writing short and compact java codes. This tutorial will serve as the best guide to learning the various features and capabilities of ES6 in a better way. Here, you can learn block-scoped variables such as const and let keywords, different types of destructuring, arrow functions, classes, iterators and generators, ES6 collections, new number methods, and more.

Hope you are ready now. Let’s jump on board to explore ES6!

Table of Content - ES6 Tutorial

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is one of the programming languages with which you can write Java programs to interact with web pages seamlessly. Mainly, it consists of three components: ECMAScript, DOM, and BOM. The first one, ECMA, is the element that gives core functionality to interact with webpages. The next one, DOM or Document Object Model, offers interfaces through which you can easily interact with the elements of the web pages. The third one, BOM or Browser Object Model, helps to interact with web browsers with the help of a browser API. For instance, we can use JavaScript with HTML as well as CSS, by which we can increase the performance of web page functionalities significantly. Here, JavaScript displays animated charts and creates interactive maps to improve performance.

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What is ES6?

ES6 refers to ECMAScript, which is the standardized programming language of JavaScript. ES6 is the sixth edition of ECMAScript. Using ES6, we can build large-scale Java applications by writing short and efficient JavaScript codes. In fact, ES6 supports major web browsers. But if you want to use other browsers, you must use transpilers to convert ES6 codes into ES5 codes. This is because ES5 codes support most web browsers.

Why ES6?

No wonder ES6 is one of the efficient programming languages used for building robust Java applications. Here are the reasons for the same.

  • You can write short and readable codes with ES6.
  • You can quickly build effective Java programs with fewer codes
  • ES6 offers wonderful features such as Arrow functions, destruction methods, modules, block-scoped functions, and many more.
  • ES6 uses Object-oriented classes 
  • The great thing about ES6 is that it is the next-generation JavaScript language.

Well! As you know, ES6 comes with many fantastic features and capabilities. In the following sections, we will discuss them in greater detail with suitable examples.

What are Block-scoped Variables?

Block-scoped variables are nothing but the variables that hold their value until the end of the block only. After that, the variables will take the values of the outer block. ES6 offers two block-scoped keywords, such as let and const. The variables are undoubtedly declared using const and let keywords follow block-scoping rules.

Let’s take a look at the keywords below:

block-scoped variables

Const Keyword: We can use the const keyword to declare variables inside a block. But, the const keyword doesn’t allow reassigning variables and makes the variables immutable. So, if you don’t want to change the values of variables, you can use this keyword confidently.

For example, if you try to change the value of a variable using the const keyword, it will result in an error as shown below:

constant keyword

In this example, when we try to change the value of the variable ‘RATE’ from 0.1 to 0.3, you can see that it returns an error.

Let Keyword: Unlike the const keyword, the let keyword is used to reassign variables. In other words, we can create mutable variables. So, if you like to reassign variables, you can use the let keyword.

Let’s see an example for reassigning variables using the let keyword.

let-keyword

In this example, the variable name f_name is changed from ‘Alex’ to ‘John’ using the let keyword.

From the above two example codes, we understand that when we reassign a variable using the const keyword, its value doesn't change and eventually ends with an error. On the other hand, the variables declared using var and let keywords accept changes and allow reassigning values for variables.

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What is Destructuring?

ES6 allows destructuring arrays and assigning the values of the arrays to individual variables. Similarly, you can destructure objects and assign the values of the objects to individual variables. 

Let’s have a brief on them below:

destructing

Array Destructuring: This method allows destructuring arrays by swapping variables. Otherwise, we need to use temporary variables. Using this method, we can easily assign elements of arrays to variables.

You can understand this from the following example in which a new array is formed with three values.

array destructing

Object Destructuring: It is yet another destructuring method that allows assigning object properties to variables. Moreover, this method assigns default values to variables if object properties are absent. When we use this method, we must put values in curly brackets, which will help to retrieve object properties.

The following example will show you how object destructuring is achieved with the help of curly brackets. Here, the first name and the last name of a person are declared inside the brackets.

object destructing

What are Arrow Functions?

We can create structured, simple, readable JavaScript codes with arrow functions. Arrow functions eliminate the need to use the return keyword, function keyword, and curly brackets. We can use arrow functions with other functions such as filter, reduce, map, etc. Note that you must define arrow functions before you use them.

The following example will show the use of arrow functions. In this example, you can get the lengths of materials by writing a simple code using arrow functions but without function keywords and brackets.

arrow functions

What are ES6 Classes?

As you know, classes are the backbone of Object-oriented programming languages simply because they provide security and structure to codes. In fact, a class is a type of function. If we want to create a class, we need to use the class keyword in curly brackets followed by the name of the class. Moreover, if we want to inherit a class from another class, we need to use extends keyword.

A short but important note is that we need to use the constructor method whenever we use a class keyword. This method allows assigning properties to objects. You can call the constructor method every time you initialize a class object.

In the following example, let's see how to create a class using ES6. The constructor includes the properties of objects, such as height and width.

es6 classes

Related Article: ES6 Interview Questions and Answers

What are Iterators and Generators?

Know that iterators and generators play key roles while writing codes in ES6. Let’s take a look at them below:

Iterators: Using ES6, you can quickly iterate values of arrays, maps, strings, and sets. Many ES6 constructs use iterables invariably. An iterable is nothing but a data structure that makes its elements public. Mainly, you can iterate custom objects using the ‘for…of loop’ constructs. This construct uses the symbol. iterator. This iterator is a special-purpose iterator that allows accessing an object’s internal operator. You can also use this iterator to retrieve a function that can iterate over array objects.

You can look at the below example, which will help to understand the use of the iterator clearly. The makeRangeIterator helps to return values within the particular range for the given sequence size.

iterators

Generators: You can use generators to execute the simple asynchronous pieces of code, implement variables, and receive asynchronous data. You can use the function* keyword to define generators. This keyword uses ‘yield’ to return values again and again. Here, yield is nothing but a keyword used to pause execution and then return a value.

Let’s understand this from the example below. In this example, yield pauses execution and returns values each time.

generators

What are ES6 Collections?

The ES6 collections include sets and maps. Let’s see them in detail below:

es6 collections

Maps: A map can accept an optional iterable object, and the object’s elements are usually key-value pairs. That’s why maps always have a collection of key-value pairs.

The following example will help you to know how to create a new map using ES6.

maps

Sets: A set stores unique values and keeps them organized always. Here, the values may be of any type. Similar to maps, sets accept optional iterable objects. Generally, sets are mutable since it allows adding and deleting values at any time.

A ‘new set' is an essential operation on sets because it is closely connected with data structures. You can use a ‘new set’ to convert an array into a set by which you can remove duplicate values in the array.

The following example will help how to use sets to avoid duplication. In this example, although a particular visitor made multiple visits, the set returns only three, which is the actual number of visitors.

let set = new Set();

let john = { name: "John" };
let pete = { name: "Pete" };
let mary = { name: "Mary" };

// visits, some users come multiple times
set.add(john);
set.add(pete);
set.add(mary);
set.add(john);
set.add(mary);

// set keeps only unique values
alert( set.size ); // 3

for (let user of set) {
  alert(user.name); // John (then Pete and Mary)
}
Related Article: JavaScript Frameworks

What are the New Number Methods and New Global Methods?

First, let’s understand what new number methods are:

new number methods

The number.isInteger ( ) Method: This method returns ‘True’ if the argument is an integer.

We will see the use of this method in the following example. In this example, if the result of the function is an integer, then ‘fits’ is returned. Otherwise, it will return ‘doesn’t fit’.

is integer

The number.isSafeInteger ( ) Method: This method returns ‘true’ if the argument is a safe integer. 

You can understand the use of this method from the following example. Here, 14 is the safe integer value. That’s why it returned ‘true’.

is safe integer

Next, let’s look at the two global methods as follows:

global methods

The Number.isFinite ( ) Method: This method returns ‘false’ if an argument is a NaN or infinity. For all other values, it returns ‘true’.

The following example will help to know the use of this method.

is infinite method

The Number.isNaN ( ) Method: This method returns ‘true’ if an argument is NaN. For all other values, it returns ‘false’.

You can understand the use of the NaN method from the following example.

nan method

What are Default Function Parameters?

With ES6, we can declare function parameters with default values. It won't return errors if you forget to use function parameters in your codes. This is because codes will use the default values you have already declared. Thus, we can handle errors in advance using default function parameters.

The following example will show how to use default function parameters in ES6.

default function parameters

What are Rest Function Parameters and Spread Operators?

We can use the Rest function parameters to represent any number of arguments in a single array. Here, the parameter has three dots. It is known as the rest parameter. This parameter represents the arguments that come after the three dots in an array. To understand it better, the arguments that come after the defined arguments are represented in a single array.

The following example will detail how to use the Rest function parameters.  

rest parameters

Regarding the spread operators, we can use the spread operator instead of ‘for’ or any other loop. This operator returns the array itself instead of returning arguments only.

You can understand spread operators from the following example.

var prices

What are Import and Export Functions?

EC6 allows importing as well as exporting modules. So you can easily create reusable and separable modules. We can use the import function to import modules into the JavaScript component. The members to be imported should be given inside the curly brackets along with the location.

import and export

Similarly, you can use the export function to export modules to other JavaScript components.

Let’s look at an example for exporting members.

export

What are Promises?

Promises allow quickly solving complex problems by writing asynchronous codes. Consider the following two cases: one is that you need to fetch data from an API, and another is that a function takes a long time for execution. This is where you can use promises to overcome setbacks. What’s more! You can efficiently manage unexpected errors with the help of the ‘resolve’ and ‘reject’ parameters of promises. 

Let’s see how to create and use a promise step-by-step in the following:

In the first step, create a promise object to use a constructor.

promises

Next, we can see that the promise object includes the ‘resolve’ and ‘reject’ parameters.

one promise

In the last step, we can include the condition to define resolve and reject. If the condition is met, the promise is resolved. If not, the promise is rejected.

my promise

What are the Advantages of ES6?

There are many advantages of using ES6 for building applications. Let’s list them below one by one:

  • Generally, ES6 codes are more straightforward and shorter than traditional JavaScript codes. Simply put, ES codes are compact
  • ES6 uses block-scoped functions such as let and const. They help eliminate common errors in codes.
  • The ES6 syntax is simple and readable, which in return, simplifies the coding process for complex applications
  • ES6 allows destructuring of objects and arrays. So, you can assign the values of objects and arrays to variables
  • ES6 uses classes, which in turn enhances interoperability. 
  • ES6 modules support managing dependencies with the help of import and export keywords
  • Above all, ES6 uses spread operators with which we can expand an object or iterable. Also, we can use spread operators for function calls as well as strings and mutating object literals.

Conclusion:

In the simplest terms, ES6 is one of the easy-to-use versions of JavaScript. It has many excellent features that simplify the coding process and support building robust java applications. Hope this blog might have covered the powerful concepts of ES6 in one place. Moreover, the examples must have been helpful to imbibe the ES6 concepts effortlessly. We hope that ES6 will no longer be an unknown terrain for you. Hard work never fails! On that note, we advise you to use this tutorial to become familiar with ES6 by reading it and practicing the examples repeatedly.

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About Author
Madhuri Yerukala

Madhuri is a Senior Content Creator at MindMajix. She has written about a range of different topics on various technologies, which include, Splunk, Tensorflow, Selenium, and CEH. She spends most of her time researching on technology, and startups. Connect with her via LinkedIn and Twitter .

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